XI.    Tales of the Maritime Koryak of the Coast of Upper Penshina Bay  

    94.Fog-Man and Driftwood-Woman 273

95.Big-Raven's Journey to the Sky


96.Big-Raven and Fox-Woman




98.How a Small Kamak was transformed into a Harpoon-Line


99.Gull-Woman and Cormorant-Woman


100.Miti' and Magpie-Man


101.Eme'mqut and Illa'


102.Eme'mqut and Ka'la


103.How Yiñe'a-ñe'ut is swallowed by a Kamak


104.Big-Raven and Fish-Woman


105.The Kamak and his Wife


106.Eme'mqut and Fox-Woman


107.Kïlu' and the Bumblebees


108.How Eme'mqut became a Cannibal


109.Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Kïlu"s Marriage with Fish-Men


110. How Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was taken to Lower Village


111. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Earth-Maker


112.Gormandizer the Cannibal


113.Transformation of River-Man into a Woman


114.Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Cloud-Man





Told by Anne Qaci'lqut, a Maritime Koryak woman of
the village of Kamenskoye, Dec. 27, 1900.

94.  Fog-Man and Driftwood-Woman.

         Big-Raven (Ouikinn-a'qu) lived with his wife Miti'. A daughter, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, was born to them; then a son, Eme'mqut; then a son, Big-Light (Oeskin'a'qu); then other children were born. Their son Eme'mqut grew up. He began to kill wild reindeer. He would bring reindeer every day from the chase. His mother, Miti', used to put the fattest parts of the reindeer into bags, and hide them in the storehouse. The children would always ask their mother, "For whom do you save those bags of meat?" but she would say nothing in reply.

         Once Big-Raven went outdoors, looked at the sea,  and saw that a light fog  was   coming   up   from   it.     Soon he beheld through the fog a skin boat with   people  in   it.     They   were   paddling.     When  the boat came nearer, he shouted   into   the   house,   "Somebody   is   coming  to us!"     Everybody left the house to meet the guests.     The boat landed ; and it turned out that, with the exception   of one old woman, all the new-comers were men.     Big-Raven saw that   it  was   Fog-Man   (Yiña'mtila'n)   who   had   come.      All the visitors were asked   into   the   house.      Among   them   was also  Fog-Man's father,  Atta'gen. He said to Big-Raven, "I have brought my son to you to serve for your daughter. Would  you   rather   have   me   leave   my   son   with   you,   or shall I take your daughter   along?"     To   this   Big-Raven replied,   "You may take my daughter along   with  you."     Then   they   got   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut ready for the voyage.     Miti' took   the bags with pieces of fat reindeer-meat from the storehouse.     At last Miti' had finished her preparations; and she said to her daughter, "There are clothing   and   fat   meat   in   these bags and sacks.     Take them to  your bride- groom's   house."     Thus   Fog-Man   got   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut,  and carried her away in his skin boat.     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was  still  almost a little girl.




         When Fog-Man landed with his wife at his father's settlement, everybody came out to meet them. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut did not go into the house, however, but remained outside to play with the girls. The people laughed at Atta'gen, saying, "A nice bride did he bring for his son! She had hardly reached shore, when she began to play with the children."

         Soon a skin boat was seen to approach, which came to Fog-Man's house from another village. It reached the shore, and Fog-Man's sister, Fog-Woman (Yiña'm-ña'ut), stepped out of it. They asked her why she had come. She answered, "I heard that my brother is to be married, and I came to see my sister-in-law." — "She is playing outside," answered her relatives. "Well, then, call her in to me," said Fog-Woman. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was called in. When Fog- Woman looked at her, she said, "Why did you say she was not a proper wife for my brother? She is simply very young, and she wants to play all the time."

         Later on, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said to her husband's sister, "I am going to give you some of the presents that I have brought along from mother." Yiñe'a- ñe'ut went out and threw down from the sledge two bags, — one full of fat meat, and the other one full of reindeer-fawn skins; but she could not carry them : they were too heavy for her. Then she went back to the house, and said to her sister-in-law, "Go and take for yourself one bag of fat meat and another bag filled with fawn-skins."  They went out, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut pulled out of the bags fat meat and black fawn-skins. Fog-Woman said, "You see what a kind and good sister-in-law we have." To this, Fog-Woman's mother replied,   "That is the reason we went to  Big-Raven  to   make this  match."

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's sister-in-law prepared for her homeward trip. When she was taking leave of her brother, she said, "You ought to be considerate of your wife, she is so very young yet." To Yiñe'a-ñe'ut she said, "Play one day, on the next work and  attend to the household."

         Fog-Woman went away in her boat. When she arrived at her house, she told her daughters about her sister-in-law, saying, "She is so good! she has given  me many presents,  -  meat and skins."

         After Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's departure from her parents' house, her brother Eme'm-qut married Grass-Woman (Ve'ai), Root-Man's (Tatqa'hicñin) daughter. Soon a son, Born-again (Io'ñovet), was born to them, and a daughter, Yellow- Woman (Cei'pi-ñe'ut).

         In a short time Yiñe'a-ñe'ut also was with child, and gave birth to a girl.     They named her Ice-Hole-Woman  (A'ime-ñe'ut). 

         Once Fog-Man went to sea, hunting, and killed a whale. The people came up to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's house, and shouted, "Come out to meet Fog-Man! He is towing a whale." Girls from the neighboring houses came and derided Yine'a-ñe'ut, saying, "Well, what kind of embroidered dancing-clothes will she put on now to meet the whale? She has not embroidered anything.  She has done   nothing   all day but play."     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut kept   silence.     When the boats



with the whale approached the shore, she said to her father-in-law, "Come to the storehouse with me." The two went into the storehouse, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut pulled out from the bags that she had brought from home, hatchets, knives, coats of fawn-skins with fur trimmings, embroidered and beaded edges, and put them on the women who were there. She herself put on a dancing-suit with rich fur trimmings and magnificent embroidery. Thereupon the women accompanied Yiñe'a-ñe'ut to the shore to meet the whale with dances.

         The skin boats landed, the whale was hauled up on the shore, and the women stopped dancing and singing. Then everybody, with knives in their hands, crowded around the whale, and began to cut it up. Only Fog-Man and his wife were sitting aside. The people called to him, Fog-Man, we are carving the whale, come join us!" but he replied, ''Let the people cut for themselves, there will be enough left for me." Soon another skin boat full of people came in sight. They landed, and joined in cutting up the whale. Fog-Man shouted from his place, "Let the new-comers cut plenty for them- selves, let them  fill their skin boat."

         At that time Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went to look after her daughter. She returned,   and said to Fog-Man, "Our daughter is thirsty. Go to the boat of the people who have just arrived, and get some fresh water there. They always keep a supply of it." Fog-Man ran down to the boat, and saw a girl standing in the water, holding the boat. She would not come up to the shore. Fog-Man said to her, "Push the boat farther up the beach. I want to get some fresh water from the bucket." The girl did not say a word in reply. He took her by the shoulder, intending to draw the boat nearer; but she shouted to her brothers, "Come here! Fog-Man has assaulted me." The girl's brothers stopped cutting the whale, ran down to the shore, tied Fog-Man, threw him into the boat, and went off to sea. He had only time to call to his mother, "Take care of your daughter-in-law."

         The people in the skin boat took Fog-Man to their house, on the other   side of the sea. The girl whom Fog-Man had touched was called Driftwood- Woman (Yo'm-ña). When the skin boat landed, her older brother, Strong-One (A'n-qiw), said to Fog-Man, "You insulted the girl: now you have to marry her." Fog-Man answered, "Well, I will take her: how can I get away from you, now that I am on this side of the sea?" Thus Fog-Man lived at Strong- One's house.

         After Fog-Man had been carried off by strangers, his father took care f the whale, and celebrated the festival of sending it home. Then he said to his people, "Let us go along the trail leading to Big-Raven's house. Let the women gather berries." They got ready and started off in a skin boat in the  direction  of Big-Raven's village.

         At this time, Strong-One also made up his mind to take a trip in the direction of Big-Raven's village  for the purpose of gathering a supply of roots



and berries. He went with all his people. When Strong-One was paddling toward the shore, Fog-Man noticed some people on the shore some distance away, and said, "It seems to me that our people are also here picking berries." Then Driftwood-Woman said to her brother, "Do not land at the same place, land somewhere farther off." Strong-One turned the boat, and landed far away from the other people.

         As soon as they got ashore, Fog-Man took his bow and arrows, and went off until he found his own people. He sat down by the side of Yiñe'a- ñe'ut. His sister was also there. But he did not sit there long. As soon as he had left Strong-One, Driftwood-Woman said to her brothers, "Where did your brother-in-law go? Bring him back." Then her brothers went to look for him, found him with his relatives, and took him back to the boat. Strong-One was an athlete, all his brothers were powerful warriors, and the people were afraid of them.

         Soon after that, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's supplies of provisions became exhausted. She said to Fog-Man's sister, "Go to Strong-One's, and ask for some food. They may give some to you, although they would refuse it to me."  But Fog-Woman refused to go. Then she sent her little daughter. Ice-Hole- Woman arrived at Strong-One's skin boat. The people asked her, "Whose daughter are you?" She answered, "I am Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's daughter." Fog-Man was not at home, he was away hunting. The brothers said to Driftwood- Woman, "Look, your husband's daughter has come!" She ordered the girl to be brought to her, and asked her, "Who sent you here?" — "Mother sent me," answered Ice-Hole-Woman. "We have no more food." Driftwood-Woman took the little girl, strangled her, and thrust her into a crevice in the ground.

         Fog-Man soon came back from hunting, and brought a wild reindeer which he had killed. The people said to him, "Your daughter has been here to ask for food: they have nothing to eat." And Driftwood-Woman added, "Yes, yes! she has been here. I gave her some seal-meat, and she took it home." Fog-Man was grieved to know that Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was without food, and said to Strong-One, "I have staid with you long enough. I am going home now." Then he left; but Driftwood-Woman said to her brothers, "Bring back your brother-in-law, otherwise I shall get sick." Her brothers ran after Fog-Man, overtook him, and carried him back in their skin boat to the other side of the sea. 

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut waited and waited for her daughter to return. Finally she said, "How long she is staying away! I will go and look for her." But Fog- Woman said,   "No  doubt her father has taken  her along with  him."

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's   father-in-law did not let  her go  in  search  of her daughter. After   a short time he said to the women,   "You have picked  enough berries and roots : let us go  home."     They went to their village in the skin  boat.

         Fog-Man was longing to go home.     Once he said to Strong-One,  " I want



to go  home. Take me back, and let your sister go with me. We shall live there together." The brothers of Driftwood-Woman consented, and took them across the sea. When they arrived, Fog-Man asked Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, "Where is our daughter?" She answered, "When we were picking berries, I sent her to Strong-One for food, and she never came back."

         Behind a high ridge of mountains, far away from the sea, lived two brothers with their mother. One was called Wolf-Man (E'hi'mtila'n) ;  the other, Hathope.1 Wolf-Man was a shaman. Once he said to his brother, "I see  that beyond the mountain-ridge near the sea, in Big-Raven's country, adead girl is lying in a crevice in the ground. I will go there, bring her to life, and you shall marry her." The brothers crossed the mountain-ridge, ran down to the crevice, and found the dead girl, whom Wolf-Man revived. Thereupon Hathope married her. Then Wolf-Man wanted to go home; but Hathope said, "Let us live for a while in my wife's country before she leaves it forever." Thus it happened that they staid and lived some time in Big-Raven's country.

