XI.    Tales of the Maritime Koryak of the Coast of Upper Penshina Bay 


72. Big-Raven and Hare


73. How Big-Raven burnt up the Kamaks


74. How Eme'mqut killed the Kamaks


75. Big-Light and the Kamaks


76. Big-Raven and his Son Bear's-Ear


77. How Self-created kills his Father


78. Big-Raven and the Kamaks


79. Lo'cex the Cannibal


80. Grebe-Man


81. Cloud-Man's Marriage with Yiñe'a-ñe'ut


82. Little-Bird-Man and Raven-Man


83. Cloud-Man and Kïlu'


84. Envious-One and the Wolves


85. Eme'mqut and Triton-Man


86. Magpie-Man's Marriage with Yiñe'a-ñe'ut


87. Eme'mqut's Marriage with the Daughter of Mountain-Sheep-Man


88. Big-Raven and the Mice


89. Eme'mqut's Whale Festival


90. Hare and Fox


91. Grass-Woman




93.Can-a'i-ña'ut and Twilight-Man




Villages Kamenskoye (Va'ikenan) and  Talovka.

72. Big-Raven and  Hare.

         There was Big-Raven (Ouikinn-a'qu). Once he said, "I want to go and search for some kind of food." He went into the woods and cut down willows. One of the willows he did not take along, saying, "I shall leave this one for to-morrow. I shall fetch it to-morrow." During his absence, Hare (Mi'lut) came and carried off the willow. Big-Raven came on the following morning, and did not find his willow. "Hare has stolen it," said he. He went to look for Hare's house. He found the house late at night, went in, took the youngest Hare, flayed it, and left it there.

        The   cries   of  the   little one awakened its mother.     She said to her hus-band,  "Something has happened to our son.     Arise and call a shaman."     He went, but was unable to find one.     His wife said to him, "Go to Big-Raven's: he   will,   no doubt, restore our son to health."     He went to Big-Raven's and said,   "Our   son   is   ill,   come and cure him."     Big-Raven consented.     He put the  skin   of the little Hare in his bosom.     When they came into the under- ground house of Hare, Big-Raven said,   "Put out the light.     I will commence my work."    They put out the light, and he began to beat the drum.    Then he drew the little skin out of his bosom and put it on the young Hare, like a  little   shirt;   but   he   put it on so that the mouth appeared at the back of the  neck.     "Light   the   lamp," he said.     When he discovered, however,  that he  had   made   a   mistake,   he  cried,   "Oko-ko-ko-ko!  quick,  put the light out again !"    When  it was dark again,  Big-Raven  continued his incantations.     He pulled off the skin, put it on again, and asked the people to relight the lamp. But   once   more   he   shouted,   "Oko-ko-ko-ko!   put   out the light quick!"     He had made a mistake the second time : the under lip had been put in the place of the upper lip.    The people put out the light,  and this time Big-Raven put on   the   skin   in   the   right   way.     "Light  the lamp,"  said  Big-Raven,   "I have now restored your son's health."

         They lighted the lamp, and the little Hare ran about in the house. The Hares said to Big-Raven, "What shall we give you for your skill? We wish
to make you a present of a herd of reindeer." — "No," said Big-Raven, "I do not need them : return the willow that you stole from me in the woods." —
"Here,   take it!    You may also take along  our son for some time,  you may



use   him   for   errands.     He will carry out all your orders."     However, he did not take the boy,  but only the willow.

          When he came home, his wife asked him, "Where have you been?" — "Well I have been in the woods and cut down a willow, but it was stolen
from me. I have recovered it from the Hares. First I pulled off the little one's skin, and then I restored it to him. In payment, the Hares offered me a herd of reindeer, but I did not take them. I asked only for the willow. They gave it to me,  and I have brought it home."    That's all.

Told by Anne Qaci'lqut (Strongly-arisen), a Koryak woman,
in the village of Kamenskoye, November, 1900.

73.   How Big-Raven burnt up the Kamaks.

         Big-Raven (Ouikinn'a'qu) said, "The kamaks want to devour all our children. Heat plenty of stones, we shall kill all the kamaks with them."
Big-Raven took some sedge-grass (Carex), twisted it together with hare's hair, and began to swing it. The kamaks came, descended the back of the ladder, and screamed, "Ce-re-re-re! what is the old man calling us for?" Big- Raven put red-hot stones on the front side of the house, which is assigned to guests, and said to the kamaks, "Come on! the place is ready for you." They came, sat down on the place assigned to guests, and cried out, " Ce-re- re-re !" They were roasted. The kamaks who came later also sat down on the stones, were burnt, and screamed, "Ce-re-re-re!" But Big-Raven kept on swinging his wand of sedge and hare's hair, and struck them with it. Finally the great old kamak came and said, "Ce-re-re-re! why does the old man call me?" Big-Raven answered, "We shall enjoy very much spending a night together. All your friends are already asleep here: I have prepared a soft  bed for them." The great kamak also sat down on the glowing stones, and cried out, "Ce-re-re-re! the bottom of my trousers (qu'yim) is burning!" All the kamaks were burnt. Only ashes were left of them. Big-Raven covered the ashes with sedge and hare's hair, pressed them with stones, and said, "I have killed all the kamaks: now the children will always be well, and will never be sick again."

         Miti', Big-Raven's wife, said to the children, "Now you may run about freely outdoors, father has killed all the kamaks." But there remained one
old woman, the old kamak's wife. She said at home, "Why do the old man and the children stay away so long? I am going to look for them." She started, and finally reached Big-Raven's house. Big-Raven had just gone to bed, when he heard a noise. The old kamak-woman (kama'keña) cried, "Ce-
re-re-re!" Big-Raven said to Miti', "A short time ago you said that the old kamak   had   no   wife,   and   there   she   is   coming   now!"     But   to  the  kamak-



woman he shouted, "Come, come! I have killed all your folks." Then he said to Miti', "You are both of you women: you shall fight with her. Here is father's wooden knife. Stab her with it." The kamak-woman came down. Miti' was frightened, and, horror-struck, she shouted to her husband, "Khot, khot! where shall I stab her? Khot, khot! where shall I stab her?" Then she threw herself upon the old woman, but she could not master her. Out of sheer terror, she could not hit her. Then the old man himself jumped up.  He said to Miti', "You are so ready to get angry with me, and now you have not courage enough to kill her." He took the wooden knife, and killed the kamak-woman. Then he said to his sons, "Now you can go about every- where unhindered, I have killed all the kamaks."

Told by Anne Qaci'lqut, a Koryak woman, in the village
of Kamenskoye, November 1900.

74.  How Eme'mqut killed the Kamaks.

         It was in the time when Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) lived. He became ill. His son Eme'mqut was returning from his hunt; and when he was near their house, he heard his father's loud groans. He spent some time at home, and then went again into the open. On his way he came to an underground dwelling. It was a house without a ti'wotil.1 He approached cautiously. He looked in and saw a kamak-woman (kama'keña) with her child sitting in the house. The kamak was absent. Presently Eme'mqut heard the kamak-woman say, " He goes out hunting, and cannot bring any food home. It is a long time since he first attacked him, but he cannot conquer him, and our son is starving." Suddenly Eme'mqut saw the kamak step out from the hearth-fire. The kamak-woman shouted to him, "Again empty-handed! You go there every day, and I instruct you, 'Stab him in his ear and he will die,' and still you cannot kill him!" The kamak replied, " It is not easy to kill him : both he and his wife are shamans. They see me from whatever side I try to approach them." The kamak-woman said, "Get up early to-morrow morning and go to them. Attack him before sunrise. Again and again you come home empty-handed, and your son is starving. He may die of starvation." Eme'mqut heard it all,  and said,   "It seems that my father will die to-morrow morning."

         He left the house of the kamaks, and, deeply absorbed in thought about the impending death of his father, he went into the wilderness. Suddenly he saw an old woman sitting at the foot of a steep hill. When she noticed him, she said, "Why are you sad, good fellow?" — "I am sad," he answered, "because my father is going to be killed and devoured to-morrow.     I heard the kamaks

1   A   funnel-shaped   structure — a   sort   of  storm-roof — built   above the entrance-opening in the under-ground house of the Maritime Koryak.



say  so."- "Well,"   asked  the old woman,   "what ails your father?" —   "He has   pain   all   over   his   body.      He   has grown quite thin,  only his bones are left."--  «Your father and mother are both shamans,  and they cannot master the kamaks!" said the old woman. She then drew out a hare's head and crave it to Eme'mqut. "Take it over to the kamaks' house and throw it in there If nothing happens, come back to me."  Eme'mqut took the hare's head went to the kamaks, and looked into the house. They were still sitting by the hearth, and talking. The kamak-woman was saying, "You must kill him to-morrow, by all means." After she had said this, Eme'mqut threw the hare's head into the house. The kamak and his wife seized their little son, and disappeared in the fire. Eme'mqut let himself down into the house, took the hare's head, put it on the hearth, and got away.

         "My father will die, nevertheless," he thought on the way. Far from the house he could hear his father groaning •, but when he came nearer to the
house, the groans had ceased. " Now my father is dead," he said. He reached the roof of the house, looked into the entrance-opening, and saw his father sitting by the fire, and heard him say to his mother, "I am completely recovered." But Miti' replied, "This is only the temporary relief from the disease which  takes place before death occurs." As soon as Eme'mqut heard the cheerful words of his father, instead of descending the ladder, he jumped into the house. He said to his father, "I have killed all the kamaks, now you will be well." — "If you have really killed all the kamaks, my son, then you are right, I shall not be ill any more." Big-Raven recovered completely and lived as before.

Told by Anne Qaci'lqut, a Koryak woman, in the village
of Kamneskoye, November, 1900.

75.  Big-Light and the Kamaks.

         It was in the time when Eme'mqut lived, and his father Big-Raven (Qui-kinn'a'qu)   lived   with   him.      Eme'mqut   married   Grass-Woman   (Ve'ai),   the daughter   of  Root-Man   (Tatqa'hicñin),   from   up the river.     Eme'mqut had a little   brother   by   the   name   of Big-Light (Oeskin-a'qu).     Soon  Grass-Woman gave   birth   to   a   son,   whom   they   called   Born-again (To'ñovet).     Both boys  rew up together.     When they were grown up, they went hunting and killed a   reindeer.     Soon   after   that,  Born-again killed another fat reindeer.     Grass-Woman pulled off the skin,  and cut up the reindeer.     Then she said,  "If my fathers, [i. e., parents] could taste this!     I never saw such fat meat in my life!"

         Big-Raven   heard   this,  and said to Big-Light,   "Go  with your nephew to Root-Man,   and   take   him   some   of the reindeer-meat.     Go up the river, but on   your   way   back avoid the river."     Big-Light and Born-again prepared  for




the iourney loaded two sledges, and drove off. When they approached Root-man's  house so that they could be seen, the sisters of Grass-Woman came to meet them They knew Big-Light, but this was the first time they had seen Born-again, and they asked, "Who is this?" - "This is your nephew"
replied Big-Light. They embraced him, unloaded the sledges, and carried the meat  into the house. They entertained both youths, treating them to berries. The sisters of Grass-Woman asked, "What do your folks want us to send them?" The young men said, "They wish for berries of whatever kind you have:  even cloud-berries will do." The girls invited them to stay over night, but the young men declined.    They said,  Big-Raven has ordered us to return
this very day." ---  "You will lose your way and get to the kamaks," said the girls.    But the boys insisted, and drove back.

         On the way, Born-again said, "Grandfather told us not to drive along the river on our way back." But Big-Light replied, "Never mind, let us go
along  the river." They went down the river, and soon lost their way. They reached a forest, where they found two underground dwellings. One was poorly built, the other one was much better. The former was without the usual storm-roof: the latter had a platform over the entrance, on which clothing was hanging.

