Специфика литосферы зоны многолетней мерзлоты Восточной Сибири

Петрова А.А., Латышева О.В., Копытенко Ю.А.


DOI: 10.31431/1816-5524-2021-1-49-36-52

Аннотация

Представлены результаты исследования глубинного строения литосферы Восточной Сибири. На основе данных о толщине ледяного горизонта многолетней мерзлоты, аномалий силы тяжести, аномалий геомагнитного поля и сейсмологических данных получена модель строения литосферы областей со стабильной толщиной ледяного горизонта. Показано, что районы с большими значениями толщины ледяного горизонта тяготеют к участкам литосферы с мощными, имеющими повышенную плотность и намагниченность, корнями. Сделано предположение, что стабильность горизонтов многолетней мерзлоты обеспечивается холодными блоками корней литосферы, препятствующими поступлению тепла из мантии. Для поиска эндогенных причин климатических рисков в районах с ускоренной деградацией многолетней мерзлоты построены глубинные разрезы земной коры. Анализ данных о толщине ледяного горизонта совместно с глубинными разрезами показал, что определяющее влияние на процесс разрушения мерзлоты оказывают флюидные потоки, поднимающиеся с глубины ~50–100 км вдоль вертикальных разломных зон. Ускоренная деградация мерзлоты над флюидно-магматическими каналами приводит к появлению специ-фических зон таяния в виде сквозных таликов. Проведенные исследования позволяют понять возможные причины разрушения инфраструктуры в зоне мерзлоты и дать прогноз расположения наиболее вероятных районов ускоренной деградации.

Ключевые слова

многолетняя мерзлота; корни литосферы; сквозные талики; термофлюидные каналы

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Литература

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