         One day Big-Raven said to his son Big-Light, "Take your sister Can-a'i-ña'ut, your nephew Born-again, and your niece Yellow-Woman, and go hunting wild reindeer. Yonder are many reindeer." Big-Light obeyed his father's orders. He reached the hunting-ground accompanied by his sister, his nephew, and his niece, and built an earth lodge. There they spent the night, and on the following morning Big-Light went hunting. Can-a'i-ña'ut, Born-again, and Yellow-Woman remained in the lodge. After Big-Light had left, Can-a'i-ña'ut went outside, walked off some distance from the house, and discovered two men, and a girl between them. One of the men was beating the drum, singing, and saying repeatedly, "To-day my wife sees her land for the last time. Soon we shall leave here, and she will not see this country again." Can-a'i-ña'ut thought to herself, "I will go nearer, and see what kind of people they are;" but as soon as she approached, they jumped up and started to run. Can-a'i- ña'ut looked, and saw two wolves running away and a woman behind them. Can-a'i-ña'ut ran home, called Born-again and Yellow-Woman, and said to them, "I do not know what it is that I have seen. First three persons were sitting on the ground. One of them was singing. As soon as I went near, the two men turned into wolves and ran away, followed by the woman."

         Big-Light killed a wild reindeer. Suddenly he heard a voice. Some one was singing. "I will go and see who is singing there," said Big-Light to himself. He went; and when he came near enough, he understood the words of the song: "My brother has revived a girl, I married her. Now she sees her country for the last time. Soon we shall leave for our own country." Big-Light came up closer, and saw two men on the ground, and a woman between them. He looked at the woman, and thought, "How much she resembles  my sister  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut!"      Suddenly   the   men   became   wolves,  ran

1 A name  of the  wolf which is used only  in myths;  also  Athap.



away, and the woman followed them. Then Big-Light went back to the killed reindeer. He lifted it upon his shoulders and carried it home. Caira'i-ña'ut came out to meet him, and said, "I will tell you what I have seen to-day," but he answered, "I have seen myself what you wish to tell about. Tell me, how did it appear to you?" Òan'a'i-ña'ut said, "I went outside, walked a few steps away from the house, and saw two men sitting on the ground, and a woman between them. One of them was singing, 'It is the last time that my wife sees her land, soon we shall go to our own country.' Then, when I came nearer to them, the men assumed the shape of wolves and ran away, and the woman followed them." Big-Light said, "I have seen the same thing." Then he added, "Let us go home now." They went home, and took along the killed reindeer.

         When Eme'mqut, who stood outside, saw them coming, he went and told his father. Big-Raven said, "Something must have happened to them. They went hunting only yesterday, and to-day they are coming back. Maybe one of the children has been hurt." When they arrived, they told him that they had seen two men, and a woman resembling Yiñe'a-ñe'ut; and that when they would approach nearer to them, the men would turn into wolves, and would run away, the woman following them. Then Big-Raven said, "It is a long time since we have seen Yiñe'a-ñe'ut: something must have happened to her. Keep a watch for her." On the same day, Eme'mqut, Big-Light, and Illa' went out in the wilderness. Soon they saw two men sitting on the ground, and a woman between them. One of the men was singing. As soon as the men noticed them, they ran away in the shape of wolves, and the woman followed them.    Eme'mqut went back home with his brothers.

         On   the   following   day  Can-a'i-ña'ut went to pick berries.    She went far from the house, and chanced upon a camp consisting of several tents.     Suddenly she saw coming out of one of the tents a young woman carrying a basket in her hand.   Can-a'i-ña'ut looked   at her own  reflection  (wi'yil-wi'yil),  which she could   see in a pool  of the swamp,  and then  at the woman,  and  she noticed that   the   latter looked very much like her own reflection.     The woman went down   to   the   river   with   her basket to draw water.     Can'a'i-ña'ut went after her, and sat down on the bank.     The woman began to sing,  "Where may my mother   be?"     Caiva'i-ña'ut   then   came   up   to   her and asked,   "Who is your mother?"     "My   mother   is   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut,"   answered the young woman.     "If Yiñe'a-ñe'ut is your mother, then I am your aunt," said Can'a'i-ña'ut.     "Where do   you   come   from?"      The  woman answered,   "Driftwood-Woman killed  me, the   Wolves   revived   me,   and   one   of them  has  married me.     Now we shall soon go away from here.     When you reach home, tell Grandmother Miti' and grandfather to make an offering to Something-Existing (Yaqhi'cñin), — a few white and a few spotted old reindeer, — and perhaps he may bring me back to   you.      When   anybody approaches  our houses,  the village disappears,  and



the inhabitants turn into running wolves."     She also told Can'a'i-ña'ut that her father had left Yiñe'a-ñe'ut,  and married  Driftwood-Woman.

Can'a'i-ña'ut went home and told her parents all she had seen and heard from their grand-daughter.

         Then Big-Raven remarked, "I have never killed any of my old white and spotted reindeer, but now I must kill a few as an offering to Something- Existino-." He killed the reindeer which his grand-daughter had designated as the desired sacrifice.

         Suddenly a noise arose in the sky. Something-Existing said to his son, Cloud-Maker1 (Ta'yañ), "Go out and see what that noise is, Cloud-Maker." When he returned, he said to his father, "Big-Raven has old reindeer, white and spotted. Heretofore he would never kill them for us. Now that they have come up here, it seems that Big-Raven has sacrificed them." Then Something-Existing said to his son, "Look down upon the earth and see what has happened there that should have induced Big-Raven to kill the reindeer which before he has always spared." Cloud-Maker went and looked. When he returned to his father, he said, "I have seen Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's daughter, whom Driftwood-Woman killed. The Wolves have revived and married her. Big- Raven seems to wish to recover her. This is why he killed the reindeer for us." Then Something-Existing suggested to the Wolves to go nearer to Big- Raven's village.

         Thus it happened that the mother-Wolf said to her sons,   "Let us move nearer  to Big-Raven.    Perhaps he and his people would like to have a look at their child before we take her away to our far-off land."     The Wolves moved nearer to Big-Raven's habitation.     One evening Big-Raven's people came running to   him   with   the   news that a long train of reindeer-sledges was approaching his house.    The Wolves were bringing Ice-Hole-Woman.     When they arrived, Ice-Hole-Woman   entered   the   house,   but   the  Wolves did not wish to enter. The   slightest  noise would make them shudder.     Finally Big-Raven's children succeeded   in   persuading   the   Wolves   to go into the house.     They came in, and   they  were feasted.     Then  Big-Raven said to them,   "You  ought to take Ice-Hole-Woman   to   her   mother,   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut,   before   you   go far away." — "Well, we will take her," said the  Wolves.     Thereupon they went to Yiñe'a- ñe'ut.    Eme'mqut and Big-Raven went with them.     They arrived at Fog-Man's village.     When   Fog-Man   was   told   that people came to visit them,  he sent Driftwood-Woman   to   meet   them.     She took a fire-brand and went out; but Ice-Hole-Woman snatched it from her hand, pushed it into Driftwood-Woman's mouth,  and said,   "You strangled  me before,  now  I  shall  burn you  to ashes." Then Ice-Hole-Woman ran into the house and exclaimed, "Where is my mother? Is she alive?"     Her mother came to greet her.     She was thin and bruised, for, ever   since Driftwood-Woman  had come to  the house,  her husband had hated

1  The same  personage  as  Cloud-Man (Ya'hal,  Ya'hala'n).



and beaten her. Ice-Hole-Woman said to her mother, "We will take you along with us."  They sat down for a while, and then got ready to go. Eme'mqut `took his sister Yiñe'a-ñe'ut home with him. Her son-in-law, Wolf-Man, blew upon Driftwood-Woman, and she turned into driftwood. Fog-Man also expressed a desire to go with them. Eme'mqut did not want to take him, but he went, just the same. Upon their arrival, Big-Raven asked what had happened to them, and Fog-Man told him everything. Then all of Big-Raven's people hated Fog-Man, but he did not grumble. He said, "You are treating me now the way I used to treat Yiñe'a-ñe'ut."

         The Wolves staid with Big-Raven for some time, then they made ready to go home. Big-Light proposed to accompany them. When they came to their camp, the mother-Wolf asked them, "Why did you stay away so long?"— "Big-Raven asked us to visit my wife's mother,"  answered her son Hathope. "Now we will leave for our own country," said the mother-Wolf. To this her son Hathope replied, "I have become used to this country: let us live here, near my wife's relations." The old mother-Wolf consented. Then Hathope said to her, "Big-Light came to us to make a match, but we have no sister." — "Yes, you have," said the mother-Wolf. "I have brought up a daughter without your knowledge. She lives at large in a separate house. Her name is Storm-Woman (Yo'ye-ñe'ut)." She was given in marriage to Big-Light. They all went to Big-Raven's and lived there together. Soon after that, Fog- Man went back to his settlement with his wife Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.    That's all.

Told by Anne Qaci'lqut, a Maritime Koryak woman, in
the village of Kamenskoye, Jan. 2,  1901.

95.  Big-Raven's Journey to the Sky.

         It was at the time when Big-Raven (Ouikinn-a'qu) lived. Once he said to his wife, his sons and daughters, "Let us move up to the sky, but do not look back on the way." They prepared for the journey, fitted out a train of reindeer-sledges, and began to ascend to the sky. Eme'mqut was sitting way behind, on the last sledge. He was quite small then. When they were half- way up, he looked back, in spite of his father's order; and immediately the thong 1 by which his sledge was tied to the rest of the train broke, and he fell down. Eme'mqut cried, "I am falling!" Miti', who was in front of Eme'mqut, heard his cries, and called to Big-Raven, who was sitting on the first sledge. She said, "Eme'mqut has fallen down." Then Big-Raven, without looking back, shouted in reply, "Cut the thong which holds the two reindeer in the rear.    One of them is mine, and the other one is yours : let them be Eme'mqut's

The  method   of  attaching  one sledge to another in a family train of reindeer is by means of a thong going ftom the halter of the animals in  the rear to the back of the preceding sledge.



companions."    Eme'mqut and the two reindeer fell down, and struck the ground near   Big-Raven's   house.     As   soon   as   they reached the earth, the reindeer turned into human beings.     One of them became a man; the other, a woman. The man was called Reindeer-Big-Raven (Ooya' -Quikinn -a'qu); and the woman, Reindeer-Miti' (Qoya'-Miti').    They raised Eme'mqut as if he were their own son. 

         When Eme'mqut was grown up, his parents said,   "Let us go and make a match for our son.     Let us get Root-Man's (Tatqa'hicñin) sister's daughter for him."    They went.    When they came to Root-Man, they said, "We have come to make a match for our son."     Root-Man answered, "My niece is very young: wait until I have consulted with my sister."     Suddenly some one shouted from outside, "Another old man and another old woman have arrived!"    When they   entered   the   house,   Root-Man asked them,   "Who are you?"    They an- swered,   "We are the parents of Frost (Oeli'va).    We have come to arrange a match for our son Frost."

         Root-Man's sister, Root-Woman (Tatqa'-ña'ut), said, "I will not give my daughter, Wild-Rye-Woman (Tuwa'ña1), in marriage to Raven-Big-Raven's 2 (Va'lvam-Ouiknn-a'quts) son." Thus Wild-Rye-Woman was married to Frost. Frost's parents took her home.

         Thereupon Root-Man said to his wife, River-Woman (Vaya'm-ña'ut), "Let us give our own daughter, Grass-Woman (Ve'ai), to Big-Raven's son. The`poor old people came walking over here." Root-Man then made his daughter`ready for the journey. She was given clothes and sinew thread, but`no rein-`deer. Root-Man himself had only a few reindeer. The old couple went back`on foot with the girl. They brought her home and married her`to Eme'mqut.`

         Big-Raven, with his family, lived in the sky for quite a long time. There`he married his daughter Yiñe'a-ñe'ut to Cloud-Man`(Ya'hala'n), and his son`Big-Light (Qeskin-a'qu) to Cloud-Man's sister, Cloud-Woman (Ya'hal-ña'ut).`Both he and Miti' had entirely`forgotten their son Eme'mqut. Once Big-Raven`said to his people, "It is time to go home: let us go down to the earth."`They left the sky, taking`along their herds of reindeer with iron antlers.`Cloud-Man accompanied them.