         The  youths  looked   into the shabby house,  and saw an old woman and two boys.    One of these had a child's combination-suit on, the other one was dressed  like   grown   people.     The  woman, their grandmother, was a kamak- woman.     The   boys   lived   in   the   second   house.     Their parents did not eat human flesh.    The kamak-woman said to her grandchildren, "Go home."    They went.    Then the old woman took the boiling kettle off the fire, and pulled a child's hand and a human head out of it.    She said, "We have only one true son  who   eats  human   flesh   like us: the others occupy another dwelling and are  no   cannibals, as if they were not our children."    Then the youths heard a   noise   from   way   up   the   middle   of the house,  and suddenly they  saw  the kamak's son step  out of the hearth-fire,  dragging behind him  a  sledge full of human flesh.    Born-again said,  "Let us go back."    But his uncle said,  "First let us look into the other dwelling: probably human beings live there."     They went to the other dwelling, looked into the opening, and saw on the sleeping- platform two men,  one woman,  one girl, and the children that they had seen before.    Big-Light said,  "If the girl would only come out!"     At once the old woman ordered the girl to go out on the roof of the porch and close up the vent-hole.1    The   girl   put on her jacket.     Big-Light said,   "If she would only untie the bands of her coat!"    The girl immediately untied the bands of her coat.    Then Big-Light shot an arrow from his bow, and it hit the girl's chest Sne   fell   down   dead.     Big-Light   and   his   nephew fled.     They did not drive home, however, but went to the reindeer-herd.

1 See p.   14, Footnote 4.




up their intestines, so that the bellies of the kamaks burst. Their bodies were thrown into the river and were washed ashore on the banks of the upper course of the river. Then all the people who had been devoured by the kamaks before came back to life.

         Big-Raven's daughter walked up the river to see her father-in-law and mother-în-law, whom she had killed. She cut their bodies open, took out their entrails, and put in mice-entrails instead. "Now, you will not be able to eat human flesh any more," said she. She breathed a new breath into them, and the kamaks returned to life. All the newly revived people returned into their dwellings. The kamaks, also, went back into their dwelling. They ceased to kill men, and henceforth were unable to consume human flesh. Their village became desolated, and the other inhabitants removed to Big-Raven's. Finally the kamaks also came to Big-Raven's. "I thought," said the latter, "that you were dead. Now remain here." They lived together ever after.    That's all.

Told by Anne Qaèi'lqut, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the
village of Kamenskoye, Nov. 2, 1900.

76. Big-Raven and his Son Bear's-Ear.

         It was at the time when Big-Raven (Ouikinn'a'qu) and his wife Miti' lived. They  had two sons, Eme'mqut and Big-Light (Oeskin-a'qu), and a daughter, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.     Miti' ceased bearing children.     Once Big-Raven said to his wife, "You do not wish to have any more sons,  give birth to a little bear for me. Time   hangs so heavy on me, it would amuse me to see the little bear play with the boys, and tear their clothing."     Miti' replied, "Do not talk nonsense! It  is   a  sin   to   bring  forth   a   bear."     Big-Raven   went  out hunting,  killed a reindeer   and   brought   it home.     He called his wife to come out and receive the reindeer.    She replied,  "I cannot.    You told me to give birth to a bear, and   I   did   so."     Big-Raven   laughed   for  joy,   and  shouted into the opening, "Now we shall have a jolly time here!"     The little bear grew very fast.     He played   with   the boys, and  tore their clothes.     Whenever  Big-Raven  saw the little bear tear his playmates'  clothing, he would break out into loud laughter. "Kha, kha, kha !" he would say,   "see what a lively son  was born  to  me!"

         One day Big-Raven's neighbor came to complain about the little bear, which had torn the entire backs from the fur coats of his children. Then Big-Raven grew angry, and hit the bear, saying, "You are a wild fellow. Go into the wilderness." Bear's-Ear (Ka'iñi-vi'lu) — this was the bear's name — left his father's house, went into the wilderness, and built himself a den. He went hunting.

         Once he met a man who carried an entire forest on the palm of his hand. Bear's-Ear asked him, "What are you doing?" — "I am carrying forests hither



and thither. I heard that a son was born to Big-Raven that possesses extra-ordinary power. His name is Bear's-Ear. Now, I will develop still greater power   through   these   exercises,   so that I  may get the better of him when  I meet   him." __    "Who   are   you?"   asked   Bear's-Ear.     "I   am One- who- carries-Forests-Hither-and-Thither [O'mkina'lqatat]," answered the man. But Bear's-Ear said "You will never see Bear's-Ear. He is far away from here." One-who- carries-Forests-Hither-and-Thither asked, "And you, who are you?"  Bear's-Ear answered, "I do not know: I have no name yet. Come into my house,"  he added. They entered Bear's-Ear's house. The latter soon left his guest and went out again. He reached a chain of mountains, and found a man who carried a mountain on the palm of his hand. "What are you doing?" Bear's- Ear asked the stranger. "I am carrying mountains hither and thither," answered the man. I was told that a son, a bear, was born to Big-Raven, and that he has extraordinary powers. I wish to develop in me still greater power by exercising, so that I may be able to conquer him when I meet him." — "Who are you?" asked Bear's-Ear.  "My name is One-who-carries-Mountains-Hither- and-Thither [Tino'pina'lqatat]," said the man. Bear's-Ear said, "You will never see Big-Raven's son. He is far away from here. Come to my house. I have one friend in my house already. We will live together, all three of us." One-who-carries- Mountains- Hither -and-Thither consented. On the following morning, after having spent the night together, the three men went out hunting. They hit upon a herd of mountain-sheep that belonged to a kamak. Bear's-Ear said to his companions, "Let us kill one." They replied, "It is not well to kill somebody else's animals : something wrong might happen to us on account of it." Bear's-Ear retorted, "You are strong men, who carry mountains and forests hither and thither, and you are afraid of the kamak! You ought to be ashamed of yourselves! Let us kill one buck!" They killed one buck and carried it home.

         On the following morning Bear's-Ear left One-who-carries-Forests-Hither-and-Thither at home to cook the mountain-sheep meat, and he wenthunting with One-who-carries-Mountains-Hither-and-Thither. When One-who-carries-Forests-Hither-and-Thither had hung the pot full of meat over the fire, he heard a terrible voice, saying, "Um-m-m! why did you kill one of my reindeer ?" and he beheld a kamak entering the house. One-who-carries-Forests-Hither- and-Thither was so terrified that his  entire body trembled. The kamak pressed him to the ground, and, sitting astride him, pulled the cooked meat out of the pot, ate it quietly, and kept on pressing One-who-carries-Forests-Hither- and-Thither until his ribs were broken. When he had eaten enough, the kamak took the  remaining  meat with  him,  and withdrew.

        Soon Bear's-Ear and One-who-carries-Mountains-Hither-and-Thither, who had killed another mountain-buck, entered. One- who- carries -Forests -Hither-and- Thither   groaned.     Bear's-Ear   asked,   "What ails you?"     He answered,   "The




kamak   came   here  during your absence,  ate up  the  cooked  meat,  and broke my ribs."    Bear's-Ear said,   "You  shall go  with  me  to-morrow." 

         On the following morning the two went hunting, and One-who-carries-Mountains-Hither-and-Thither remained at home to cook the meat. Hardly had he hung the pot over the fire, when the kamak appeared, and shouted, " Um-m-m! again one of my reindeer is killed." He seized One-who-carries- Mountains-Hither-and-Thither, pressed him to the ground, and, sitting astride him, ate most of the meat, and finally withdrew, taking the rest of the meat and the remaining bones along. But he was unable to crush the ribs of One- who-carries-Mountains-Hither-and-Thither, since the latter was stronger than One- who -carries -Forests -Hither-and-Thither. Bear's-Ear and One-who-carries- Forests-Híther-and-Thither returned from their hunt with a mountain-buck, and asked One-who-carries-Mountains-Hither-and-Thither, "Well, what has hap- pened?" — "Yes, he was here again, and took the meat; but he could not break my ribs," said One-who-carries-Mountains-Hither-and-Thither. "I shall stay at home to-morrow to cook the meat, and you two go out hunting," said Bear's-Ear. On the next morning One-who-carries-Forests-Hither-and-Thither and One-who-carries-Mountains-Hither-and-Thither went hunting. Bear's-Ear staid at home. Soon he heard a thundering voice, saying, "Um-um-um! again one of my reindeer has been stolen." The kamak entered and threw himself upon Bear's-Ear; but the latter overwhelmed him, threw him down to the ground, sat astride him, and, while eating the meat, crushed the kamak's ribs. Then he let him go free. When One-who-carries-Forests-Hither-and-Thither and One-who-carries-Mountains-Hither-and-Thither were going home, they saw the  kamak, who moved along slowly, groaning all the time. One-who-carries- Mountains-Hither-and-Thither said to his companion, "It seems that our friend has been killed by the kamak." When they approached their house, Bear's- Ear came out towards them; and One-who-carries-Forests-Hither-and-Thither said, "Let us flee! there is a kamak outside." But One-who-carries-Mountains- Hither-and-Thither set him at ease,  saying,   "It  is  our friend,  to be sure!"

         Bear's-Ear heard their conversation,  and  said to  them,  "Come, come, do not   be   afraid!     I  am  alive."     When they were inside,  he  told them  how he had   received   the   kamak,   and   continued,    "You   wished  to  know who  I am. Well,  I am  Bear's-Ear.     Now you  may eat the meat that I have cooked, and go to bed."     When they got up  on the following morning, Bear's-Ear said to One-who-carries-Forests-Hither-and-Thither, "Go and open the door."     He went, but could not open it.    Then Bear's-Ear sent One-who-carries-Mountains-Hither- and-Thither, but he also was unable to open it.     He just pushed it forward a little.     Then  Bear's-Ear jumped  up,  went  to  the  door,  gave  it  one push with his hand, and it opened.     The kamak had shut it up with a mountain.     Bear's- Ear   said,   "Let   us   go   now   and   bar his  door with  a  still  larger  mountain." They went,  and blocked the  kamak's house forever,  so  that he could not get



out any more.     The three friends took possession of the kamak's herd, divided it into three parts,  and went off in three different directions.

         Bear's-Ear went with his herd near Big-Raven's dwelling. Big-Raven said to his folks, "Who is it that has moved into this vicinity? Go and find out about it."    One of Big-Raven's men went and asked the stranger,  "Who are you?" - "I am  Bear's-Ear,  Big-Raven's son.     I  am  coming with a herd, but I have neither house nor tent." The messenger came back to Big-Raven, and said to him, "It is your son, whom you drove into the wilderness, that is roaming in this neighborhood." — "I am going myself to invite him over here " said Big-Raven. When he approached his son, the latter did not go to meet him. Big-Raven addressed him, but Bear's-Ear did not reply. Big- Raven returned home, and said to his wife Miti', " My son is angry with me : you go to him." She went then. As soon as Bear's-Ear saw his mother, he ran to meet her, and shouted with joy, "Mother is coming, mother is coming!" When she came near him, he asked, "What do you want of me!"— "I want you to come to our house." — "If you had not come, I should not go: I do not mind brother or father." Then he moved over there with his herd, but he did not go into Big-Raven's house. He put up a separate tent, and lived alone.     He would speak to his mother,  but he never spoke to his father.

Told by Anne Qaci'lqut, a Maritime Koryak woman, in
the village of Kamenskoye, March, 1900.

77.  How Self-created kills his  Father.

         To'ñel came to Eme'mqut to serve for his sister Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, and married her.    To'ñel   went with his wife to hunt wild reindeer.     They put up a tent. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   gave   birth  to a son, whom  she called Self-created (Tomwo'get).  ne day To'ñel went out of the tent to hunt reindeer.     Soon after Yiñe'a-ñe'ut also went out to pick berries.     She gathered berries, and found fly-agaric too.  he brought them home, ground them together with  cloud-berries, and, when her   husband   came   back   from  hunting, she gave the mixture to him to eat. She said,   "Eat some berries;" but she said nothing about the fly-agaric.     Her husband ate, and became quite intoxicated.     She put him into a seal-skin bag, together with whaling and sealing harpoons, and threw the bag into the river. It floated down into the sea, and was  carried to and fro by the waves.     When  o'ñel   came   to,   he   felt   hungry.      Then   he   took   a   harpoon-point used for catching seals, and cast it into the sea.     The harpoon hit a seal, which To'ñel drew to himself.    The Seal asked him,   "Where do you  come from?"    To'ñel replied,   "My  wife   gave me fly-agaric to eat,  put me into a bag, and threw me   into   the river,  which  brought  me  over  here,  and  now  I  am  hungry." — "I  will give you  something to  eat,  only let  me  go  free."     He  pulled  out the



harpoon from the seal, and the latter dived into the deep, and brought back some seal-meat. To'ñel ate until he had enough. The waves carried him farther He threw a whaling-harpoon into the sea, and it caught a whale. To'ñel drew it to himself, and the Whale asked him, "Where do you come from?" He answered, "My wife gave me fly-agaric to eat, put me into this bag, and threw me into the river: now carry me to my parents." The Whale dived into the deep, emerged again after a while, and said, "Sit down on my back." He swam off, and brought him to the shore, near the place where his parents lived.

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, after having rid herself of her husband, went back to her parents. To'ñel did not stay long at home, but took a spear and went to Big-Raven's (Ouikinn'a'qu) house with the intention of killing his wife. As soon as he arrived, he descended into the dwelling, and beheld his wife sitting on the floor and nursing her boy. He killed her by stabbing her in the heart with his spear. Then he went out again and returned to his parents. Miti' took charge of the boy, and Eme'mqut carried the body of his sister over to the place where they burned their dead.     There she was burned.

          Self-created grew up.     He hunted wild reindeer.     Once he came back fromhis hunt and brought a reindeer.     Miti' saw him, and began to cry.     "Mother," said   Self-created,   "why   do   you   cry?"     He  believed  Miti' to be his mother. "I   am   not  your   mother,   I   am   your grandmother,"  answered Miti'.     "Your father killed your mother."    Then he became enraged, and said, "I am going to   kill  father."    Eme'mqut  wanted to keep him back,  but Self-created would not listen to him.    Then Eme'mqut said,   "Let us go together."    Self-created did   not   consent to this, either.     "I am going alone," said he.     He took his spear and went to his father's house.     When he arrived, he shouted,  "Come out!"    As soon as To'ñel appeared,  Self-created buried his spear in his heart, and killed him : then he  returned  to  Miti'.     Soon  To'ñel's  relatives came out of the house.     They discovered his body, and conveyed it to the burning-place. After   the   corpse   had been burned,  both  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and To'ñel  arose from the   ashes   of  the   funeral-pile.     They went to To'ñel's father,  and they lived together.     To'ñel's   relatives   said,   "Live   here,   and   do   not  go  hunting any more, that nothing- may happen to  you again."     Thus they lived and brought forth many children.    That's all.

Told  by  A'yu-ña'ut, a Maritime Koryak woman in the
village of Kamenskoye, Nov. 5, 1900.

78.  Big-Raven  and the Kamaks.

         Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) went sliding  down a slope.     He slid down several times,   until  finally he landed on the roof of a kamak dwelling,  and fell into



the   vent-hole   of  the   porch.      In   the   evening   the   kamak's wife said to  her children,   "Go up and open the ventilator in the roof of the porch, I want to make a fire "  They obeyed,  and tried to take out the plug from the opening ; but Big-Raven   held   it   tight.     They descended into the dwelling, and said,   "We cannot  remove   the   plug from the vent-hole."     The kamak's wife shouted to her elder son,   " Able-to-do-Everything (Apka'wka), go and take out the plug." Able-to-do-Everything   went   out  and did as he was told.     Then the kamak's wife   said   to   her   children,    " Open   the door into the porch;" but not one of them   was   able   to   open it.     She shouted again,  Able-to-do-Everything,  open the door!"     Able-to-do-Everything went,  opened the door, and saw Big-Raven sitting  in the porch.     "Ah!"  he exclaimed,  "our food has come to us."     They took  Big-Raven into the house, and said, "Now we shall eat you."    Big-Raven replied,   "Now,   this   is   not   right.     When I catch a seal,  I do not eat it on the  same day; only the next morning do I eat of my game."    The kamak's wife   thought   it well to leave him until the following morning.     But then he said,   "Do   not   eat   me!     I   am old and lean.     I have a young and fat son, Eme'mqut.     I   will   send   him   to you if you will let me off." —  "Go, then," said the kamaks, "and send your son to us."    The kamak's wife led Big-Raven up   the   ladder,   but   it   was   so   dark  outside that he could not find his way. The   kamak's   wife then came up to  a post supporting a small hut,  in which her   elder   daughter   was   hidden,   and   said,   "Stretch   out   your   hand!"     She stretched her hand out of the hut, and it became light because of the brilliant beauty of the kamak's daughter.

         Big-Raven arrived at home, and said to his son, "Eme'mqut, I promised to send you to the kamaks, to be eaten up by them. Go over there. On your way call upon Big-River (Veyemn'a'qu) and Large-Bowlder (Voceñi'ln'aqu), and take them along. Take them to the kamak's house, and shout into the entrance-opening, 'Dance! Here I am. We also dance when we catch a whale.' Then they will begin the welcome dance. Next say to them, 'Open your mouths! I will throw my companions down to you first. You would not be satisfied with me alone.' They will open their mouths, and you must throw in your  companions,  Big-River and  Large  Bowlder."

         Eme'mqut went off. On his way he took Big-River and Large-Bowlder along, and on his arrival called down into the house, "I came to be eaten up by you, dance now!" Then he said, "Open your mouths! You shall eat my companions first." Eme'mqut first let Large-Bowlder fall down, who turned into a huge rock, which crushed the kamaks. Then he let Big-River fall down, and he turned into a large stream, which carried off the crushed kamaks. Eme'mqut went to the post on' which the kamak's daughter was, and wanted to take her down. But she said, "You have killed my fathers [parents], and now you want to take me for your wife. That must not be." He did not pay any heed to her words, but took her down.     Big-River and Large-Bowlder



resumed their human appearance, and the four went home. Eme'mqut gave his two sisters, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Caiva'i-ña'ut, to Large-Bowlder and Big-River. Eme'mqut married the kamak's daughter, whose name was Aten-a'ut. Thus they  lived together.

         Once Big-Raven said to his son, "Why do you not take your wife to visit her parents?" Eme'mqut asked his wife, "Shall I take you over to your parents?" But she replied, "You have killed my folks." He replied, "Let us go, all the same." They drove there, reached the dwelling of the kamaks, and found them all alive again. They had ceased, however, to eat human flesh. They staid there some time, and all came afterward to Big-Raven's house, and lived together from that time on.    That's all.

Told  by A'yu-ña'ut, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the
village of Kamenskoye, November, 1900.

79.  Lo'cex the  Cannibal.

         Lo'cex came to Big-Raven's (Ouikinn'a'qu) to serve for his daughter Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. He married her, and drove with his wife to his own house. Then  Lo'cex himself kept house. He cooked, and fed his wife until she grew quite fat.    He was a cannibal.

         One day he was busy heating stones. At that time his cousin Abundant-in-Water (I'mlelin) visited him, and asked, "What are you heating stonesfor?" — "I want to steam wood for a bow." Abundant-in-Water went out- doors, where Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was, and seized her, saying, "Do not believe him. He wants to roast you. Come, I will carry you away." He took her into his house, and married her. When Lo'cex stepped out of the house to look for his wife and did not find her,  he turned  into  seaweed.

         Abundant-in-Water and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut lived together. She gave birth to a son, whom she named Self-created (Tomwo'get). Abundant-in-Water said, "I want to go with you to your parents." They started, and soon reached Big- Raven's dwelling, where they were met by the people. Miti' also came out to meet them, and said to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, "How is it? One man took you, and now another one brings you back." She replied, "If it had not been for Abundant-in-Water, you would not have seen me again. Lo'cex wanted to eat me up." They staid some time with Big-Raven, and then returned home.Eme'mqut went with them, and married Abundant-in-Water's sister.    That's all.

Told  by A'yu-ña'ut, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the
village of Kamenskoye, November, 1900.



80  Grebe-Man.

         It was in the time when Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) lived. For a long time he could not go out in his boat. Whenever he went aboard his boat, and  started to go out to sea, a violent storm would break out, and he would be compelled to turn back. This happened several times. Big-Raven was unable to overcome the sea. He said to his son, "Eme'mqut, we must get a shaman in order to find out why the sea rages whenever we get ready to go  out. Go to Grebe-Man (Yo'vala'n) and bring him over here. He will surely be able to find out." Eme'mqut went, arrived at Grebe-Man's house, and said, "I come to ask you to call on us. As soon as we want to go to  sea, it begins to blow. You will discover the cause of it." They went to Big-Raven's house. Grebe-Man was given a drum, and he began to exercise his magic powers. After some time he stopped beating the drum, and said, "Over in the middle of the sea there lives a woman that lets loose the stormy weather.    If Eme'mqut will  marry her,  she will stop  her practices."

         On the following day they went out to the sea in search of the woman. They landed on an island, found a woman there, took her along, and Eme'mqut married her.    Soon afterward they went out whale-hunting.    The weather was fine, and they caught a whale.    Eme'mqut's sister ira'i-ña'ut, and her cousin Kïlu', went out to gather sedge-grass for the whale feast.1    Kïlu' said to her cousin,  "Can you imitate Grebe-Man's shaman song?"    Can'a'i-ña'ut answered, "The  grebes are walking about here in the grass,  and Grebe-Man may hear how   he   is   being   mocked."     Kïlu'  took   a   stick,   hit   the   grass,   and   cried, "Hat, hat, hat!" to drive off the grebes.    Soon she stopped, because nothing stirred.    She said to her cousin,  "There is no one in the grass.    Try his song." Can-a'i-ña'ut sang just as Grebe-Man had done.     Suddenly,  however,  he him- self appeared   from   the   grass,   and   shouted,   "Why do you make fun  of my incantation?"     Kïlu' was frightened so badly that she cried,  "The penis hangs, the vulva hangs" (Toñakan'a'pah,  upakan'a'pali); 2   and both girls,  seized with great  fright,  ran away with the grass they had gathered.     They came home and made ready for the whale feast.     Big-Raven  said to Eme'mqut,  "Go and invite   Grebe-Man   to   the   feast."      When   he  reached Grebe-Man's house, he said,   " I come to invite you.     We  are celebrating the equipping of the whale now."     Grebe-Man replied,   "I will not come."     Eme'mqut returned home and reported Grebe-Man's answer.     Big-Raven sent him a second time.     He went to Grebe-Man,  and said,   "Father invites you  to come." —  "Well,  I will go," said Grebe-Man.     When the two arrived, the feast began, the whale was sent

1  See p. 65.

2   Koryak women, when frightened, generally shout in this manner, and it must be considered as a symptom
of  hysteria.                                                                                                                                  '



oft" and they  ate of the food that had been prepared. When the celebration was over, Grebe-Man withdrew, and in passing by he took Can'a'i-ña'ut's heart away.     After he had gone,  Caira'i-ña'ut died.

         Again they sent Eme'mqut to call him. He said, "Can-a'i-ña'ut has died. Come and revive her." They went, and came to Big-Raven's house. Grebe- Man beat the drum, and sang his shaman's song. Then he put her heart in its former place, and Can-a'i-ña'ut returned to life. He married her and took her to his house. At the same time Big-Raven gave his elder daughter, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, in marriage to Fog-Man (Yiña'agit). Finally all returned to Big- Raven's house, lived together, and hunted whales successfully.    That's all.

Told  by A'yu-ña'ut, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the
village of Kamenskoye, November, 1900.

81.  Cloud-Man's Marriage with Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.

         Fog-Man (Yiña'agit) came to Big-Raven (Quikinn-a'qu) to serve for a bride. He married Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. She gave birth to a daughter, whom she named Yellow-Woman (Ce'ipi-ñe'ut). Fog-Man said, "Let us go to my mother." They drove off, and arrived at his mother's house. After they had lived there for some time, Fog-Man said to his wife and to his younger brother, "Let us go hunting." They left their village, went into the wilderness, and put up a tent. Whenever one of the brothers went out hunting, the other one would stay at home.     They caught many reindeer.