         At  that  time Eme'mqut was out gathering wood.     He met Big-Raven's reindeer-train.     Miti' asked Big-Raven,   "Who is that dirty and ragged man?" Big-Raven   called   him,   and   asked,   "Who   are   you?"     He answered,   "I am Eme'mqut."    Big-Raven continued,   "And who is your father?"— "My father," answered Eme'mqut,   "is Big-Raven." —  "And who is your mother?" — "My mother  is   Miti'." —  "And where are your parents?" —  "My parents are at home." — "Have you any reindeer ?" — " We have no reindeer: we go afoot." Then everything came back to Big-Raven's mind, and he said,   "Well, this is our   son   Eme'mqut:   he   was torn away from us when we were ascending to 1    Tu'  wai or wild rye (Elymus mollis) is one of thematerials from which the Koryak plait bags and baskets. 

1     Tu'  wai or wild rye (Elymus mollis) is one of the materials from which the Koryak plait bags and baskets.

2    See p.  17.




the sky. We detached two reindeer and let them down. They turned into  human beings, and brought up Eme'mqut." Then he hit Eme'mqut, who broke in two; and the real, nice-looking, and well-clad Eme'mqut came forth. 

         When Big-Raven arrived at his house, the old people inside began to feel uneasy. They said to their daughter-in-law,  "Go and see what the noise outside means. Somebody must have arrived."  She went out and looked, and, coming back to the old people, said, "Somebody has come here with a large herd of reindeer. The noise we hear is the thundering clatter of their iron antlers." Grass-Woman looked at the old people, and noticed that their heads were turned into reindeer-heads, and their feet into hoofs. She asked them, "Why are you changing thus?"    They only said,   "Do not look at us: look up."

         Outside Big-Raven said to Eme'mqut, "Take the reindeer that you have had: we will offer them to The-One-on-High (Gi'chola'n) as a sacrifice." Eme'mqut went up to the roof of the underground house and shouted through the entrance- hole, "Wife, where are you?" Wild-Rye-Woman answered, "I am not your wife. My parents-in-law have turned into reindeer, and I do not know where my husband is." She did not recognize Eme'mqut because he was so clean and nice looking. Eme'mqut answered, "I am Eme'mqut, your husband. My real father and mother have come, and you may bring out the reindeer. We will kill them as a sacrifice to The-One-on-High." Then Wild-Rye-Woman came out and brought the reindeer along. Big-Raven sacrificed them, and he lived again in his former home.

         Soon after Big-Raven's return,  Root-Woman said to River-Woman,  "Let us call upon our daughters.     You go to your daughter, and I will go to mine." They   started   off on foot.    On the way,  Root-Woman teased River-Woman, saying,   "I   shall   drive   back   on   reindeer,   ehe'i, ehe'i! and you will have to drag yourself back on foot,  huc,  huc!"     Soon they arrived at the pasture-land where   Big-Raven's   reindeer   were   grazing.     The women  looked,  and noticed that   the   reindeer had iron  antlers.     Root-Woman said to  River-W'oman,   "It seems that somebody  has come  down  here from the sky."     Then she saw the herdsmen.     Root-Woman   called   to   them,   "Who   are   you?     Whose herd is this?"    Big-Light, who was watching the herd, said,  "It is our herd, Big-Raven's herd." —  "And   where   is   Frost's   underground   house?"  asked  Root-Woman, surprised.     "It   is  far off," answered Big-Light.     "I will leave you here," said Root-Woman to  River-Woman.

         Root-Woman reached Frost's underground house, and, seeing him outside, she asked him, "Why didn't my daughter come out to meet me?" — "Your daughter is not with me," answered Frost. "I lived with her only two days, and then I gave her away to my laborer, One-who-jumps- over- the- Snow (Elpi'nku). He lives in the next house." Then Root-Woman went to One-who-jumps-over- the-Snow. Her daughter  Wild-Rye-Woman, and her daughter's husband, were still asleep.     She took her daughter by her braids, pulled her out of the house,



and said,   "You fool!  you had a good husband, and you could not keep him. Let us go home."     Both women walked away.

         Leaving the herd, River-Woman went toward Big-Raven's house. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, and River-Woman's daughter Grass-Woman, came out to meet her. Grass-Woman said to her mother, "The couple that came to our house to arrange a match between Eme'mqut and myself were not really Big-Raven and Miti', but their reindeer, who had assumed human form. Now Big-Raven and Miti' have come back from the sky, and have killed those reindeer as a sacrifice. Eme'mqut has become nice-looking. Drive back home and tell father that I am rich now."

         River-Woman was conducted into the house, and was given food. When she got ready to return home, Big-Raven said to his sons, "Give half of the herd to Root-Man. Our herd is too large, and he has plenty of herdsmen. I will also give my daughter Can'a'i-ña'ut in marriage to his son."

         They gave River-Woman half of the herd; and Eme'mqut, with his wife and sister,  Can'a'i-ña'ut, accompanied her to  Root-Man's.    On their way they overtook Root-Woman and Wild-Rye-Woman.    The snow was deep, and they were plodding along with difficulty, falling down every once in a while.    River- Woman   saw   them,   and  said to Eme'mqut,   "Let us give them a lift on our sledges."    Eme'mqut did not reply, but whipped up his reindeer.    Thus they left the women on the road.    When Eme'mqut was approaching Root-Man's under- ground house, Root-Woman's little son went out to look, and called into the house, "There comes mother driving up on Frost's reindeer."    Root-Man imme- diately went out to meet his sister.    When the sledge had stopped, he asked, "Who has come?" — "It is I," answered his wife, River-Woman.     "I have come with Eme'mqut and our daughter.    Those who were here before, and arranged the match with Eme'mqut, were Big-Raven's reindeer.    The real Big-Raven has just now come back from the sky with a large herd of reindeer.     He gave us half a   herd,   and   is   sending his daughter Can'a'i-ña'ut to be married to our son." — "And where is sister?" asked Root-Man.     "She is coming afoot with her daughter,"   answered   River-Woman.     We told Eme'mqut to give them a. lift, but he only whipped up his reindeer." — "Well, let them walk," said'Root-Man.

         Then   they   all   went   into   the   house.     They   killed   some reindeer as a sacrifice.     Root-Woman and Wild-Rye-Woman did not arrive until after sunset. They   stole   into   the   house   and   sat down quietly behind the hearth.     Root- Woman's son asked her, "Mother, when shall we kill some sacrificial reindeer?" But she struck her son,  and said,   "Keep still!"

         After some time, Eme'mqut said to his father-in-law, "Let us all leave, and return to our own place." Then they all went back to Big-Raven's house, where they all lived together.     That's all.

Told by Anne Qaòi'lqut, a Maritime Koryak woman, in
the village of Kamenskoye, Jan. 6, 1901.



96.  Big-Raven  and  Fox-Woman.1

         Big-Raven (Quikinn-a'qu) once carried on his back a seal-stomach filled with blubber. He met Fox-Woman (Yayo'ca-ña'ut). "Carry me," she said, "I am sick."  Big-Raven took her and carried her, together with the seal- stomach. On the way she drank half of the blubber, leaped down, and said, "Thou art cunning, Big-Raven, but I fooled thee; I drank the blubber."  And she ran away. To avenge himself, Big-Raven took a heap of fish, let it freeze, and said, "Now the Fox-Women's children will wish to eat the fish, their tongues will freeze and stick to the fish, and I shall kill them all with a club." So he did. The children of the Fox came running, and started to eat the frozen fish: their tongues froze to it. Big-Raven proceeded to stun them with his club, and killed two of them. But Fox-Woman came, and said to Big- Raven, "Why dost thou kill my children? Thoud'st better let them off; they ill bring berries for thee." Big-Raven let them go; but they never came back.    That's all.

Told by Opuka an Maritime Koryak Ka'mmake, in the
village of Kamenskoye.

97.  Mouse-Woman.*2

         Mouse-Woman (Pipi'qca-ña'ut) said to her people,   "Let us play!"    They began to play.    Suddenly the people noticed that one of her teeth was missing. They asked her,  "How did you lose your tooth?" — "Envious-One [Nipai'va- ticñin]   shot   at   me   from   the sky,  and knocked  out my tooth.     Surely I  am going to die.     How can I live after that?"    The others said,   "You shall not die outside.    Let us take you into your house."    They took her to her house, and her mother asked her, "What has made you ill?"     She answered, "Envious- One   hit   me   from the sky with his arrow."     The  mother said,   "Let us send for your grandmother."     They sent for her grandmother,  and  carried her into the   house.     The   grandmother   beat   the   drum,   and  asked,   "Where has our daughter's   illness   come   from?"     There   was   no  one to answer the question. The breath of the old woman did not fit into anything.     Then she said,  "Let us go and look into the porch."     She called to Ermine-Woman (Imca'nam-ña'ut), "I   am   going   to   the   porch.     Let  us inspect the puddings there.     The little [Mouse] girl has been  pilfering the provisions in the porch, and there she lost her   tooth."    They  found the puddings.     One made of nuts of the stone-pine had  been gnawed, and there they found a tooth.     The little pilferer lost her tooth close to the stone-pine-nut pudding.     Ermine-Woman brought the tooth, saying,   "Whose   tooth   is   this?     Let us  try and  fit it into every small girl's

1  A sketch illustrating this tale, drawn by the narrator, is shown in  Fig. 57, p.   116.

2 The myths marked with with an asterisk (*) were recorded by Mr.  Bogoras (see p.   15).



mouth." They said to one girl, "Open your mouth!" She opened her mouth, and they tried to place the tooth; but there was no room for it. The tooth did not fit the mouth of any of the small girls. Then Ermine-Woman said to the sick girl, "Try this tooth!" and the tooth fitted into the socket in her mouth. Ermine-Woman said, "She has been pilfering the provisions in the porch. What shall be done to her?" Then the mother of the girl scolded her, saying, "It is best for you to die. Go and strangle yourself with a forked willow-twig!"1 She came back, however, saying, "I was unable to strangle myself." Her mother scolded her again, saying, "Go away from here!" She went away again, and at last died.    That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

98.  How a Small  Kamak was transformed into a  Harpoon-Line.*

         A small kamak said to his mother, "I am hungry." She replied, "Go to the storeroom behind the sleeping-room (yi'ñun) and take something." He said, "I do not want to. I will go to Big-Raven's (Quikinn'a'qu) house." The mother said, "Do not do it! It will be your death. You will be caught in a snare. Better go to the porch and take something to eat from there." He answered,  "I do not want to.    Those provisions taste of the porch."