         Once Fog-Man went out hunting, and the younger brother remained at home with his sister-in-law. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went outside with a reindeer-skin and a scraping-knife, and scraped the skin outside. Then her brother-in-law came to her and coveted her. She resented his overtures, and just lifted her scraping- knife to strike him, when her brother-in-law fell down dead. She was frightened, and said, "My husband will scold me for killing my brother-in-law." She took the corpse, carried it into the storehouse (on poles), wrapped it up in a dressed reindeer-skin, and put it into a seal-skin bag, which she tied up. Then she returned into the dwelling.

         Soon after that, her husband came home from hunting. He asked, "Where is my brother?" Yiñe'a-ñe'ut replied, "I do not know: he probably went to visit his parents." Fog-Man went out of the house to hang up his bow on the posts under the storehouse, and a drop of blood dripped down on his head. He climbed up to the storehouse, searched everywhere, and could not find whence the blood came. He descended again. While he was attending to his work, more blood dripped down. He climbed up again, looked over all the bags, and untied them. Finally he came to the bag that contained the corpse.     He  unwrapped the reindeer-skin,  and found his brother's body in  it.




off. They passed by Fog-Man's house. The latter shouted, "Who is there?" Yiñe'a-ñe'ut shouted back, "We are going to our father." Fog-Man recognized her voice, and said, "Do not be angry with me! We used to be husband and wife; let us live together again." She retorted, "You have killed me, and   if it had not been for my daughter,   Wolf would have eaten me."

         They went on, and reached Big-Raven's house. He asked, "How is it? One man took you away, and another one brings you back." She replied, "That other one killed me, and, if it had not been for my daughter, Wolt would have eaten me.    We fled, and Cloud-Man lifted us to the clouds."

         For a long time they lived with Big-Raven. Then they prepared food for their return journey. Eme'mqut accompanied them. When they again passed Fog-Man's house, he shouted as before,  " Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, let us again live together as formerly."    But she replied,   "Do not waste your words."

         They drove on, and reached Cloud-Man's house. Eme'mqut wooed Cloud-Man's sister, Cloud-Woman (Ya'hal-ña'ut). They were married, and made preparations for their homeward journey. Some Tungus people who were among the guests went along with them, and they all reached Big-Raven's house at the same time. A rich Tungus courted Kïlu', Eme'mqut's cousin. His courtship was accepted, and the young married couple drove off to the husband's parents; Eme'mqut's younger brother, Big-Light (Oeskin'a'qu), accom- panying them. There Big-Light wooed a young Tungus girl, and she was given to him. Then they prepared for Big-Light's return to his parents. They were given a large reindeer-herd, and Big-Light went back to Big-Raven. Thus they all lived happy, often attended feasts, and visited each other. That's all.

Told by A'yu-ña'ut, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the
village of Kamenskoye in November, 1900.

82.  Little-Bird-Man  and  Raven-Man.

         Little-Bird-Man (Pici'qala'n 1) and Raven-Man (Valva'mtila'n) came to Big-Raven (Ouikinn-a'qu) to woo his daughter. Miti' said, "I prefer Raven-Man." Big-Raven said, "I prefer Little-Bird-Man." While they were discussing the merits of the visitors, a violent snowstorm broke out. Big-Raven said, "Who- ever will put an end to the snowstorm shall marry my daughter.." Raven-Man said, "Prepare some travelling-provisions for me, and make a few pairs of boots. I intend to go far away." No sooner had Raven-Man gone out than he dug a hole in the snow behind the dwelling, and ate his provisions. When he had   eaten   all, he returned  into the  dwelling,  and said,   "I  have been  unable

1 All little birds are called pici'k.

25 I


to stop the snowstorm: the sky is all broken." — "Enough! I see that you a e not the one who can accomplish this task." — "I will try," said Little- Bird-Man. "Well," said Big-Raven, "we will prepare provisions for your journey." But Little-Bird-Man replied, "I do not want anything. Just give me a pail-cover, a shovel, and reindeer-guts." They gave him everything he asked for, and he flew up to the sky, right to the spot where it was pierced. He tried to cover the hole with the lid of the bucket, but it was too small. Little-Bird-Man put the guts around the cover and stopped up the hole tem- porarily. Then he returned to Big-Raven. "The cover is too small," he said. "There is a crack left, through which the wind may still blow, though not so violently as before." They gave him a large lid, and again he started off to the sky. He flew up, changed the lid, pushed the guts around the rim, and covered it over with snow, which he piled on with his shovel. Then he flew back to Big-Raven.

         The storm had stopped completely. "Well," said Big-Raven, "I will give you reindeer to go to your people." But Little-Bird-Man replied, "We do not need any reindeer: we will walk." Off they went. When they came to a river, Little-Bird-Man said to his wife, "Sit down on my back, I will carry you across." She replied, "You are too small, I shall crush you." — "No," he responded, "I can easily carry you across, you will not crush me." As soon as Yiñe'a-ñe'ut sat upon Little-Bird-Man, he was completely crushed, and lay there dead. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut put her husband's body upon the palm of her hand, and sat down under the shade of a stone-pine tree. She sat there for a long time. At last she began to cry, and said, "I shall die of starvation, my husband is dead." Suddenly she heard a voice behind, saying, "Why are you crying? Here I am, your husband." She turned back, and beheld a young,  powerful man. Near by there was also a tent, and a herd of reindeer were in the pasture. The reindeer had silver antlers and silver hoofs. She said to the man, "You are lying. Here is my husband, he is dead." He answered, however, "This is only the shape that I assumed in order to serve your father for your sake. Now you see me in my true shape. Here are my relatives too. I purposely let myself be killed, that I might appear in my true shape, and to bring my reindeer over here." She trusted him, and followed him into his tent. Everything in the tent was made of iron, — posts, sledges, and snow-shoes. Soon she gave birth to a son named Self-created (Tomwo'get), who had iron teeth, which, when he laughed,  emitted sparks.

         Once Little-Bird-Man said to his wife, "I want to drive you over to you father. Your parents, no doubt, think, 'Our daughter left our house on foot, and we do not know whether she is alive or not.' Let them see how you are getting along." They prepared plenty of meat-paste for the journey, extracted   an   ample supply  of marrow from  the  bones,   and got ready to go. When they  reached Big-Raven's house, the people shouted from inside, " Little-



Bird-Man is coming!" and they came out to meet them. They were conducted down into the dwelling. There they staid for some time, played, and had a very jolly time.

         Suddenly it grew dark. Raven-Man had swallowed the sun. It grew so dark that the women could not go out for water. Nevertheless, the two sisters, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Can'a'i-ña'ut, managed to bring some water. They groped their way to the river as though they were blind, and drew some water. A young man came up to them unexpectedly, and said to Can'a'i-ña'ut, "Give me your pail: I will carry the water for you." The girl did not wish to give it to him, and said, "I will carry it myself." But he insisted, and carried her pail into the house. They asked the girl, "Where has this man come from?" The women said, "We did not want to let him carry our water, but he took our buckets by main force. He wooed Can'a'i-ña'ut, and married her." His name was River-Man (Veye'mila'n).

         "I am a shaman," he said, "and I want to discover who causes the dark-ness." They gave him a drum, and, after he had tried his skill, he declared, "I see! it is Raven-Man, who has swallowed the sun." Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said, "I will go to him, and set the sun free." She put on her reindeer-leather coat and went to Raven. She found Raven-Man lying in his house. He did not get up, and remained silent so as not to open his mouth. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut ap- proached him, and said slyly, "I have left Little-Bird-Man. I have a longing for you." She embraced him firmly, and tickled him under his arm. He laughed, and opened his mouth. Then the sun escaped, and it became light again. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said to Raven-Man, "Have you no fork?" He gave her a raven's beak. "Well," she said, "I am your wife now. Let us go to my father's house."

         They started off. She said to him, "Go ahead, and I will follow you." He went ahead. Then she stabbed him with the raven-beak from behind, and killed him. Raven-Man's sister, Raven-Woman (Ve'lvem-ñe'ut or Ve'svem- ñe'ut), was yearning for her brother. She went to see him, and found him lying dead outside. She cut off his beak, and went back crying. Her mother asked, "Why are you crying!" — "Yiñe'a-ñe'ut has killed my brother," said she, and threw to her the beak that she had cut off. It struck her mother's eye, so that the old Raven-Woman  died.

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut came home in the mean time, and told how she had set the sun free, and killed Raven. "Now, we shall always have light," said she. Meanwhile the young Raven-Woman came, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut gave her dried fish to eat.

         Big-Raven said to Little-Bird-Man, "Now you may go to your folk s." Big-Raven gave reindeer and well-loaded sledges to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. Later on River-Man and Can'a'i-ña'ut also drove off. Eme'mqut went with them and married River-Man's sister, River-Woman (Vaya'm-ña'ut).     Eme'mqut returned



with his wife to his father's. She bore him a daughter, who was called Ice-Hole-Woman (Ai'me-ñe'ut). Thus they lived together with Big-Raven. That's all.

Told by Pa'qa, a Maritime Koryak girl, in the village of
Kamenskoye, Jan.  II, 1900.

83.  Cloud-Man and Kìlu'.

          It was in the time when Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) lived. He had a son, Eme'mqut. Eme'mqut had a wife, whose name was Kïlu'. Once upon a time Kïlu' went to pick berries. All of a sudden she saw a man coming down from the clouds. When he reached the ground, she stealthily approached him, and stole his knife. The man's name was Cloud-Man (Ya'hala'n). She carried the knife home and hid it away. She said nothing about it to her husband. Once Eme'mqut said to the women-folk, "Make some nice new clothes. We will go up to the clouds to engage in some games and fights in the settlement beyond the clouds." The women began to sew skins and make them into clothing. Kïlu' and Miti' went outdoors to sew there. Later Eme'mqut said to his wife, "Go and get the grindstone, I want to sharpen my knife." Miti', his mother, remarked, "Why don't you go yourself? I am in a hurry, and we  must go on sewing quickly."     Eme'mqut went himself.

         While looking for the grindstone, he found the knife stolen by his wife, took it outdoors, and said to her, "Where did you get this knife? You surely have another husband." He beat her until he had killed her, and then he threw her body away.    After that, all went into the house.

         Cloud-Man from the clouds saw Kïlu' lying dead, came down, revived her, and took her up with him. There he took her as his wife. Eme'mqut's mother finished sewing the clothes, and Eme'mqut went up to the clouds. He arrived, and entered Cloud-Man's house. Suddenly he saw Kïlu', and said  to Cloud-Man, "How did you get Kïlu'? Have I not killed her?" Cloud-Man answered, "I purposely put it into her mind to steal my knife and to make you  kill her.    Then  I revived her and took her along with  me."

         Kïlu"s father, Great-Cold (Caican'a'qu), her mother, Ha'na, and her brother Illa', went over to  Cloud-Man's house.     Now games were played in the cloud village.    Eme'mqut  and the  dwellers of the village kicked the ball.     Nobody equalled Eme'mqut in kicking  the ball.     Then they wrestled, and he beat them all.     Cloud-Man gave him his sister, Cloud-Woman (Ya'hal-ña'ut), in marriage. 

         In the  mean  time down below,  Big-Raven, outdoors, took some dog-food, and   called   to   Kïlu"s   relatives  in  the  sky as though  they were  dogs.     They fell   down   on   the ground,  and  ate from  a trough,  like  dogs.     Kïlu' also  fell down with them.     And thus they remained, to live with Big-Raven as laborers.



         Once Big-Raven went outside and looked around. Large beads were alling  down with snowflakes. He said to his folks, "It looks as though guests were coming from the clouds to visit us. It used to be the same way before : whenever the cloud-people were about to visit us, beads would begin to fall with the snow."  Soon they saw Eme'mqut and his wife coming down, followed by the cloud-people. His reindeer had iron antlers and iron hoofs, and as they ran it sounded like pealing thunder. The cloud-dwellers followed in the rear, Cloud-Man among them. They came down to the earth. Eme'mqut gave his sister Yiñe'a-ñe'ut in marriage to Cloud-Man. After they had thus become related to Eme'mqut's family, the cloud-dwellers remained with Big- Raven through  the  summer.

         Early in the summer, Big-Raven, with the help of his people, launched his skin boats. After the festival1  was over, they went whale-hunting. They killed  a whale. Eme'mqut, Cloud-Man, and the rest of the people, dragged it ashore. At that time Kïlu' went out of the house and shouted back through the opening,  "They are coming, they must be towing a whale!" Miti' would not believe her, and said, "Kïlu', surely you are lying!" She sent her younger daughter, Can-a'i-ña'ut, to see whether it was true. She went out, looked, and shouted into the house, "It is true: they are towing a whale!" The skin boats with the whale were approaching the shore.

         Then Miti', Ha'na, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut Can'a'i-ña'ut, and Kïlu' put on embroidered dancing-clothes and went out with fire-brands to meet the whale. They sang  and danced on the shore. The people hauled the whale ashore, and began to carve it. They cut it to pieces, and carried meat and blubber into the storehouse. On the following day they built inside their house a hut of sedges for the whale, and made drums, covering them with the pleura of the whale and with the membrane of its liver.     Then they beat the drum and sang.

         The festival  of welcoming the whale  was  over.     They divided the  meat, blubber,   and   skin.     Then   Eme'mqut   said,   "Let us go up to the river:  the women shall pick berries and  roots for the  feast in  celebration  of the whale's home-sending."    They went up the stream in their skin boat, landed at a place abounding in berries; and the women picked berries, dug roots, picked willow- herb   (Epilobium   angustifolium),   and   put   them into seal-skin bags.     At last Eme'mqut   said   to   the   women,    "Hurry   up!   let us go  home."     The  women finished   gathering,   loaded the skin  boat,  and  set  out for home.     Upon  their arrival,   they   emptied   the   skin   boat and put  everything into the storehouse, which   was   filled   to   the   very   top.     Big-Raven said to the men,   "Prepare a trough to  cook puddings in."     So they did.     Then the women hauled in some willow-herb,   roots,   and   berries.     Some   of them  pounded these together with blubber;   others   beat   the drum and sang shaman-songs.   Then they made a pudding ytn it was done, they opened the home-sending festival of the whale

1 See p.  79.



with a dance. After the dance was over, they went to bed. The next morning they arose and resumed dancing. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut put on dancing-clothes with silk embroidery and otter (Lutro vulgaris) trimming, and Eme'mqut put on dancing- clothes trimmed with sea-otter. A whole sea-otter skin was used for the trim-  ming. They danced; and good dancers they were, for they killed whales and celebrated whale festivals quite often.

         And now the festival of the whale's home-sending was over. The whale went away into the sea. Then they ate whale-skin, blubber, meat, and pud- ding,  and they gave of them to everybody. All the people came from the neighboring settlements,  and each one received his share.

         Three days later they invited the guests again. They brought in the whale's bag1   full of pudding, and ate again. When this feast was over, the Reindeer Koryak arrived. They were given whale-skin and blubber. Root- Man (Tatqa'hicñin), who lives on the upper course of the river, also  arrived,and was given a feast.

         Finally Cloud-Man prepared to go back to his home in the clouds. Big- Raven gave him as presents a team of reindeer, blubber, and whale-skin.  All the guests from the clouds left him.     Eme'mqut and his wife remained.

         Thus they lived after that, — some up in the clouds, others down on earth, — and they often called on each other.

Told by Pa'qa,  a Maritime Koryak girl, in the village
of Kamenskoye, Nov. 6, 1900.

84. Envious-One and the Wolves.

         Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) lived with his son Eme'mqut. Once his daughter Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, and his niece Kïlu', went to pick berries. While they were out- side, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, married a stick. Kïlu' came home, and said to Big-Raven, "Your daughter has married a stick." Eme'mqut went instantly to the place where the women had picked berries, broke the stick into small pieces, made a fire, and threw the pieces into the fire.     Then he returned home.

         On  the  following day Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Kïlu' went again to pick berries. Soon   Kïlu'   came   running   home,   saying   to   Big-Raven,   "Your daughter has married a dog."    Eme'mqut heard this, went immediately to the place where Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was, and killed the dog.     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went home and complained. Yesterday," said she,  "Eme'mqut came   out to the wilderness and broke up my husband,  the stick,  and to-day he  has managed  to kill my second husband."

          The third  day  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and  Kïlu' went again to pick berries.     Yiñe'a-

1  At the festival for equipping the whale for the home journey, some meat is put on  the roof in a bag
made of twisted grass  (see Fig. 33).    It is intended to serve as provision during the whale's journey.    It remains
on  the roof for three days, after which it is eaten (see pp. 65-77).




ñe'ut   married   a   tree.     On   the   following   day Eme'mqut went to the woods, cut the tree up into small  pieces,  and went home.

         The fourth day the women went again to pick berries. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut arrived at the woods, and, finding the tree cut to pieces, she cried. She wailed, and said "I wish a man with wolf's mittens, a wolf's cap, and wolf's trousers, would come here, and wipe my tears off with his wolf's mittens !" No sooner had she spoken than she saw before her a man in wolf's mittens, a wolf's cap, and wolf's trousers.  He said, "I will wipe away your tears with my wolf's mittens;" and he wiped off her tears. They went home together, and the man married her.     His name was Envious-One (Nipai'vaticñin).

         A boy was born to them. One day Envious-One said, "Now let us go to my house." They prepared food for the journey, and went. No sooner had they covered half of the distance than a violent snowstorm broke out. They lost their way, and strayed into a Wolves' settlement. The Wolves came out of their houses to meet them, and, looking at their sledge, saw wolves' skins on it. They looked at the man, and saw that he, too, was dressed in wolves' skins. Then the Wolves said, "This must be the one who killed our brothers who were lost." Envious-One answered, "I killed them. I am the hunter of Wolves." — "And how did you kill them?" — "Some I ran down on my snowshoes, and crushed them with those shoes, and others I strangled with my hands." The Wolves said, "How, then, shall we kill you? What death do you want to die?"

         They carried them to their house.    The Wolves put the husband on one side of the house,  and the  wife and  child on the other.     The Wolves said to one   another,   "To-night,   when   they   are   asleep,   we   will  kill  them  all."     As soon   as   Envious-One   and   his   wife and  child  lay down,  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut pinched her little son to keep him from falling asleep.     He began to cry.     The oldest among the Wolves said,  "Why does the youngster keep on crying?     He keeps us   awake."     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   answered,   "His  uncle at home has spoiled  him:  he used to take the reindeer-sledge into  the house,  and the boy always slept on it."    The oldest  Wolf said,   "Bring the sledge into the house:  let the mother and child sleep  on it.     They cannot escape  from the house :  there are watch- men outside."    The sledge was brought in, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and her son were placed  on it.     Again she pinched her boy so that he cried.     The eldest Wolf said   again,   "What   a   restless   boy!   he   does   not let us sleep."    She replied again,  "His uncle has spoiled him.     He used to hitch reindeer to the sledge, and   would   put the three  of us  to  sleep  in  it."     The  eldest  Wolf said  again, "Bring two  reindeer:  they  cannot leave the  house."     They brought  the deer, and put the  three on  the  sledge.     Then they put their son to sleep by means of  songs,   which   also   made   the   Wolves   sleepy.      They  fell asleep,  and the watchmen  also fell asleep.     Then  Envious-One and  his wife ran away.     They drove out of the house,  and the deer trampled the watchmen under their feet.



         The next day, when the Wolves got up and saw that Envious-One, with wife and child, had run away, they pursued them. A whole pack of Wolves ran in pursuit of them. Soon they began to catch up with the fugitives.  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said to her husband, "There is a whole pack of Wolves behind us!" He answered, "What can we do? If they reach us, they will devour us." Yiñe'a-ñe'ut took out from her bosom a little stone and threw it behind her.  Sharp rocks stood out on the road. They cut the Wolves' feet. Many of the Wolves died. Only a small number of them succeeded in crossing the ridge. Now Yiñe'a-ñe'ut took out a chip from a larch-tree and threw it behind her. It turned into a dense forest. Then the Wolves said, "Let us go back, else we shall all perish."

         They returned home. The eldest Wolf asked, "Did you kill them?" And they replied, "We were catching up with them, but suddenly sharp rocks stood out between us and Envious-One. Many of us perished on that rocky ridge. Then a dense forest grew up. We could not pass through it. Many of us were injured by the sharp branches,  and we came back."

         Envious-One and his wife went back to Big-Raven, who asked them, "Why did you come back?" They answered, "We strayed to the Wolves during the snowstorm, but we ran away from them at night." Envious-One settled down there.

         Once Big-Raven said to him, "Go home!" But Envious-One answered, "We may again lose our way and stray to the Wolves." Envious-One went out hunting, and killed some wolves. Finally he returned home. Eme'mqut went with him, and married there the sister of Envious-One.

           Big-Raven built a fence around his house to keep out the Wolves; but when the Wolves came to fight, he escaped to the clouds. Envious-One and Eme'mqut also went up to the clouds. All their houses remained empty. They started to live in the clouds with Cloud-Man (Ya'hala'n). Eme'mqut's younger brother, Mocker (Kotha'ño), served for Cloud-Man's sister, Cloud- woman (Ya'hal-ña'ut), and he married her. Big-Raven said, "The Wolves have left. Let us all go down again to my home." All went down. The Reindeer Koryak also moved over to Big-Raven's. They settled down and killed whales. After a while the Cloud people went back home. Cloud-Man took along with him Can-a'i-ña'ut, Eme'mqut's younger sister.

         After their departure the W'olves came back again and killed Big-Raven, Eme'mqut, Envious-One, their wives and children, and the Reindeer Koryak. Once Can-a'i-ña'ut practised her s'hamanistic art in the clouds. She said, "I see those below all lying dead." Cloud-Man said, "Let us go down and see." They let themselves down, and found all of them killed. Ravens had pecked out Envious-One's eyes. He lay with his face up. The eyes of others who happened to lie with their faces to the ground remained. The Cloud people revived the dead.    Envious-One said,  "What has happened to me?    I do not




see the light." Then they took out the eyes of a dog and put them into his empty sockets. He was unable to see; but as soon as a dog barked, he would run out of the house. They took out the dog's eyes, and put in a reindeer's eyes. Then, when the people drove the reindeer and they became frightened, he would take fright too. They took out the deer's eyes, and Can'a'i-ña'ut put in real eyes. As soon as the Reindeer Koryak came to life, they moved away to their homes.

         Can'a'i-ña'ut gave birth to many  children, and named them after all her  elatives, — Big-Raven, Eme'mqut, Miti', and others; so that there were two Big-Ravens, two Eme'mquts, two Mitis. Once some Ducks arrived and sat on the storehouse. Old Eme'mqut aimed at them; and one of the Ducks said, "You want to kill me, and I came to tell you that the Wolves want to come and kill you." He spared the Duck, which flew away; and Big-Raven, with all the rest, again made their escape to the clouds. When the Wolves arrived, they found only empty houses, and went away. Again Big-Raven, with all his men, came down. The Wolves ceased to attack them. They said, "It is just the same. If we kill them again, they will only revive afterward and grow more numerous."    After that Big-Raven lived undisturbed.    That's all.

Told by Elwa'aña (Wild-Reindeer-Woman) a Maritime Koryak
woman, in the village of Kamenskoye, November, 1900.