         Big-Raven spread a snare before the entrance of his elevated storehouse. The small kamak ran to the storehouse, and was caught in the snare.     He cried and   blubbered,  "Oh, oh!  I am caught!     I am caught!"    Big-Raven said,  "I have   a   mind  to go and look after my little snare."     He came to the store- house,   and   wanted   to   enter,   but  stumbled over someting lying in the way. "What   is   it?" —  "It   is   I!      I   am caught!"    The small kamak was crying, and brushing off  the tears with his little fist.     "Leave off blubbering!     I will take you to Miti'."     He took him home.     "Miti', dance in honor of this small kamak!"     Miti'   began   to   dance, saying,   "We have a small ka-ma-ma-mak! We have a small ka-ma-ma-mak!"     Big-Raven said,  "You dance in the wrong way. — Come on, Ha'na! dance in honor of the small kamak!"     Ha'na began to   dance,  singing,   "We have a small ma-ka-kak!     We have a small ma-ka- ka-kak!" — "That is the way to dance," said Big-Raven.     He took the kamak into the house, and asked him,   "What shall we make of you, a cover for the roof-hole?" —  "No,"   said   the   kamak.     "If I am made into a cover for the roof-hole,   I shall feel smoky, I shall feel cold." —  "Then we will make you into a plug for the vent-hole." — "No," said the kamak.     "If you  make me

1  The natives believe that mice actually commit suicide by strangling themselves in a forked willow-twig.
This is believed to happen especially in the autumn, when the human root-diggers rob many nests of their
winter stores. The small owner then ends his life from despondency. At the same time the natives say that
the polar owl sometimes puts dead mice into the forked boughs of the bushes of the tundra. This seems nearer
the truth.



into a vent-hole stopper, I shall be afraid of spirits passing by." 1 — "Then what do you wish us to make of you? A work-bag, maybe?" — "No," said the kamak. "If I am made into a work-bag, I shall feel smothered." — "Then we will make you into a leather harpoon-line."  The kamak began to laugh, and said, "Yes!" They made him into leather, and cut it into a line. Big-Raven went out and spread the harpoon-line before his house. Then Big- Raven's family all went to sleep.

         The people of Frost-Man (Anna'mayat) talked among themselves, saying, "A small kamak has been caught by Big-Raven, and has been made into a line. Let us go and steal it." They went and untied the line. Then it cried aloud, " Quick ! Get up ! They are untying me!" Big-Raven said, " What is the trouble with our small line? It wants to awaken us. Let us get up and have a look at it." They went out of the house, and asked the kamak, "Why are you shouting so loud?" — "Frost-Man's people were about to carry me away."

         The people living down the coast heard about the small kamak, — how he was caught by Big-Raven and made into a harpoon-line, and how the other people were unable to steal it. Then those living down the coast said to each other, "Let us try to steal that line. Surely we shall be able to take it." When Big-Raven's people had gone to sleep, those living down the coast came to steal the line. At once it gave warning; but it could not awaken the people. "They are untying me! They are taking me away!" The strangers untied the line and took it away. In the morning Big-Raven's people got up, but their line was gone. It had been stolen by the people from down the coast. Then Big-Raven said, "The people from down the coast are guilty of the theft. Nobody else could have done it. It is their doings, surely." Eme'mqut said, "A good line has been stolen from us. We must recover it in some way."

         Eme'mqut   made a wooden whale,  and entered  it.     He went away,  and, reaching   the   village   down   the coast,   began to  move to and fro  in  sight of the people.    Then the people said to  each other,   "This is the first time such a   whale   has   come   to our place.     It is a very good whale."    They went to catch   it,   and,   coming nearer,  harpooned  it,  and made it fast with the newly stolen line.    The small kamak struck into the whale lustily.     Eme'mqut, how- ever,   said   to   the line, under his breath,   "Why are you biting me?    I come to take you back."    Eme'mqut threw some berries of Rubus Arcticus into the boat of his pursuers, and they ate them instead of hunting the whale.     Then Eme'mqut   sped   homeward   with  all his might,  carrying away the line.     Big- Raven did not spread the line again outside of his house.     He kept it inside at all times.     Therefore no  more attempts to  steal it were made.     That's all. 

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

1 Because they look down through the roof-hole.



99.   Gull-Woman and Cormorant-Woman.*

         Two cousins lived together. One was Gull-Woman (Ya'xya-ña'ut), and the other Cormorant-Woman. They sat sewing. One day the former said, "No one comes to our cave. I will go there and prepare my sinew thread." She went down to the shore. About the same time a big kamak said, "I will take a walk along the shore."   He walked along the shore, and saw Gull-Woman. He exclaimed, "What is it that shows so white yonder on the shore ?" When he came nearer, he saw Gull-Woman, and swallowed her whole. He returned home, and said to his wife, "I do not feel well."   As soon as he lay down to rest, Gull-Woman cut his intestines with her tailoring-knife. He said to his wife, "Oh! cheer me up by some means."   The kamak-woman sang, " Without the collar-string, without nostrils!"   (E'nnukoro'tka, eñvara'tka! 1) The kamak died. Gull-Woman came out of his body, jumped on the cross- sticks of his sleeping-tent, and tried to fly away. Being covered with slime, she could not fly, and fell back on the ground. The kamak's wife was sitting in the centre of the house. Gull-Woman, on seeing her, lay flat on the ground from sheer fright. After a while, however, she managed to fly up ; but she fell down again on the house-top. Then she flew away, and at last reached her home.

         There  she said to her cousin,   "A  kamak swallowed me.     I have had a narrow escape."     Cormorant-Woman said, "I will try to do as you did.     Let him swallow me also."    Gull-Woman said,   "Don't do it!    You have no knife." — "But I have big thumb-nails.    I wish it were done !     I should feel elated."    That one   (the kamak-woman)  passed by,  but Cormorant-Woman could not talk to her.     Thereupon   Cormorant-Woman   went   to   the cave and sat down there. The kamak-woman passed the cave very often, but she did not see Cormorant- Woman.    The latter coughed,  and said,   "I  am here!" but the kamak-woman could not find her in the dark.     Cormorant-Woman said again, " Here I  am! Swallow me!"    The kamak-woman almost stepped upon her.     She said, "Where are   you?"     At last she discerned her,  and said,   "I will swallow you!"    Cor- morant-Woman answered,   "Do swallow me!"    The kamak-woman gulped her down, and went home.     "Oh!" she said after a while,  "I feel ill."    She called her husband,2   and asked him  to cheer her up.     Then he also sang, "Without the collar-string, without nostrils !"     Cormorant-Woman killed the kamak-woman 2 by   tearing   anew with her nails the scars left by Gull-Woman's knife.     Then the  kamak-woman died, and Cormorant-Woman went out.     Digging her way

1  These words are supposed to be in the language of the kamak.    They belong, however, to the ordinary
oryak   of  the   western   branch,   with   some  phonetic changes, especially the use of r in  the place of  v.    This
last feature makes the words similar to eastern Koryak or Chukchee.

2  The respective roles of the kamak and his wife are evidently confused in this tale.    Thus the husband,
killed not long ago, would seem to be alive  again.



through several mounds of drifted snow, she finally reached her home. Then both the kamaks1  said, "We have had enough of these doings. We have only inflicted punishment upon our own bodies." After that they ceased to walk along the shore.    That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

100. Miti' and Magpie-Man.*

         It was at the time when Big-Raven  (Ouikinn-a'qu) and his people lived. Big-Raven   said,   "I   will go and get some willow-bark."2    Miti' went to feed their little puppies.     Magpie-Man (Vaki'thimtila'n) came to the dog-shed, and ate with the puppies (of their food).    To indicate his love, he pecked at Mitì"s face,   so   that   her   nose   was covered with scratches.     Big-Raven came home, and asked,  "What is the matter with your nose?"    She said, "The sharp ends in   the  corner  of the dog-shed scratched me thus."    Then Big-Raven cut off all   the   ends of the poles in the corners of the dog-shed.     Next morning he said again,  "I will go and get some willow-bark."     Míti' went out, jumped on top of the dog-shed, and sang,   "I am walking a cross-stick!"    Then Magpie- Man   came;   and   she  said to him,   "Let us go in.     Big-Raven will not come back   soon.     He   will   not   catch   us."     She took him into the house; but as soon   as  they   entered  the sleeping-tent,  and began to make love,  Big-Raven came   back,   and  shouted,  "Miti'! take the load of willow."    Miti' said,  "Let the  i'klõ 3   bring  it down.     I am busy trampling a half-scraped skin with my feet." — "Nay,"   said   Big-Raven.     "I want you to take it down.    They will soil  it with their mucus."     Miti' took it,  and with a violent pull drew it into the   house.     Then   Big-Raven   entered,   and   made   a   smouldering   fire.     He  overed   the  porch, and stopped up the smoke-hole, so that the sleeping-tent also  was filled with smoke.    Then a cry, as of a magpie, came from within, and finally Magpie-Man came out.     He had difficulty in finding a crack through which   to   escape.     "Oh!"   said  Big-Raven,   "see what the  magpies  have done to   me!"     Magpie-Man went  home.     Miti',  however, was with  child.     After a while   she   laid   two   eggs.     The   two   children   grew   rapidly,   and Big-Raven loved them.

         One time the people of Big-Raven were storing their catch of fish. One of the twin children said, "Mother, we are hungry." She said, "Go and tell father." They went out, and he gave each of them a whole dried salmon. They came back and ate the fish. Then they said again, "Mother, we are hungry." —  "Go and tell father."    They went out and said,  "Father, we are

1  It would seem that both kamaks must have revived after having  been killed.

2  Ihe bark of the willow, especially that from the roots, is used for food by most of the tribes of north-
eastern Siberia.    It is pounded fine, and mixed with blood, putrid liver, oil, etc.

3  Small   wooden charms of human  shape (p. 42).



hungry." — "I don't wonder, you two thievish sons of a magpie!" The children began to weep. "Now he is reproaching us!" they said. Then Miti' said to them, "Go out again, and say, 'Our real father is herding his reindeer with the wealthy people."   The boys went in again. Miti' put them into a grass bag, placing each in one of the lower corners of the bag, and went away.     She arrived at the tent of Magpie-Man,  and flung her load right in.

         After a while Big-Raven said, "I feel lonely. Let me go and visit Miti'." He went to the place where she lived. He said, "Miti', come out! Your former husband has come." Miti' said, "Has he no legs? He can enter without my help." He came in, and she gave him food. He ate, and soon he was choking. Then he jumped out of the house. Miti' called to him, "Halloo, halloo!" Then he could not help himself, and called aloud, "Halloo!" The piece that choked him flew out of his mouth, and fell down at a great distance off.    Then Big-Raven went home.    That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye

101. Eme'mqut and Illa'.*

         It was at the time when Big-Raven (Ouikinn-a'qu) and his people lived. Eme'mqut, his son, had no wife. He went out, and found there an old man who was busy making tobacco-mortars ornamented with engraved designs. He asked him, "What kind of tobacco-mortars are you making?" The old man answered, "Go into the house. The old woman there will prepare a meal for you." He entered the-house, and the old woman cooked a meal. Then she took the meat out of the kettle, and gave it to her guest. When he was through with his meal, the old man came home, and gave him the mortars, saying, "Take those with you, but, while hauling your sled, take care not to look back on them." Eme'mqut took the mortars and went away, dragging them along. Though they felt heavy, he did not stop, nor did he look back. At last he saw a large herd of reindeer passing ahead of him. Then he stopped and looked back. Behold! he saw a young woman in a covered sledge, driving a reindeer-team. He took a seat on the same sledge, and they drove home, where they had a great feast.