85.  Eme'mqut  and Triton-Man.

         Big-Raven  (Quikinn'a'qu)  lived alone with his wife and children.     His son Eme'mqut was a very strong  man,  an  athlete.     The  Triton-Man (Wämina'm-tila'n),   who   lived   in the wilderness,  said,   "I  will injure Eme'mqut by means of  sorcery,   and deprive him  of his strength.     He shall  give birth  to a son." And   Eme'mqut   gave   birth   to   a   son.      Eme'mqut's  sister Yiñe'a-ñe'ut lived alone in the wilderness.     Spider told her the news of Eme'mqut having given birth   to   a   son.     She asked him,   "What shall we do now?"     Spider replied, " Triton-Man   has   a   sister   who   also   lives   in   the   wilderness.      Her   name is Triton-Woman   (Wa'mine-ñe'ut).      Go and kill  her."     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went.     She killed  Triton-Woman.     Then   everything was as if nothing had happened to Eme'mqut.     His son  ceased  to  exist,   and his  power returned.     After that, all the Tritons migrated from their settlement to the mossy tundra, and Eme'mqut lived as before,  enjoying great strength.     That's  all.

Told by Elwa'aña,  a  Maritime  Koryak woman, in the
village of Kamenskoye, November,  1900.

86.   Magpie-Man's  Marriage with  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.

Magpie-Man (Vaki'thimtila'n) went to  serve Big-Raven (Ouikinn'a'qu) for his   daughter   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.      He   married   her.     Magpie-Man   said  to  his wife,



         "Let us go home." They walked away and came to the woods. Magpie-Man had no tent. Only a few reindeer which Big-Raven had given him were grazing  near by.  So they lived in the woods until they had eaten up all the reindeer.    Then they were starving.

         Finally Magpie-Man sent his wife to Big-Raven to ask for food. She went and came to her father, who asked her, "What did you come for?" — "My husband sent me to ask for food. We are starving." — "You had many reindeer: how quickly you ate them up!" said Big-Raven. "We ate nothing but reindeer: my husband does not procure anything else." Her father gave her nothing, saying, "You ate your share of reindeer. I have nothing else to give you."

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went home. Magpie-Man asked her, "What did you bring?" She replied, "I brought nothing. Father said, 'You ate up your share. I have nothing else to give you.'"

         They went to bed. In the morning they got up very hungry. Magpie-Man said to his wife, "Go and look for food." She went. In the wilderness she saw a man walking about, — a well-dressed man, who looked like a trader. She went up to him. "Who are you?" he asked. " I am Yiñe'a-ñe'ut," she answered. "We have nothing to eat. Magpie-Man sent me to look for food." The man said, "Come to my house." She went to his house, and he gave her a team of reindeer, sledges, and skins and poles for a tent, which she took home. That man was Magpie-Man himself. He flew off ahead of her, and turned into a man to  meet her.

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut arrived home, and called out to her husband, "Magpie-Man, see what I have brought!" He was glad to see his wife, and hopped about. They lived there for a short time, and then moved to Big-Raven's. They put up their tent near his house, and they lived together, killing whales.    That's all.

Told by  Elwa'aña,  a Maritime  Koryak  woman, in the
village of Kamenskoye, November, 1900.

87. Eme'mqut's Marriage with the Daughter of Mountain-Sheep-Man.

         Eme'mqut   went to  Mountain-Sheep-Man  (Kite'pimtila'n) to serve for his daughter.     Mountain-Sheep-Man's   tent   was   pitched   on   a   rock.     Eme'mqut married   Mountain-Sheep-Man's daughter.     Her name was  Immovable-Woman (Navi'li-ñe'ut).    Eme'mqut kept asking his wife and father-in-law to go to his father's  house.    They did not want to go, and therefore he went away alone. When he returned to his wife, he took his cousin Illa' along, carrying him on his back.     Illa' was a feeble-minded, ugly, and ill-dressed man.     Eme'mqut took  him  into the tent,  and put him down near his wife's sleeping-room.     He himself hid in  the tent.     Ilk' went  to  sleep  as  soon  as he lay  down.



         Eme'mqut's wife awoke, and saw a man in poor clothes lying near by. She thought that it was Eme'mqut who had returned in that condition, and called to him, "Eme'mqut, arise!" Illa', who was half awake, said, "I am not Eme'mqut, I am Illa'." She retorted, "You lie! you are Eme'mqut. You say so, because you are not quite awake." Illa' then struck his head against the post of the sleeping-tent, saying, "It may be I hear it in my sleep: let me awake."

         Eme'mqut's wife ceased talking and went to bed again, thinking, "What may have happened to Eme'mqut ?" Eme'mqut, however, took Illa' back home. Then he returned and lay down in the same place where Illa' had lain. In the morning Eme'mqut's wife asked him, "Were you here in the night, or was it somebody else?" Eme'mqut answered, "At times my mind gives way here, and therefore I asked you to go with me to my father." After that, they all moved over to Big-Raven's. They lived together, and never went back to Mountain-Sheep-Man's home.    That's all.

Told by Elwa'aña, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Kamenskoye, November, 1900.

88. Big-Raven and the Mice.

         Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) lived in the same village with Mouse-Man (Pipi- qilgi'mtila'n). Mouse-Man said, "I shall go along the seashore to hunt for something." He found a small shell-fish. When he saw it, he cried out, "Aha! What have I found? The shell looks like a human finger-nail." He took the shell-fishhome.     His wife cooked it,  and the whole family ate  of it.

         The next day Mouse-Man sent all his children off to the shore to look for shell-fish. Little-Mouse (Oai-pipi'qilñin) went with them. Suddenly Little- Mouse squealed, "Ma, ko, o, o !" The eldest Mouse child said to its brothers and sisters, "Go and see what our little sister has found." They looked, and saw a large black shell-fish. They carried it home, cooked it, and the whole family ate of it.

         On the third day the Mouse children went to the seashore again to search for food. Little-Mouse saw a small ringed seal left on the shore by the tide, stepped over it, and began to shout, "I have found something round with claws!" When they heard her shout, the other Mouse children came running to her,  saw the  seal,  and rejoiced  over it.

         Big-Raven heard the noise from a distance, and said, "I shall go and see why the Mouse children are shouting." When they saw Big-Raven approaching,they threw themselves upon the seal and covered it entirely, for they were afraid that Big-Raven would take it away from  them when he saw it.

         Big-Raven   came up to the Mouse children and said,   "Louse  my head;"



but none of them would consent to do so. Finally Little-Mouse said, "I will do it" When she began to louse Big-Raven's head, the rest of the Mouse children also left the seal, and joined her. As soon as they were all crawling about in his hair, Big-Raven shook his head, and all the Mouse children were scattered   in   different   directions.     Then Big-Raven  took the seal and carried it home.

         The Mouse children soon crawled out of the places where Big-Raven had thrown them. Some emerged from the sea, some from the river, some came running up from the tundra. They asked one another, "Where did you fall?" One said, " I fell into the sea;" another, " I fell into a stream ;" a third, " I struck upon a  mountain;"  a fourth,   "I  fell into  a swamp;"  etc.

         They went home. When they arrived, their mother asked them, "Well, have you found anything?" — "We found something round and large, but Big-Raven took it away from us." Their mother became angry, and said to her daughters, "Let us go there in the evening and take it back from Big- Raven." She sent one of her daughters to see what was going on in Big- Raven's house. Soon she returned to her mother, and said, "The seal has just been cut open." The mother sent her second daughter to see what was going on there; and soon she came running back, and said, "They have cut up the seal and put it away." She sent her third daughter; and she returned with the news that they were getting ready to cook the seal, and had just gone for water. At last the old Mouse sent her fourth daughter, who came back saying that Miti' was now taking the meat out of the pot.

          Then the old Mouse said to one of her daughters, " Give me some grass, I will work a spell over it." Then she gave the bewitched grass to one of her daughters, and said, "Go up on the roof of Big-Raven's house, and throw it inside." The Mouse obeyed; and while on Big-Raven's house, she heard Big-Raven say, "Miti', serve the seal: we will eat." Thereupon the Mouse threw her bunch of grass into the entrance-hole of the house.

         When Miti' served the meal, Big-Raven said, "Let me have some grass before I eat: I want to wipe my hands." Miti' picked up the bunch thrown in by the Mouse, and gave it to Big-Raven. As soon as he took the grass, he said, " We will rather eat the seal-meat to-morrow morning; and now let us go to bed."     Big-Raven's people then went to bed.

         Mouse-Woman (Pipi'qca-ña'ut) sent another of her daughters to find out whether the people in Big-Raven's «house were asleep. The little messenger came back, saying that all were in bed. Then Mouse-Woman said to her daughters, "Now, let us go and take back from Big-Raven what he  stole from us."  They started: and some took along wooden buckets; others, seal-skin bags;  still others, woven baskets. They descended into Big-Raven's house, where  all the people were asleep, and filled up their buckets, bags, and bas- kets with cooked seal-meat.    The Mouse people took everything.    They only



left the soup of the seal-meat, but threw some sharp stones into the pot. They also put some stones into Miti"s and Big-Raven's boots. Then they returned home.

         The next morning Miti' arose, and, as soon as she put her feet into her boots, she screamed, "O, ko, ko, ko!" Big-Raven scolded his wife, saying, "What are you screaming about?" She answered, "Somebody has put sharp stones into my boots." Big-Raven remained silent, and pulled on his shoes. Then he also screamed, "O, ko, ko, ko !" Then Miti' said, "Now you see why I screamed: it hurt me too." — "Well, let us stop talking," said Big- Raven. "Serve the seal." She went for the meat, but did not find any. So they ate the soup, but they found it mixed with stones.

         Big-Raven   said,   "I   know who has stolen our meat and put stones into our  boots   and   soup.     Mouse-Woman   has done it.    Give me a club with a large top.    I will go and kill them all."     Miti' gave him a club.     He went off. The   Mouse   people   saw   Big-Raven   approaching  their   house, and said, " Father   [thus   they generally call the old people]  is coming here:  maybe he wants  to   kill  us   with   his   club."     Mouse-Woman   said to her children,  "Go meet him,  and tell him  that we will give him various puddings."

       The Mouse children   went  to   meet   Big-Raven,   and said to him,   "Father, come,  we will treat you to puddings." —  "I do not want your treat," said Big-Raven.    One Mouse   said,   "Father,  we will treat you to a cloud-berry pudding." —  "Ah! if you   are   going   to   give me cloud-berry pudding," answered Big-Raven,   "I shall   throw   away   the   club.     I  am   very   fond   of cloud-berries."    Big-Raven threw   away   the   club,   went   with   the   Mouse   children,   and   descended   into their house.     There the  Mouse people treated him to different kinds of berry- pudding.     After   he   had   gorged   himself  with   food,  the  Mouse people said, "Father, stay over night with us.     We will treat you  again  in the morning." He remained over night.     When he had fallen asleep, the Mouse people sewed a seal-bladder to his buttocks.

         Big-Raven awoke in the morning, and said, "I will go home now." —  Father," said the Mouse people, "we will first give you something to eat, and then you may go home." — "Yes, yes!" answered Big-Raven, "I will eat pudding and gruel." Again the Mouse people fed him. After he had finished, Mouse-Woman said, "You have eaten, now you may go to stool on your way home." — "Certainly," answered Big-Raven, "I shall go to stool on the way." Big-Raven went out of the Mouse house, and started for his home. After he had gone halfway, he said, "Now I will go to stool." He had a movement, and the excrement fell into the seal-bladder. Big-Raven got up, looked on the ground, and said, "How strange! where is the excrement?" He looked around, and went on.

         He   reached home late, when  his people  were ready to go to  bed.     He lay  down with his wife.     Miti'  asked him,   "What is it that is hanging down



behind you?     Is  it  not  a  seal-bladder?"     Big-Raven  felt of his back, and said, "Now I understand why  I did not find anything on the ground.     It is Mouse- Woman who has been making fun of me.     To-morrow I will go and kill them." The   next   morning   Big-Raven   again   took   a   club   and   started   for   the dwelling of the Mouse people.     Again the Mouse family saw him approaching, and  shouted,   "Father is coming!" and ran  out to  meet him.     "Father,"  they said,   "we   will   treat   you   to   all   kinds   of   puddings."     "I   do not care for anything,"   answered   Big-Raven.      "I   shall kill you all."    "Father, we   will treat   you   to   sweet-root   pudding,   said   the   Mouse   people.      Big-Raven   was tempted   by   sweet-root   pudding,   and   said,    "That   I  like very much.     I will throw   away   my   club."      Big-Raven   descended   into   the house of the Mouse people, and they immediately treated him to puddings.     When he had eaten his   fill,   the  Mouse people said,   "Father,  stay with us  over night."     "No," said   Big-Raven,   "I   shall   not   sleep here any more.     I am going home." — "No," objected the Mouse people,   "stay with us.    You are an old man, and have   come   from   afar.     Take  a  rest  now,  eat some pudding, and stay over night."     Big-Raven   remained   over   night.     When   he   had   fallen asleep, the Mouse people stuck to his eyelashes some hair dyed red.