         After some time, Illa' asked him, " How did you succeed in getting all this?" Eme'mqut told him how he found an old man, and how that old man was making tobacco-mortars. "I understand," said Illa'. He set out to find the old man, and, on reaching him, said, "Why are you making these tobacco- mortars?" — «Go in," said the old man. "The old woman there will prepare you a meal." Illa' entered the house, and the old woman prepared a meal, and, taking out the meat, gave him some of it. When he was through, the old   man came in,  gave him  the tobacco-mortars,  and  said as before,   "These




you must haul behind you; but take care not to look back while dragging them along." Illa' started on his way, but at almost every step he would look back at the mortars. One time a reindeer-leg appeared out of the farthest mortar. He sprang at it with his knife, intending to kill it, and to get the marrow out of its bones. Another time, when he turned back, a reindeer- head peered out of the darkness. He sprang at it with his knife, struck it with the blade, and chopped the face into small pieces. At last he arrived home, and left the sledge with Eme'mqut. Only tobacco-mortars were on it. That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

102.  Eme'mqut and the Ka'la.*

         Eme'mqut lived with his family.     One time he went out into the wilder-ness,   where   he   found   a house.     A voice from within said,   " Halloo, La'wa! How  are   you   getting  along with your man-hunting?" 1     He said,   "Well, we have killed some wild reindeer."     How is your wife?" —   "She has just been delivered of a child.    And we have also killed a man here at home.    Now, a'wa, will you beat the drum?" —   "Where is it?" —  "Where should it be? It  is yonder on the cross-pole."    Eme'mqut beat the drum, and put them to sleep, — the   kamak   and   his   wife;   then   he  revived the dead man, and at midnight  they   both fled.     Later on the kamak's wife wished to urinate, and came out of the house.     "How light of foot our son has become!" said both kamak   parents.     "How   is   it   that   there are here two footprints, — one on this side, and another on that?"    They entered the house, and went to sleep again.     In   a  short  time   their real son came home.     "Halloo, La'wa!    Not long   ago   you were at home,  and  now you  arrive again." —   "When have  I been at home?    I have just arrived !"     (Ti'ta gu'mma tra'tik? vi'tcu tra'tik !)3"How is your reindeer-hunt going?" —  "Nothing killed!     We are quite short of  food." —  "Ho,   La'wa!   beat   the   drum."     He took the  drum, which was covered   with pieces of skin taken from women's breasts and sewed together. Then he beat the drum,  singing,   "Tray troy,  tray troy!"4

         The   revived   man   lived   with   Eme'mqut.      He  married a daughter of a reindeer-breeder, and they lived quite happily thereafter.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

1  Oya'mya ("man") is a word  used only by spirits.    The usual  word is Oya'mtawela'n.

2  Here the spirits speak of men as  'wild reindeer."     In other tales a man is spoken of as "a little seal."

3  These words are supposed to be in  the language of the kamak.     They differ from the ordinary Koryak
of   the  western   branch   only   by   the  repeated   use  of  r  instead of  v, which makes them similar to the eastern
Koryak dialect, or the Chukchee (cf. also footnote to p.  287).

4  Compare preceding footnote.



103.  How Yiñe'a-ñe'ut is swallowed by a Kamak.*

         It was at the time when Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) and his people lived. A girl of his family was quite lousy. They shook her garments, and one small louse dropped down. Then Big-Raven, the girl's father, asked his wife, "What shall we do with it?" The women answered, "What shall we do' You will kill it." — "No!" said he. "I shall use it to make a drum."   So he made a drum of the louse; and the whole family saw that the small louse was turned into a very nice drum indeed. From that time on, Big-Raven acted as a shaman, and the news of his inspiration was carried to every village in the neighborhood. The people said to each other, "How is it that Big-Raven has become a shaman? He has grown old without having any spirits. Has he become a shaman  only by making a new kind  of a drum?"

         Big-Raven let his daughter live in seclusion,  and she was not to be seen by the people.    Suitors came for her from every village in the neighborhood. Then   Big-Raven   said,   "Whoever guesses correctly of what my new drum is made   shall   have   my daughter."    The suitors guessed all kinds of sea-game. One   said,   "Of  whale;"   but  Big-Raven   said,   "Not of that!"    Another said, "Of white   whale."     A   third   guessed   a   wolf.    They mentioned all kinds of animals; but their guesses were all wrong.     Then a kamak jumped out of the fire on to the hearth.     He was quite naked, but for a cap on his head.    He said, "I will guess what your drum is made of.    Of a chamber-vessel." — "Not of that," said Big-Raven.     "Of a kettle." —  "Not of that," answered Big-Raven. "Then   of  a   small   louse."      Miti'   said   sorrowfully,   "Now we must give our daughter   to   the kamak."    She brought the girl out, and arranged her dress properly.    Then the people saw her for the first time.     The girl cried.     Mean- while her parents arranged three lines of sledges.     One was hauled by whales; another, by white-whales;  and the third  one, by reindeer.     All kinds of living things   were   used   by   them.      At   last   they   brought   a  small doe.     The girl mounted   it,  and at the same time she put on a shoulder-band from which a small   knife hung.     Besides this,  she put a comb into her pocket.     Then the train of sledges started on its way,  and the girl cried still harder than before. After a while they came to the kamak's people, who went out to meet them, and   immediately   ate   all   the   reindeer.      "N'am,   n'am, n'am I"1    Before they killed   the   doe,   the girl began to  strike with her knife at the kamak-people, and killed them all.     Finally only one was left, — the naked one.     She could not kill him.    Then she threw her comb down,  which grew quite large.    She climbed   to   the top of it; but, as the kamak was unable to follow, he could not   eat   her.    Then  he said,   "When, in the future, a man marries you, and you have two children, then I will come and eat you all."     The kamak went away.

1  The narrator illustrated by these sounds how  the reindeer were eaten.



         After some time a reindeer-breeder married the girl, and she bore one child, and then another. From that time on, she would cry again, saying, "Now the kamak will surely eat us all!" One day, when her husband had crone out, the kamak really came and ate her. She succeeded, however, in snatching up a tailoring-knife. With this she ripped up the kamak's belly, and came out again. In the morning, when she got up, she saw a kamak- woman busying herself around the place. "Who are you?" she asked. "We ate you yesterday." After this the kamak-woman came to be an ordinary human being.

         The sons of Big-Raven's daughter were now full-grown, and one of them married the kamak-woman. Then the husband of Big-Raven's daughter came back. Her other son also married, and they all went to visit Big-Raven. When they were approaching Big-Raven's house, somebody exclaimed, "They have brought back your daughter!"  But Big-Raven said, "My daughter was carried away by a kamak. How can they bring her back now!"  Then she looked down into the house, and said, " Here I am! Really I have come back!" They entered the house, and from that time they all lived together, and were very rich.     That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

104.  Big-Raven and Fish-Woman.*

         It was at the time when Big-Raven (Ouikinn'a'qu) and his people lived. They had nothing to eat: so Big-Raven went down to the sea. Finding Fish-Woman (Ene'm-ñe'ut) there, he took her home. She spawned, and the people ate the spawn. After a while Big-Raven married Fish-Woman. Miti' grew angry;  and one day, when Big-Raven had gone out, Miti' struck Fish- Woman, and killed her. Then she cooked her meat. Some of it she ate herself; the other part she left for her husband. Big-Raven came home, and called out, "Fish-Woman, come out!" Then the one who had been cooked not long before came out of the storeroom.1 She placed some food before him, and said,   "Miti' has killed  me  and cooked  my flesh."

          Next morning Big-Raven again went away from his house. Miti' imme-diately caught Fish-Woman, and struck her on the head with a club. "Now," she thought, "I have killed her!" But when Big-Raven came back, she came to life again, and gave him food, as before. After that Fish-Woman went away, saying, "If I stay here, Miti' will surely make an end of me." Big- Raven came home, but she was gone. He went to the sea, and called, "Fish-Woman, come here!" She answered, "No, I will not come. Miti' will kill me again."    She did not come back.     That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

1  See p.  285.



105. The Kamak and his Wife.*

         Some people lived in a certain place. One day a kamak with his wife looked down through the entrance-hole, and called, "Halloo! have you any blubber?" — "There is a little in the cellar," was the answer. The kamaks went to the cellar, and began to eat blubber. Then they sang, "It tastes well.   We eat blubber."    (Copro'tka valu'tka.)1

         The next morning they came to the house again. "Halloo, there! have you any blubber?" — "There is some in the porch." While they were eating it, they sang, "It tastes well. We eat blubber; but when there is no more blubber, we shall eat you."

         In the night-time the people fled to the sky. They shot an arrow upward, and it became a road, on which they fled upward. The next time the kamak came and called as before, "Hallo, there! have you some blubber?" there was no answer, for the people were not there. The kamaks said, "Let us jump in. Probably they are hidden somewhere." They entered the house, and searched in all the corners; but nothing was to be found. "Let us try to find them with the aid of a divining-stone." The kamak-woman asked her husband to stand with legs apart, and use his penis as a divining-stone. "If they have gone to the morning dawn, we may follow them. If they have gone to the sunset, we may follow them. If they have gone to the seaside, we may follow them ;   but if they have gone upwards, what shall we do ? How can we follow, when God made that road impassable for us?" Then the male kamak swayed his penis. "Well," they said, "we have got to go out. It is a shame to go in and out the same way. Let us go out through the ent-hole in the roof of the porch." The woman, however, said, "Take me on your shoulders." He took her on his back. At once he cried, "Oh! you are strangling me!" Behold! his head had slipped into her anus. He cried, "Oh! you are playing mischief!" Finally they both died and lay there, his head still thrust  into her anus.

         After a while the fugitives said, "Let us go and have a look at our house." They went back to their house, and dragged out the bodies of the kamaks with an iron hook. When the head of the kamak came out of the woman's anus, they saw that it had lost all of its hair. They threw the bodies in the direction of the sunset. After that they began to live happily, and were not molested by spirits.    That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

1 These words are supposed to be in the language of the kamak, though, like those on pp. 2S7 and 290,
they belong to the western branch of the Koryak. As to the character of their phonetics, cf. footnote to
pp. 287 and 290.


                     JOCHELSON, THE  KORYAK.

106.  Eme'mqut and  Fox-Woman.*

         Eme'mqut married Fox-Woman (Yayo'ca-ña'ut). Once upon a time he said, "I will go to my summer-place to get some blubber." He went to the place, and found that one of the flippers of his blubber-bag had been gnawed by a mouse. The mouse had died there, and he found it near the blubber-  ag.  "What is this?" he said.  "It is a dead wolverene." He put the mouse on his sledge, and hauled it home. On coming home, he looked back on it, and, behold! it had really become a wolverene. He looked down the entrance to the house, and called, "Miti', come out! I have killed a wolverene."  The women took the wolverene in, and began the usual ceremonial. The boot- strings of Fox-Woman, the untidy one, were loose.  " Ho, Fox-Woman! you must beat the drum," said Miti' to her daughter-in-law. The untidy creature was sitting in her place, making small skin thimbles. She stood up, and began to sing, " I am an unskilled woman ; I am an untidy woman; I am one who eats hardened excrement left in the open air; I am one who gnaws at the lacings of snowshoes in the winter moonlight!" — "That is true," said the others. "When we come to look for our snowshoes, the foxes have really eaten off all the lacings." She felt ashamed, and, not taking care even to tie her boot-strings, she ran far away. After some time Eme'mqut went out in search of her, and found her in a house in the wilderness. It was full of children. He asked Fox-Woman, "Where do all these children come from?" — " I was in doubt whether you would treat me properly:  so when my time came, I came here, and my children were born here." — "Do not shout so loud! We had better go home." They went home with all their children. The skin thimbles that she had made were airing, suspended on a line. Now they became infants' garments. The people, however, asked Eme'mqut, "Where did you get this woman?" — "I brought her from the wilderness. She gave birth there to all these children, whom I brought along." — "Is it true that this is the same woman who was so skilful in sewing? If that is so, she has probably kept away from here for no reason  whatever."