         Big-Raven got up in the morning, ate some gruel and pudding, and went ome. As he approached his house, he saw that it was all red, as if  in flames. He ran to it, and shouted, "Miti, get out! Our house is on fire! Put out the fire!" The frightened Miti' ran out upon the roof of the house, and cried, "What shall I put it out with?" — "Take one of our boys," answered Big- Raven, "one that is rather poorly. Tear him in halves, and extinguish the fire with him." Miti', in her fright, got hold of one of her sons, and tore him in twain. Finally she said, " Where is the fire ? What shall I put out ? There is nothing burning." She looked at Big-Raven, saw the red seal-hair over his eyes, and exclaimed, "Again Mouse-Woman has played a trick on you!" Big-Raven then said,   "Now I  shall surely kill them!"

         Again   he   took   his   club   and  started   out.      When   he   came up to the house   of  the   Mouse   people,   the   children   cried  to  their mother,   "Father is coming   over   again!      What   shall   we tell   him ?     It   seems   he wants to kill us." —  "Tell   him   that   you   will   treat   him   to   all  sorts of puddings."    The Mouse   children   went   to   meet   him,   and   said,   "Father,  come to our house. We   will   treat  you to different kinds of pudding."     But Big-Raven answered, "I   do   not  want anything  from  you.     I  shall  kill  you all."     "Father,"  said the Mouse children,   "there is the blackberry [Rubus arcticus].     We will treat you to blackberry-pudding."    "It is true that I like blackberries," said Big- aven.      «I   am   going to your  house to  eat some pudding."     He ate of the pudding,   and   staid   over   night.      While   Big-Raven   was   asleep,   the   Mouse children  painted his face  with  charcoal.     They  woke  him  up  in  the morning. He   arose,   ate   some   pudding,   and   went   home.      "Father,"   said the  Mouse 



people, "you will come to a stream on your way. You will surely be thirsty. Drink some water out of it." — "Very well," answered Big-Raven, "I shall drink." When he had reached the stream, and had stooped down to take a drink, he noticed a painted face in the water, and cried, "Ah, Many-colored-Woman [Kali'la-ña'ut]! you are here ? Here, I am letting down a stone hammer for you." He dropped the stone hammer, bent over to drink, and fell into the water. The current carried him way down to the mouth of the stream. There he drifted ashore,  clambered out of the water, and turned into a raven.

         There was a settlement not far from that place. Soon a number of little girls came from the settlement to the seashore in search of kelp. They noticed Big-Raven, who sat all wet on the bank, and laughed at him. Only one little girl did not join in the laughter. She was an orphan, and lived alone with her grandmother. She ran home, and said, "There is somebody at the sea- shore who looks neither like a man nor like a raven, and the children are laughing at him." Her grandmother replied, "It must be a man. Do not laugh at him."

         On the following day the little girl went again for kelp. She took the raven home, and fed him there. After eating, the Raven said, "I am a man, I am Big-Raven. Mouse-Woman caused me to fall into the water. I drifted ashore here, and was very hungry. I had not strength enough to go home, therefore I turned into a raven." The girl continued to feed him. When he had grown fat, he said to the old woman, " I shall go home now. My wife has been looking for me for a long time."

         Big-Raven went outside, and flew away home. When he had reached his house, he turned into a man again, and shouted, "Miti', come out! I have arrived." Miti' went out, and said, "Where have you been so long?" — "Well," answered Big-Raven, "Mouse-Woman played a trick on me again, and caused me to fall into the stream. The current carried me off to sea. I came ashore quite faint with hunger, and turned into a raven. All the children laughed at me there. Only one little orphan girl did not laugh, but took me to her house, and fed me until I recovered." Thereupon he said to Eme'mqut,   "Go and woo the little orphan girl." 

         Eme'mqut went and served her grandmother for the sake of the orphan girl. Later on he married her. All the girls in the settlement envied her. Eme'mqut's wife brought forth many children. Subsequently Eme'mqut, with his wife, visited his father, and they lived either at his father's or at his wife's grandmother's house.     That's all.

Told by Pa'qa, a Maritime Koryak girl, in the village of
Kamenskoye, Dec. 25, 190



89.  Eme'mqut's Whale Festival.

         It was at the time when Eme'mqut lived.     He always went whale-hunting in   his   skin   boat.      Once   he   killed   a   whale.     The   whale was taken to the village, and Eme'mqut ordered his men to call all the neighbors to the festival. The "Foxes, the  Ravens,  and the  Magpies also came to celebrate the festival. Eme'mqut   said   to   Magpie-Woman  (Vaki'thi-ña''ut),   "Dance."     She answered, "I   cannot   dance,   and   do   not   know   what to sing while dancing."     But she danced   just   the   same,   and   sang,    "Mother   said,   'Peck   a   hole   with   your eak  in the bottom of the food-bags,  and you will  eat all their contents.     If you begin to eat at the opening of the bag,  you will have to leave some of the   food.'" —  "Ah!"   said Yiñe'a-ñe'ut,   "this is the reason that we find our bags empty, and with holes in their bottoms, when we come to get them after we   have   left them outside.     It is you who are doing this."    Magpie-Woman felt ashamed, took wing,  and flew away.

         After that, Eme'mqut said to Magpie-Man (Vaki'thimtila'n), "Now it is your turn to dance." Magpie-Man answered, "How shall I dance, and how shall I sing ?   Wa, ki, ki, ki, ki!"   Then he sang, " I went under the store- houses with my three-toed feet, and stole provisions."

         After Magpie-Man had finished, Fox-Woman (Yayo'ca-ña'ut), intoxicated  rom eating fly-agaric, began to sing, "I forgot my knife at home. My son Mocker [Kotha'ño]  put it away at home,  and therefore I forgot it."

         Then Raven-Woman (Ve'sve-ñe'ut) sang, " Ko, ko, ko, ko! my cousins were standing on the prows of the skin boats, and we were glad when they caught something, for they threw some pieces from their hunt to us also." Eme'mqut said, "I must go out to defecate." He went outdoors, looked under the little storehouse, and saw the Magpies sitting there. One of them said to another one, "Sing like Eme'mqut." Then the Magpie sang, "Reindeer- excrement, dog-excrement!" Eme'mqut cried, "Why do you lie? When do we eat dog-excrement? We do not even eat reindeer-excrement when we kill a reindeer." The Magpies were abashed at Eme'mqut's words, and flew away, while Eme'mqut went back into the house.

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said,   "Somebody shall help me skin a dog." — "I will help you,   said Raven-Woman.     Both women went outdoors and skinned the dog. Yine'a-ñe'ut had turned away for a minute, and Raven-Woman quickly pecked out   one   eye  of the dog, and ate it.     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut looked,  and said,   "Where is   the   dog's   eye?     Did   you   eat   it?" —  "Where   was   the  eye?" asked the Raven-Woman, pointing first to the dog's leg, then to its belly, "was it here?" She   did   not  want  it   to   be   known   that   she   had  eaten of the dog.     They stripped   off  the  skìn,  and went into  the  house.     The festival  of sending the whale home was over.     The Reindeer Koryak made ready to leave, and were




given   whale   blubber,   skin,   and  meat.     The guests loaded their sledges and drove away.

        Eme'mqut remained,  and continued  to  kill whales.     That's all.

Told by A'qan, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Kamenskoye, December, 1900.

90.  Hare and Fox.

         Once upon a time there was a Hare (Mi'lut) and a Fox (Yã'yol). One day Fox said to Hare, "Let us go down to the sea and play floating on the ice." Hare agreed, and they went down to the sea, jumped upon a cake of ice, and started off. Hare said, "Well, nobody will catch up with me now, nobody will eat me now."  Fox also said, "And nobody will catch up with me now, either.    No one will eat me."

         They floated for a time, until they wished to return to the shore. The ice drifted near the land, and they jumped ashore. Hare made a good jump; but Fox fell into the water, and came ashore quite wet. She took off her skin, took out her eyes, pulled out her intestines, and hung them up in the sun to dry.

         Suddenly she saw Big-Raven (Ouikinn'a'qu) walking along, and took flight. She   had   time  to carry away only  her skin  and intestines,  while  she left her eyes   behind.     She could not see anything.     On  her way she felt blea-berries under   her   feet.     Then   she took two berries and  put them  into  her head in place of eyes.     She resumed running, and the berries fell out of her eye-sockets, as they were too small.    Than she ran on gravel,  and she felt white pebbles under   her   feet.     She   picked   up   two pebbles and  put them in  place of her eyes;  but they, too, fell out again.     Then she took some ice and made a pair of ice   eyes.    Thus she ran home and said,   "Big-Raven  probably thinks that he has killed Fox, and here I am alive.     Some trick ought to be tried on him." 

         On the following day Big-Raven  went to his summer place to get some dried   fish.     He  put some fish on his sledge and drove  back.     Fox watched him,   ran   after   the   sledge,   and   threw the  fish upon  the ground.     Then  she gathered   them   up   and took them home.     Big-Raven  reached  home with an empty   sledge.     He   looked   at   it,  and said,   "It is Fox who has done it.     I shall put an end to  her life  now."     Big-Raven went to the summer place and left some poison there.     On  the following day he went there and found  Fox lying dead.     He took her home,  and said to  Miti',   "Now  I  have killed her." That's all.

Told by A'qan, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Kamenskoye, December, 1900.



91.  Grass-Woman.

         Root-Man (Tatqa'hicñin) had a daughter, Grass-Woman (Ve'ai). She  had many suitors, but refused to marry any of them. Finally Big-Kamak (Kamakn'a'qu) came, and said to Root-Man, "I will marry your daughter." He took his chamber-vessel into Root-Man's hut, and said, "I am going to urinate. Let Grass-Woman carry the chamber-vessel out." The girl took the vessel to carry it outside. Then Big-Kamak put her and the vessel on a shovel and carried them into Big-Raven's (Ouikinn'a'qu) house. There Big- Kamak urinated again, but Big-Raven took him, together with his chamber- vessel,  put them on the  shovel,  and threw them  out.

         Grass-Woman remained in the house, and Eme'mqut married her. Soon she was delivered of a son. After a while Eme'mqut went with his wife on a visit to Root-Man, who, however, did not recognize his daughter. He said, "This is not Grass-Woman.    It was Big-Kamak who married my daughter."

         After spending some time with his father-in-law, Eme'mqut prepared to return home with his wife. Grass-Woman's brother, Tree-Trunk-Man (Otki'ñin), went with them. Tree-Trunk-Man married Can-a'i-ña'ut, the daughter of Big- Raven, at her father's house. They got along very well; and Eme'mqut and Tree-Trunk-Man, with their wives, often went to visit both Root-Man and Big- Raven.    That's all.

Told by Pa'qa, a Maritime Koryak girl of the village of
Kamenskoye, Dec. 26, 1900.