         From that time on, they lived happily. Eme'mqut married Kïlu'. Illa' married Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. When so disposed, they would ascend the river, and  atch plenty of winter fish. Then they would return to their camps, and meanwhile their friends would have killed plenty of game. In this manner they led a  merry life.     What  has  become  of them  I  do  not  know.     That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

107.  Kïlu'  and the  Bumblebees.*

Eme'mqut   lived   with   his   people.      He   married  Kïlu', but they had no children.    Eme'mqut went into the wilderness, and, coming to a river, followed



it upstream. After a while he saw a crowd of people catching fish with a seine-net. The jackets of all the men were made of broadcloth; and the overcoats of all the women, of calico; and some of the latter were even resplendent with the reflection from their bright bodies. Eme'mqut hurried to give help to the fishermen, and very soon took one of the women for his wife. It was a Bumblebee, for these people were Bumblebees. Soon the young woman gave birth to a number of children.

         One time Kïlu' became very restless. She went out and followed the river upstream, looking for her husband. At last she saw some people fishing. Eme'mqut was helping them with all his strength. Then Kïlu' trampled to death Eme'mqut's wife. The Bumblebee was torn to pieces. A great number of tiny fly-eggs were scattered about. These became full-grown bumblebees. The fishermen also turned into bumblebees. Eme'mqut could do nothing: so he went home with Kïlu'.     That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoy

108.  How Eme'mqut became a Cannibal.*

         It was at the time when Big-Raven (Ouikinn'a'qu) and his people lived.`Eme'mqut married Grass-Woman (Ve'ai). Then Eme'mqut said to his wife, Let us go into the wilderness." She answered, "It seems to me you are wrong. Why should I go there? I will not go." He went away alone, and, having killed many reindeer, came back to his home on the same day. Next time he went hunting, he slept one night away from his home. Then he staid out two nights. At last he did not come back at all. Grass-Woman went to her father, Root-Man (Tatqa'hicñin). She reached his house, and very quietly looked down the entrance. There she saw Eme'mqut splitting in twain her father, Root-Man. When Eme'mqut began to eat his own father-  in-law,Grass-Woman fled from the place, and hid herself in an underground house. She placed there two small lice, — one in the central room and the other in the storeroom, — and started for Big-Raven's house. Upon her arrival, she said, "Something unusual has happened to Eme'mqut." The people constructed a raised platform, and ascended it.

         When Eme'mqut arrived at the underground house where Grass-Woman had left her lice, he called, " Grass- Woman!" and a voice answered, "Oh!" He called again, "Grass-Woman!" and a voice answered from the storeroom, "Oh!" Soon he discovered that his wife was gone, and that the voices were those of the two little lice.

         "You are trying to fool me," said Eme'mqut; "but nothing will stop me from eating all the people." Then he approached the platform on which Big- Raven's people were sitting,  and repeated,  "Nothing will stop me from eating



all the people." He began to lick with his tongue the supports of the plat-form on which they were sitting. Big-Raven tried to cut Eme'mqut's tongue with his adze, but broke the adze, and, on examining it, found that its edge was jagged and spoiled. He broke his axe in the same manner, trying to cut Eme'mqut's tongue. Then Big-Raven said, "Let him have his own off- spring." Grass-Woman dropped her small child into Eme'mqut's mouth, and after a moment he had swallowed it. Only some broken bones remained, which he spat out. Then Big-Raven spoke: " Halloo, listen to my words! Since you act in this manner on your own flesh and blood, eat your own body!" Immediately Eme'mqut began to eat his own body. He gnawed off the ends of his toes, then his legs. After that, he ate his whole body, arms, shoulders, and all. Finally only his neck and his throat were left. Then Eme'mqut died, and Big-Raven had what remained of his body burned.  long time passed. Once in the evening the fire on their hearth was just out, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and her sister said, "We will go and close the smoke- hole." When stopping up the smoke-hole, they suddenly exclaimed, "Those two, Eme'mqut and his son, are coming back!  Eme'mqut is carrying his son n his shoulder."  After a while Eme'mqut called from outside, "Bring out the fire!"  They took the fire out, and sacrificed to it. After the sacrifice, those two entered the house.

         Eme'mqut, however, never said again,  "Let us go into the wilderness."   From that time on, he lived quietly in his house. He yearned no more, as  before, to roam far and wide. They began to live steadily in the same place. That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

109. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Kïlu''s Marriage with Fish-Men.'

         It was at the time when  Big-Raven  (Ouikinn'a'qu) and his people lived. One time, Kílu' said to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut,   "Let us go into the wilderness."    They left   their  house,  taking a fish-head  as  travelling-provisions.     After some time they  sat down to eat their fish-head;   and  Kïlu' playfully threw a  cheek-bone of the fish at her sister, striking her on  the face.     The bone stuck tightly to the face; and Kïlu' fled in fright, thinking that her sister had become a kamak. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   tried   to   detach   the   bone,  but was unable  to  do so.     Then she went to sleep, while her sister went home.     On being asked, "Where is Yi'ñi?" she   answered,   "Yi'ñi has become a kamak!"     In the mean time Yiñe'a-ñe'ut awakened   from   her sleep, and saw near her  Fish-Man (Ene'mtila'n) combing his   long   hair.     Fish-Man said,   "You have slept long enough: it is time for you   to   awaken."     He   took   her   for   his wife, and they lived there.     At an open   place   in   the  river there was an abundance of wintering fish,  and they caught a great many.



         After some time they went to Big-Raven. "There is your daughter coming  home!" — "No, my daughter became a kamak!" — "But I am here, I  have really come back!"

         Kílu' began to envy her cousin on account of her Fish-husband. "Yi'ñi, let the same thing happen  to me that happened to you!     You have a good husband."

         Then she said to Can'a'i-ña'ut, "Can'a'i, let us go into the wilderness!" — «There is too much work to be done at home,"   answered Can-a'i. But the other insisted, saying, "Let us go into the wilderness." They went away, taking a fish-head for travelling-provisions. After some time they sat down to eat. "Can-a'i, strike me with the cheek-bone of this fish!" — "No, I will not!" — "At least, act as if you were striking me. We shall gain much by it." Then Can-a'i struck her with the bone; but it did not stick to her face. She tried to fasten it with her saliva, and at last it staid on. "Now, Can-a'i, you must leave me alone." Can'a'i went away. After a while her cousin said, "Come back, Can'a'i, I cannot turn into a kamak .... Now leave me again, and go home. Say there that I have become a kamak." Can-a'i  left her again, and Kïlu' began at last to feel herself being transformed. Can-a'i went home, and, when asked about her cousin, said, "She told me to go home and to announce that she had become a kamak." Big-Raven said, "She knows her own mind.     Let her be whatever she desires."

         In the mean time Kïlu' pretended to be crying, and gradually fell asleep. When awakened, she also saw Fish-Man, who said to her, "You have slept long enough! Now you have your desire." Fish-Man married her, and they lived in that place,  catching plenty of fish.

         After some time they went to visit Big-Raven. The people said, "Kïlu' is coming back to us!" — "No, my niece was transformed into a kamak!" —  But I am here, I have come back! Fish-Man married me." After that they all lived together, and their catch of fish was always very large. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and her cousin bore children, and most of their children were males.    That's all.

Told in the maritime village Kamenskoye.

110.  How Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was taken to  Lower Village.

         Illa' married Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. Soon afterward Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) killed a whale. They arranged the whale festival. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut performed shamanistic incantations all night long. The people did not sleep, but watched her. Just before daybreak they could not hold out any longer, and fell asleep. Then the spirits Ya'llau  carried her  away  into  Lower  Village.

         Yine'a-ñe'ut   found   herself   outdoors,   without   clothes,   in   Lower Village.




She did not know whose houses were there.     Finally a woman came out, saw Yiñe'a-ñe'ut lying on the ground,  and returned into the house.

         About that time the people in Lower Village also killed a whale, and also performed shamanistic incantations at night. There was another Eme'mqut among  them, who fell asleep while practising shamanism at night. The woman who had found Yiñe'a-ñe'ut came in and called this Eme'mqut. "Get up!" said she "Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, Big-Raven's daughter, has arrived." Eme'mqut arose, went outdoors, and hid. His sister, Abundant-in-Water-Woman (I'mlelin-ñe'ut), car- ried out some clothes for Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, dressed her, and led her into the house.

         At Big-Raven's the people were up; and, seeing that Yiñe'a-ñe'ut had disappeared, they looked for her. Illa' and Eme'mqut of our world went to Lower Village and found her there. They entered the house, and said, "We came after you, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut." They took her away. In Lower Village Yiñe'a- ñe'ut did not say that she had been married.

         No sooner had they taken Yiñe'a-ñe'ut away than Eme'mqut of Lower Village, who had kept in hiding, entered the house. His sister, Abundant-in- Water-Woman, said, "Where have you been? Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was here. You might have taken her, but now she has been carried back." Eme'mqut an- swered, "She is married already" (he knew it because he was a shaman). Then he asked his sister, "Did you give her any clothes?" — "Yes, I did," said the sister. "Well, then, let us go to Big-Raven's," said Eme'mqut; "let us take the clothes back." 1    Then they left.

         When they approached Big-Raven's house, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was beating the drum, and practising shamanism. All the people went outdoors to meet the new-comers, leaving Yiñe'a-ñe'ut in the house. Then she threw away her drum, and ran out with her sister Can'a'i-ña'ut to meet Eme'mqut of Lower Village and his sister. The guests went into the house. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, who up to that time had always practised shamanism, and taken no part in house- keeping, now bustled about.     She prepared the meal for the guests.

         On the same evening the younger son of Big-Raven, Big-Light (Oeski'- n-a'qu), came from Root-Man's (Tatqa'hicñin) camp. "What news do you bring?" asked Big-Raven. Big-Light pulled out of his bosom a few agaric fungi, offered them to his father as a present, and said, "A daughter has been born to me." To this Big-Raven replied, "Take along some reindeer, and use them for your  guests  at the women's feast." -

         On the following morning Can-a'i-ña'ut went to Big-Light's to attend the birth festival;  and Eme'mqut of Lower Village said to his sister, "You may go home.     I will remain here, and woo  Can'a'i-ña'ut."

         She started off. Soon Eme'mqut of Lower Village married Can-a'i-ña'ut, and took her home.    There they killed a whale at that time, arranged a feast,

1  By saying this, Eme'mqut indirectly expressed a desire  to go and woo Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's sister.

2  The feast after confinement is celebrated in the tent of the mother,  and is only for women.




and sent the whale home.     Then they went up again to visit Big-Raven, and they remained there.

         Once Eme'mqut of Lower Village said to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, "You practised shamanism in my absence, let us stop that now." Later on he went home, and lived in Lower Village.     That's all.

Told  by  Yu'taw,  a  Maritime  Koryak woman,  in the
village of Talovka, Dec. 29,  1900.

111.  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Earth-Maker.

         Once Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, Can'a'i-ña'ut, Kïlu', and Kidney-Woman (Kici'me-ñe'ut) went to pick berries and to dig roots. They put up a tent and lived in the wilderness. One morning the girls went to gather berries, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut parted from her friends. She left her bag on the ground, walked away from it, picked berries, and returned to her bag. She looked around and saw marrow from the bone of a reindeer-leg on her bag. She took the marrow. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut came to be with child from eating the marrow. On the fol- lowing day she said to her sisters, "Go alone after berries and roots: I am going to stay at home." The sisters left without her. During their absence, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut gave birth to a boy. She put him into a trough, and carried him into the storehouse. Toward evening her sisters came home. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said to them,   "I saw no man,  and yet gave birth to a boy."

         On the following clay, Kïlu' said to her friends, "You may go after berries: I shall remain at home. When they were gone, Kïlu' put a dog into a trough, and carried it into the storehouse. When her friends returned at nightfall, she said to them,   "I also saw no  man,  and I  gave birth."

         Autumn set in. The brothers came up the river in their skin boats to get their sisters. The brothers loaded the skin boats with the berries, roots, and fly-agaric gathered by the girls.

         When they took hold of the trough in which the child lay, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said, "Be careful with the trough." Kïlu' also asked her brother Illa', pointing out the trough in which the dog was, to be careful with it.  Illa' carried it down;  but it fell out of his hands, on account of its great weight. The dog howled, but Illa' picked up the trough and carried it to the skin boat. The brothers and sisters paddled down the river to its mouth. There they landed, and stored their load in the storehouses. Then they celebrated the feast of sending the whale home.

         The Reindeer people arrived. Twilight-Man (Gi'thililasn), Frost-Man (Anna'mayat), Envious-One (Nipai'vaticñin), Fog-Man (Yiña'mtilasn), and others also arrived. Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) ordered the child in the trough to be brought   in.     He   said   to   it,   "Look  at the  Reindeer people.     Is your father



among them?"  The child did not point out any of them. Then Kïlu' brought out the trough with the dog in it. As soon as she uncovered the trough, Eme'mqut recognized it as his dog. After the sending-home festival of the whale was over,  the guests departed.

         For some time Big-Raven's  family lived alone. One evening somebody drove up on a reindeer-sledge. Eme'mqut went out to meet him, and saw that the newly arrived stranger was very young-looking, quite like a boy. His name was Earth-Maker (Tanu'ta).1  Eme'mqut said to him, "You must have come to look for your son?" — "Yes," answered Earth-Maker, "I have come to see him. I was ashamed to come in human form and woo Yiñe'a- ñe'ut. Therefore I turned into the marrow of a reindeer-leg. She ate me, and became with child."

         Earth-Maker entered the house, staid over night, and in the morning wen off home   with   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   on   a   long train of reindeer-sledges.    Big-Raven gave  him a part of his own reindeer-herd.     When Earth-Maker drove up to his house, his relatives came out to see who had arrived, and, beholding Yiñe'a- ñe'ut with a child, said,  "That woman gave birth without a husband."    Yiñe'a- ñe'ut felt ashamed, and turned into stone.    Earth-Maker, seeing this, thought, "Yiñe'a-ñe'ut  is now dead.    I shall go back, and return the reindeer to Big- Raven."    He did not even enter his house, but went back at once.    He arrived at  Big-Raven's house, and suddenly saw Yiñe'a-ñe'ut there.     "You are here! and   I   thought  you  were   dead."    "I   was   ashamed before your relatives," answered Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.     "Therefore I turned into a stone, and came here alone." On the following day they drove off again.     As they drove up to Earth- Maker's house, they saw the stone still standing there.     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut kicked it, and another Yiñe'a-ñe'ut stood there.     She gave her in marriage to Frost-Man. From   that   time   on,   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's   health began to  give way.     Earth-Maker attended to her, gave up looking after the  reindeer,  and neglected  his herds. One   day   Earth-Maker   went   out   and   stumbled against  a  big  snowdrift. He   looked   around,   and   saw   the   entrance   to   an   underground   house.     He peeped   in,   and   beheld   a young man  walking up   and  down.     It was  Cloud-Man (Ya'hala'n).     Cloud-Man shouted to  him,   "Earth-Maker,  is that you?" — "Yes,   it   is   I,"  answered  Earth-Maker.     "Come in,"  said  Cloud-Man.     Earth- Maker descended, and saw an old man and an old woman there.     They were in bed asleep.    The old man was Supervisor (Ina'hitela'n), the father.of Cloud- Man.     Cloud-Man   asked   Earth-Maker,   "What do you  think?     Why is your wife's health giving way?" — "I do not know," answered Earth-Maker.     "Her health is declining," continued Cloud-Man,  "because you did not kill the double- headed   reindeer   from   your father's herd when you brought your young wife into your house.    Just look at the fire on the hearth, and see how my father pushes your wife into it."     He looked, and really saw his wife sitting on stones

1 Tanu'ta means literally "he made the earth."



which surrounded the hearth. There he also saw little boys with short straps on their thumbs. "Do you see those little boys?" said Cloud-Man. "They are to be your future children. They will be born, but they will not live long. Look at them: their straps are short." Later on Cloud-Man pointed out to Earth-Maker a six-fingered girl sitting on the cross-beam of the house, and said, "Wake up the old man, and ask him for that girl. She has a long strap around her neck.     She will live long.     Don't ask for boys."1

         Earth-Maker tried to waken Supervisor and his wife; and long did he call before. Supervisor woke up. Earth-Maker asked him, "Why are you asleep? Why don't you watch over the earth?" — "We went to sleep," an- swered Supervisor, "because you took your wife home, and would not kill the double-headed reindeer for us on that occasion. Therefore we sleep, and push your wife into the fire." Earth-Maker replied, "As soon as I reach home, I will kill the double-headed reindeer." After that, Supervisor asked Earth-Maker, "Do you wish to have a son?" — "No," answered Earth-Maker. "I don't care  for a son: give me a six-fingered girl." — "All right," said Supervisor. Lateron he added, "Now go home. On your way you will kill a wolf. Give the skin of that wolf to your wife for bedding." Earth-Maker went out of the house, looked around, and, behold! there was no snowdrift. He found himself in the sky. He looked down on the earth through an opening, saw different settlements, and recognized his own camp. After that, he came down to the earth. On his way a wolf came running up to him. Earth-Maker killed him, and carried him home.

         As soon as Earth-Maker came to his father's camp, he immediately went to his herd, picked out the double-headed reindeer, and offered it as a sacrifice to Cloud-Man. After that, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut recovered. Then they arranged a wolf feast. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut put on the wolf's skin, and walked around the fire- place.    Thus they finished the wolf feast.

         Soon after, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut gave birth to. a six-fingered daughter.     One day Earth-Maker said,   "Now I shall take you to your parents.     They must think you have been dead a long time."    They prepared for the journey, and went to visit Big-Raven.     There they found  Cloud-Man,  who was wooing Can'a'i-ña'ut and serving for her.     Earth-Maker and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut brought their daughter into the house.    Cloud-Man looked at her, and asked, "Do you know where they ob- tained their daughter?"     Big-Light (Oesknra'qu), Big-Raven's younger son, was a shaman.    He said, "She is the girl from the cross-beam of your father's house." Pretty   soon  Cloud-Man  married  Can-a'i-ña'ut.     Later  on  a son  was  born to   him.      After   that,  he said,   "I  shall  go  and  let  my  father hear from  me." He  went   up   to   the   sky   and   came   to   Supervisor.      His  father asked  him, Well,      you   married?"     "Yes,   I   am   married,"   answered  Cloud-Man. "A son was born to me."  Then  he went back to  his wife.     When  he came

1  See pp.  25,  26, 93, and Fig. 40, p. 93.



to Big-Raven's, Big-Light asked him, "Well, did not your father get angry with you because of your marriage ?" — " No, he did not get angry," answered Cloud-Man.

         Thus they lived,  and  called on each  other.     That's all.

Told by Yu'taw, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the vil-
lage of Talovka, Dec. 29, 1900.

112.  Gormandizer the Cannibal.

         Eme'mqut married Grass-Woman (Ve'ai), the daughter of Root-Man (Tatqa'hicñin).  Eme'mqut's sister, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, lived all alone in the wilder- ness, farther up the river. Still farther up was a settlement consisting of two houses. In one of these lived young Gormandizer (A'wye-qla'ul). He was always asking his mother for something to eat. She would give him all kinds of food, but he would not take it, saying,  "It is bad food." Finally he became a cannibal, and ate human beings. He devoured his mother and all his relatives. Then he devoured all the inmates of the neighboring house, until finally he remained all alone in the settlement. After a while he went to another Maritime village, and devoured all the inhabitants. Then he devoured all the Reindeer people. Finally he came to Big-Raven's (Ouikinn-a'qu) village. Side by side with Big-Raven's house stood a separate house, which belonged to Illa' and his relatives. Gormandizer killed all the people in Illa"s house, and then went on to Big-Raven's house.

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut came out of her house and far off beheld Gormandizer dragging a sledge full of human bodies from the other settlement. She re- entered the house and went to sleep. In her sleep she saw Gormandizer devour all the people on the earth. Finally she saw him reach Big-Raven's house. He ate up her brother, her father, and all the people in the house. Only Grass-Woman was left. Gormandizer took her for his wife, and she also became a cannibal woman.     Grass-Woman's child was also  spared. 

         When Yiñe'a-ñe'ut awoke, she went right away to her father's village. She entered Big-Raven's house, and found nobody but the child. She went to Grass-Woman. When she came to Gormandizer's house, she shouted, "Grass-Woman, come out!" Grass-Woman peeped out through the entrance- hole of the house, and, seeing Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, said,  "I entirely forgot to tell my husband about Yiñe'a-ñe'ut living alone in the wilderness. — I shall kill you now :  that will  please  my husband when  he  returns  home."

         She ascended the ladder, and shouted, "N-am, n-am, n-am!" At this moment, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut took out of Grass-Woman's body her cannibal stomach, which had made her a cannibal;  so that when she got outdoors, she recovered her senses,  and  did  not  crave human  flesh any more.     Then Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and



Grass-Woman entered the house. Grass-Woman said to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, "Why did you come here? When my husband sees you, he will eat you." Yiñe'a- ñe'ut answered, "Let him eat me too, since he ate my father, my mother, and my brothers." Grass-Woman replied, "It is three days since he went hunting   for people. He has devoured every one near by. Now he is on his way to the farthest settlements, killing people. He will bring the bodies here. He eats a man at a time. Let us hide you, lest he should see you." Grass- Woman hid Yiñe'a-ñe'ut in a bead.

         Soon after, Gormandizer came dragging a man on his sledge. He shouted from outside, "Grass-Woman, come out!" She came out and unloaded the sledge. Her husband asked her, "Why don't you rejoice over the prey?" She answered, "I am pleased; but I ate not long ago, therefore do not hurry." They entered the house, hauled in the body, and put it away, together with the bodies of other people. Gormandizer cut off the head of one, which he fried. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut peeped out of the bead, and saw that it was Big-Raven's head. Suddenly Gormandizer said, "It smells of living human flesh here." Then Grass-Woman took her child out of the cradle and threw it to him. He devoured it instantly. Then he smelled, and said, "I still smell living human flesh." Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said from the bead, "Let him eat me. Later on I shall revive all those whom he has killed." Grass-Woman pulled Yiñe'a-ñe'ut out of the bead,  and threw her to her husband.     He devoured her at once.

         She found herself in the underground world (Eñna'nenak, literally "the other side"). There she found all her relatives and all the other people whom Gormandizer had killed. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said to them. "Hurry back before the sides of the road come together." They all followed her. On the next morning Gormandizer set out to hunt for human beings. After his departure, all the people whom he had killed appeared in the house, coming up from under ground. They filled it so full that the walls were pushed apart. When Grass-Woman saw her father and her former husband, she said, "Why did you come back? Gormandizer will eat you again." But Yiñe'a-ñe'ut answered, "Never mind, let him eat."

         Soon after, Gormandizer arrived. When he saw the many people, he shouted, "What a lot of food I shall have! I shall store it away." But Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went to meet him, and pulled his cannibal stomach out with an iron hook.     Then  he  ceased being  a  cannibal.

         The people who  had returned from  the  underground  world  left  for their homes.     The Reindeer people left for  their  camps too.     Gormandizer married Yine'a-ñe'ut.     At  first Gormandizer would eat only once in a month, but after- ward he ate  all kinds  of food  as  of old.

         Thus people lived and celebrated feasts and visited each other.     That's all.

Told by Yu'taw, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Talovka, Dec. 30, 1900.


                      JOCHELSON, THE  KORYAK.