92.  Raven-Man.

         Once   upon   a   time  there lived Raven-Man (Valva'mtila'n) and his wife. They   had   nothing   to eat.    One day Raven-Man said to his wife,   "Go look for some food."    She answered,   "Go yourself! you are a man."    Still he did not   go,   so   she herself went to look for food.     After she had gone,  Raven- Man, while rocking the baby, sang, "Your mother has gone, and I am rocking you,   Qave'u-ve,   qave'u-ve."     In the  mean  time  Raven-Man's wife was flying over the Koryak houses,  and soon came to  the house of Big-Raven (Ouikin- n'a'qu).    Just before she arrived, he had slaughtered a reindeer for food, and sacrificed   a   dog to The-One-on-High (Gi'chola'n).     As soon as  Raven-Man's wife discovered the carcass, she took it home.     Raven-Man saw his wife coming carrying   the   load,   and   said  to his child,   "Ma-ma-ta,  ma-ma-ta, your mother has brought a reindeer."    Raven-Man's wife carried the dog's carcass into the house,  and scolded her husband,  saying,   "You are a man, and still you never go out hunting:   you always stay at home."    Raven-Man did not listen to her. He laid the child on the dog's carcass,  and said,   "Your mother has brought




you to marry, then I should have a friend. I am going to take you to my younger sister, Cana'i-ña'ut, and you must woo her." — "All right," answered Twilight-Man.

         They went on reindeer-sledges to visit Big-Raven, who asked his daughter, Who is this Reindeer man that you brought with you?" — "It is Twilight- Man," answered Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. "I want him to marry my younger sister. When my husband goes out, I always remain all alone in the camp; and now we shall be two friends, two sisters." — "All right," said Big-Raven, "take your sister." To his son Eme'mqut he said, "Divide the herd, and give the greater half of the reindeer to your sister, because Twilight-Man is a good herdsman." Eme'mqut picked out the reindeer, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went away with Twilight- Man and  Can-a'i-ña'ut,  and they took the herd  of reindeer with them.

         When they arrived at their camp, they were met by Twilight-Man's mother, who was glad to see her only son married. They got along very well. Twilight-Man's mother cared for her daughter-in-law, petted her, and fed her with reindeer-tongues.

         Eme'mqut once went to the games at Lower Village1 (Taivivo'laken), — running, wrestling, ball-playing, — and on his way there he stopped at the camp of his brothers-in-law to invite them to go with him to the games in Lower Village. Frost-Man said that he would go ; but Twilight-Man refused, saying, "I cannot leave the herd." Then Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said to her brother, "Now you will understand why I asked father to give him more reindeer. He is a good herdsman, and will not leave the herd. Eme'mqut and Frost-Man went without him, and Twilight-Man moved with his reindeer from Frost- Man's camp.

         Eme'mqut and Frost-Man arrived at Lower Village, and the games com-menced. There was a runner in Lower Village, Fog-Man (Yiña'mtila'n) by name, who could outrun everybody. Eme'mqut was unable to beat him. Then he said to Frost-Man, " Let us go home and bring Twilight-Man here: let him try to outrun Fog-Man." They started for their camp. Eme'mqut stopped at his father's house, but did not stay there over night: he went right ahead to Frost-Man's camp. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut asked him, "Well, who won the races?" Eme'mqut replied, "Fog-Man outran us all." Then Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said, "Bring me a good reindeer. I am going to find Twilight-Man, and will ask him to go with you to Lower Village.     He will outrun  Fog-Man."

         They gave her a reindeer, and she went to her sister, whom she asked, "Where is your husband?" — "He is watching the herd," replied her sister. Twilight-Man soon came home. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said to him, "Go with Eme'mqut and Frost-Man to the races at Lower Village. They could not outrun Fog- Man, so you must do it." He answered, "How can I go? Who will take charge  of  the reindeer?"  -    Never  mind  them," said Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.     "Perhaps

1 This is Ihe village of the lower world (see p.  121).



you think your clothing is not good enough, and they will laugh at you there. I will give you some new clothing." — "Well, I will go," said Twilight- Man. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut returned home.

         Next morning Eme'mqut and Frost-Man started again for Lower Village, and on the way there stopped at the tent of Twilight-Man to give him new clothing.     Then they continued their journey with  him.

         When they arrived at Lower Village, they did not enter the house, but immediately began to play ball, and Twilight-Man won. During the game he grew tired. He stopped playing, and told Eme'mqut that he was very thirsty. Eme'mqut said, "There are some girls carrying home water: go and get a drink from them." Twilight-Man ran toward the girls, and called out to the last one, "Stop, girl! I want a drink." She paid no attention to his words, and went on her way home. Twilight-Man followed her, and called after her into the house, "Bring me some water." The girl refused to do so. "Come into the house and get some water yourself," she said. He went down. Then the girl's brother, Strong-One (A'n'qiw), took hold of him, saying, "Why did you run after my sister? Do you want to marry her? Now you ust marry her." The girl, whose name was Driftwood-Woman (Yo'm-ña 1), also took hold of him, and said, "Now you must take me for your wife." They did not allow him to leave the house.

         Eme'mqut, after waiting some time for his friend, sent a man to look for him. The man came to Strong-One's house, and called out, "Come, Twilight -Man! your reindeer are hungry." He answered, "You will have to go alone: they will not allow me to leave this place." The messenger returned to Eme'mqut, and said, "Twilight-Man says that they do not allow him to leave the house." Then Eme'mqut went there himself. He arrived at the house, and called out, "Twilight-Man, where are you? We are going home." Twilight-Man answered, "They are holding me here, I cannot get away; and you will have to go alone."

         Eme'mqut went to the reindeer.     He unharnessed Twilight-Man's reindeer, and, turning them into the pasture,  he and Frost-Man  went away.

         When   they  approached Frost-Man's camp,  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut came out of the ent to see who was coming.     She saw that  only two people were returning, and   that   the   third one was not with them.     She thought,   "Probably one ot them   was   hurt   at   the   games,   and   will   remain   until he gets well."     When Eme'mqut and Frost-Man came into the tent,  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut asked them,  "And where   is   Twilight-Man?"      Eme'mqut   answered,    "He   got   married   in  Lower Village."     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut then pondered for a while, and said,  "Can-a'i-ña'ut has no   children,   and   probably   for   this   reason   he   has   married another woman. I   am   going   to   my   sister,   and   will   tell   her   that   her husband has  married another woman."

1 The literal meaning of this word is "thrown out  by the water."



         Eme'mqut, on his way home, stopped at Caira'i-ña'ut's tent. She came out to meet him, and asked him where her husband was. "Your husband has married another woman," answered Eme'mqut. But Can-a'i-ña'ut replied, "It is not true, you are deceiving me." — "Yes, it is true," said Eme'mqut: "your husband married Strong-One's sister, Driftwood-Woman." Then Carra'i- ña'ut believed him, and said, "Well, since he is married, it cannot be helped. Let him bring his second wife home : she shall be my friend." Then Eme'mqut returned home.

         Twilight-Man did not come back for a long time. Meanwhile Can-a'i-ña'ut came to be pregnant, and the time of her confinement was approaching. One day she went to draw water at an ice-hole, and right there she was delivered of a daughter. She thought, "Some people might say, 'Can-a'i-ña'ut bore a child without having a husband.' I had better hide it." She hid the girl in one of the beads which she wore around her neck. She took some water home. Her mother-in-law looked at her, and asked, "What has changed your looks so?" She answered, "I was carrying water, and all of a sudden I felt a sharp pain in my stomach."

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was all the time planning to visit Can-a'i-ña'ut. Once she said to her family, "I am going to see my sister." Her father-in-law, Frost- Man's father, remarked, "Well, she is going to her sister's, and will tell her all sorts of stories: maybe something bad will result from it." But Yiñe'a-ñe'ut paid no attention to her father-in-law's words,  and went to visit her sister.

         Can-a'i-ña'ut came out to meet her sister, who said, "I think you are not cheerful because your husband has married another woman." — "No, never mind, let him marry," answered Can-a'i-ña'ut. Both sisters went into the tent. Twilight-Man's mother hung a kettle of meat over the hearth to prepare a meal for the guest; but Yiñe'a-ñe'ut laughed at the old woman, and said, "Now you are eating of our reindeer: probably, since your son married another woman, he will soon bring home a larger herd." To her sister she said, "Put up your sleeping-tent,1 and we will talk over matters in there." Can-a'i-ña'ut put up her sleeping-tent. The sisters entered and began to talk. Finally Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said to her sister, "If I were you, I should go back to my brothers. I have no children, either: I also am going to leave my husband." After that, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut returned.

         When Can-a'i-ña'ut came out of the sleeping-tent, the old woman looked  t her, and saw a change in the expression of her face. Can-a'i-ña'ut took  ut some meat from the kettle. Heretofore she had taken care of the old woman and had given her the best pieces, but now she gave her the poorest piece. Then she went outside, brought in a seal-skin bag, put some meat and fat into it,  and started for  Lower  Village,  where her husband  was married.

The   Koryak   erect   a   small   tent, made of reindeer-skins, inside the house, for each married  woman or grown-up girl.




         When she arrived at Lower Village, she was met by Fog-Man, who called out to his sister, Fog-Woman (Yiña'm-ña'ut), "Come out and welcome the guest!"  Fog-Woman came out. Can-a'i-ña'ut gave her the bag of meat and fat. Driftwood-Woman also came out of the house. Then Can'a'i-ña'ut and the other woman entered. Driftwood-Woman untied the bag and took out the meat. She took a fat piece, turned it about in her hand, and said, "When my husband comes, we will eat the meat, and laugh at Can-a'i-ña'ut." Can'a'i-ña'ut became angry, but did not answer. Soon she made preparations to go back to her parents. Everybody went outside and gave her presents. One gave an otter; another, a wolverene. Driftwood-Woman came out carrying a woman's knife, and said to Can-a'i-ña'ut, "Lately Twilight-Man, running on snow-shoes, has overtaken a wolverene and trampled it to death. I will give you a strip of its skin to trim of your coat." Can-a'i-ña'ut, in her wrath at Driftwood-Woman, who was sneering at her, snatched the knife out of her hand and cut off her nose. Then she sat down on her sledge, and made the reindeer run at top speed.

         Fog-Man said to his sister, "I will go in pursuit. Since she has cut off her friend's nose, she certainly does not want to live with Twilight-Man any longer, so I am going to marry her." With this he ran in pursuit of Can-a'i- ña'ut, but went astray.

         When Can-a'i-ña'ut returned home, she broke up camp, put the tent on her sledge, gathered the herd together, and went to her father's home. She left a small tent for her mother-in-law. When she was approaching Big- Raven's house, the people went out to see who was driving the reindeer, and they saw Can-a'i-ña'ut. Her brothers asked her, "Where is your husband?" but she did not answer.     She remained at her father's house.

         In   the   mean time Twilight-Man came back from his trip; and when he saw   Driftwood-Woman   with   her   nose   cut  off,  he immediately left and went toward   his   old   camp.     He found his old  mother sitting in a shattered tent. When she saw him,  she scolded him, saying,  "Why did your wife leave you?" 

         He  went on  to the house of Big-Raven.     Eme'mqut discerned him at a distance,   and   called out to  Can-a'i-ña'ut,   "Your husband is coming!"     When Can-a'i-ña'ut   heard   that,   she put on  several  coats  of reindeer-skin,  and said, "If he stabs me with his knife, he cannot get at my body."

         Soon Twilight-Man arrived, entered the house, and sat down near Can-a'i-ña'ut. She saw that he was not angry with her, and said to him, "You see that I have put on several coats, for I thought that you would kill me for having cut off your second wife's nose. If you should stab me with your knife,  the knife could not get  at my body."

         Soon after that, Fog-Man, who had wandered about for some time, but who had found his way to Big-Raven's house, arrived. Can-a'i-ña'ut knew that   he   was  pursuing her.     She took the beads off her neck, gave them to



Fog-Man,  and said,   "Here are my beads.     My daughter is concealed in one of them.     Let her grow up at your house.     When she is grown up, you may marry her."

         Twilight-Man asked her, "What have you there?" And she replied, "You left me with child, and in your absence I was delivered of a daughter, and hid her in one of my beads." Then Twilight-Man and Can-a'i-ña'ut went home and lived as before,  and his mother again cared for her daughter-in-law.

         Eme'mqut and Fog-Man went to Lower Village. Eme'mqut courted Fog- Man's sister, Fog-Woman. He married her there, and took her to his home. One day Can-a'i-ña'ut said to her husband, "Go and get your second wife." Her husband, answered, "What for? I am not going to do so, she has lost her nose."    So they lived.    That's all