113.  Transformatio  of River-Man  into  a  Woman.

         Once upon a time Illa' said, "I will turn into a woman." He and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut did needlework together. One day she sent him up the river to Root- Man's (Tatqa'hicñin) to ask for a dog-skin with which to trim her coat. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut took off her suit of reindeer-skin, and dressed Illa'  in it. Then she looked at him and said, "No, they will recognize you." She dressed him in another suit, looked at him again, and said, "Now they will not recognize you, and even I should take you for a woman."

         Illa' left.     He came in sight of Root-Man's house.    Just at that moment, Root-Man's son,  River-Man (Veye'mila'n),  arrived from the forest with wood, and entered the underground house.     His wife asked him, "Who is that coming out there?"    He answered,   "Illa' is coming, the same one who turned into a woman.     What   do   you   want of him?" —  "Nothing," answered River-Man's wife.      "He   is  our  guest:  why did you  not  invite  him  into the house ?"     She went   and   called   Illa' into  the house.     He  came  in.     After  River-Man's  wife had given him to eat, she asked, "What did you come for?" — "Yiñe'a-ñe'ut sent me to ask you for a dog-skin to trim a coat," answered Illa'.    She gave Illa' a dog-skin and said,  "Stay here over  night, you may take the skin hometo-morrow.    It is too late to return."     River-Man's wife gave him to eat, and, when they were going to bed, she showed him a place near River-Man.     Her husband,  however,  would  not lie  down near Illa'.     He  said,   "You  may sleep alone   here:   I   will   lie   down   at   another place,  because  I  am  afraid  I  might become a woman too."     River-Man lay down at the opposite end of the house. Illa' thought,   "As soon as  River-Man saw me, he recognized me, and now he does not want to lie down side of me.     I will cause him to become a woman." At night, when  all were asleep, Illa' stepped up to River-Man and threw him- self  upon   him   as   he  would upon  a woman.     River-Man  tried  to throw him  ft,   but   he   could   not keep  him away.     Finally River-Man gave him  such  a kick  that it sent him  flying against the house-ladder.     Illa' took  his bag and the dog-skin,  and started home  at night.

         When he arrived, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut asked him, "Did they recognize you?" —Yes, they did, River-Man recognized me." Then she took him into the storehouse, took out a man's suit of clothes, and dressed him in it. "Cease being . a woman; wear man's clothes," said Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. "Now go up to Thunder-Man [Kihi'gila'n] and get a wife for yourself there." Illa' became a man again. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut shot an arrow to the sky, which made a path that  lla' ascended.     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut returned into  the  house.

         The next day River-Man went again to the forest for wood. He tied his bundle with a strap, carried it on his shoulders, and the strap snapped. He looked  down  and saw that the  straps of his trousers were breaking.     He



sat down outside, at the same place where Illa' had been sitting the day before. -His wife came out of the house, and asked him, "What are you doing here?" He answered, "I do not know why I hated Illa'. I am sitting now where he has sat. Bring me a pair of woman's breeches. I shall become a woman." His wife took him home. Then River-Man said to her, "Give me some rein- deer-sinew, I want to twist some thread." She gave him some sinew, and he began to do woman's work.

         While Illa' was absent, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut married Frost-Man (Anna'mayat).  Once River-Man said to his father and to his brothers, "Make a skin boat, and let us go to Big-Raven's (Quikinn'a'qu) house. If I see Illa', I may im- prove, I may recover my wits." His father and brothers made the framework of the skin boat, covered it with reindeer-skins, and with River-Man went down the river to visit Big-Raven. When they had landed, River-Man asked Big- Raven's people, "Where is Illa'?" They answered that they did not know. River-Man and his relatives remained  over  night with  Big-Raven.

         The next morning Yiñe'a-ñe'ut arose early, and saw a whole train of eindeer-sledges coming down from the sky. She immediately ran home to waken her friends, saying, "Get up. Illa' and his wife are coming down to us from the sky." Everybody got up, and went out to meet Illa'. He came down with his wife, and brought along a herd of reindeer. River-Man stepped up to him, and said, "Tell me, Illa', how did you become a man again?" Illa' said nothing. Then he entered the house with his relatives; and River- Man went to his wife, who had remained in the skin boat, and said to her, "Paint my face, to make me better-looking. Perhaps Illa' will then tell me  how to become a man again." They tattooed his face, and he screamed withthe pain. Hearing River-Man's screams, Illa' went to see what was going on, and said, "When I was a woman, I did not tattoo myself as you do, I did not adorn  myself."     He  said so,  and was gone.

         Then Root-Man said to his sons, "Let us not stay any longer. It is a shame to stay, on account of River-Man." Root-Man set out for his home, while River-Man remained as a servant at Big-Raven's house. Thunder-Man's son, Cloud-Maker1 (Ta'yañ), came down with Illa', and wooed Can'a'i-ña'ùt.  oon after, he married her, and, together with Illa/,  went up to the sky.

         River-Man remained with Big-Raven;   and his brothers never called there, because they were ashamed of him.    That's all.

Told by Yutaw, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Talovka, Dec. 30,  1900.

114.  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and  Cloud-Man.

         It   was   at   the   time   when   Big-Raven   (Quikinn-a'qu)   lived.      He had a daughter, Yine'a-ne'ut.  At  a  certain   time   every  day,   toward  evening, she

1 See pp.  24, 26.





would put on her snowshoes and go out into the wilderness. She would return home at sunrise. One day Big-Raven's oldest son, Eme'mqut, said to his father, "Why do you not stop your daughter? She is a girl, and ought not to run about on her snowshoes all night in the wilderness."  Big-Raven replied to him,   "If she does not  mind you,  her brother, she certainly will not mind me."

         Soon after that, Envious One (Nipai'vaticñin) came to Big-Raven's house, and said to Eme'mqut, "Why do you not stop your sister? She is running about in the wilderness every night. Star-Man (Añayi'mtil'n) and Moon-Man (Yae'lhi'mtila'n) always ask me, 'For whom is Yiñe'a-ñe'ut looking in the wilderness at night ?' "

         Eme'mqut went again to his father and told him what the people were saying about Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. Then Big-Raven sharpened his axe outside the  ouse, came in again, and, unobserved, stepped up to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, who was sitting in the front part of the dwelling-room. He chopped off her right leg. Then Big-Raven wrapped the leg in sedge-grass and put it on top of the storehouse outside. When he went in again, the leg suddenly rose up to the sky.

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut groaned and sighed, and kept everybody from sleeping. On the following day Big-Raven said to his people, "I am tired of Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. Let us leave her here and move over to the summer house." Big-Raven's  entire family moved over from their winter quarters into their summer house. They did not leave any food for Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. The whole wintir, until spring she was starving.

         When it became warm, she saw migrating plovers passing the house.    On her knees she crept outside.     She made a noose, put it up on the storehouse, and   hid   in   the   house.      After   some   time she  crept  out again,  and found a plover   who   had   been   caught   in the noose.     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut cut  off one  of the plover's   legs,   attached   it   to   herself,   and   found  that she was  able to walk. She took the plover into the house.     She found a clay pot behind the house- posts,   cooked   the   plover,   and   ate   it.     When she felt a little stronger,  she went   in   search   of  her   leg   that   had   been   cut off.     She had hardly arrived outside when the plover's  leg broke under the weight of her body.     She had to   creep back into the house.     After some time she looked out through the entrance-hole, and saw geese flying by.     She again crept out of doors, set a noose up on the storehouse, and hid in her house.     On the following morning- she crept out again,  and found a goose in the snare.     She cut off one of the goose's  legs,   attached   it   to   herself,   and   found   that   she was able to walk. Then   she   took  the   goose  inside, boiled it in the clay pot,  ate it, and went in search of her leg.    She walked and walked around her house and around the   storehouse,   but   she   could   not   find   her   leg   anywhere.     She looked up suddenly:  her house had disappeared,  and she found herself in the wilderness.



  She walked a short distance and saw a house. When she came near, the people came out to meet her, and invited her in. It was the house of Supervisor (Ina'hitelasn). After she had entered, she said to the old man, «I did not obey my brothers and father, therefore father cut off my leg. In vain I have searched for my leg everywhere." Supervisor replied, "It was not your fault that you did not mind your brothers and father. It was my son Cloud-Man (Ya'hala'n) who caused you to roam about in the wilderness at night. He caused your father to cut off your leg, and made you come here in search of it. When your father took the leg out of doors, it flew up here. Here it is hanging. Now Cloud-Man will marry you." Then Supervisor took the leg down, put it in place of the goose-leg that Yiñe'a-ñe'ut had attached to  her body,  and she became quite well.

         After a while Supervisor said, "Go out and look down upon the earth." She went out, and beneath she saw all the villages of the Maritime people and all the camps of the Reindeer people. She also saw Big-Raven's village. She recalled how her father had cut off her leg, and she grew indignant. She then took all the birds, all the animals of the sea and of the land, all the reindeer-herds, all the fish from sea and rivers, and wrapped them up in a ground-seal skin. Then she took all the berries, roots, and edible plants, and hid them  in another ground-seal skin.

         On the following morning, Big-Raven went out hunting, and noticed that all life had disappeared from the world. There were no more quadrupeds on the land, no seals and whales in the sea, no fish in the rivers, and no birds in the air. He became hungry, returned home, and told his wife Miti' to go for berries. Miti' went out, but did not find either berries or roots anywhere.  cried, saying, "What shall we eat? There are no berries even, and Big- Raven has left our daughter in our winter dwelling, and does not allow me to visit her." After she had said this, she suddenly looked down on the ground, and saw little young leaves of sweet roots before her. She dug up some of the roots and went home. She fed the children with the roots, but gave nothing to Big-Raven. He said, "I will go myself and dig some roots."  He took a long mattock,  and went away to dig for edible plants. 

          Supervisor's   wife,   Supervisor-Woman (Lap-ña'ut), looked down upon the earth   and   said   to   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut,   "Look down!     Now your father himself has gone   to   dig   up   roots.      Your   anger is  surely appeased now.     Give the old man   some   food."      Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   said   nothing.      She   only   took   a   bear-skin, wrapped   up   some grass in  it,  and  threw it  down  to  earth.     As soon  as the bear-skin reached the earth, it turned into a bear, which ran toward Big-Raven and pursued him.     Big-Raven ran  home.     He reached the settlement, entered his   house,   and   said   to  his  sons,   "You  said there were  no  more reindeer or beasts   m   the   field,   and   now   a   bear   is   pursuing   me   to   this   very house." Eme'mqut   ran   out   immediately   and   killed   the  bear.     They skinned  it,  and



found   nothing   but   grass   inside.      Big-Raven   looked   at  the grass,  and said, Certainly,   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut must still be alive.     It is she who  is sending  all this upon us."

         Supervisor pitied Big-Raven, and said to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, "Now stop hiding the food. They may die of starvation, for all you know." Then Yiñe'a- ñe'ut unwrapped the seal-skins, and all the animals and plants re-appeared in the water, in the woods, and on the tundra. Next morning Big-Raven arose, and, seeing that birds were flying about, he went out hunting, and succeeded in killing a whale.

         Soon autumn came. One day Big-Raven's people went out, and saw a long train of people coming down from the sky on reindeer. It was Cloud-  an bringing Yiñe'a-ñe'ut home to her parents. They were conducted into the house, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut told them how her leg had gone straight up to the sky, to Big-Raven's house, and how she got there. Then Big-Raven said, "Supervisor made me cut off the leg of my favorite daughter."

         Cloud-Man and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut staid some time with Big-Raven, and then went back to the sky. Eme'mqut went with them. Up there in the sky he married Supervisor's daughter, Cloud-Woman (Ya'hal-ña'ut). He took her to Big-Raven's village, and they lived there.

Told by Yu'taw, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Talovka, Dec. 30, 1900.