On behalf of the Local Organizing Committee and the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of Earth´s Interior (IAVCEI) I am pleased to invite you to the 8th International Maar Conference (8IMC), which will be held in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russian Federation, on 24-30 August, 2020. The 8IMC is a multidisciplinary congress on maar volcanoes, crater-lakes, and monogenetic volcanism. (see information below: First Circular. Second Circular.)
We hope you will consider presenting the results of your research in the next IMC.
Alexei Ozerov, chair of the 8IMC
Since the first "International Maar Conference" (IMC) meeting, the series has become one of the most successful discussion forums in volcanology, mainly because it provides a unique opportunity to bring together people from many different volcanological fields (geologists, physical volcanologists, sedimentologists, modellers, geophysicists, petrologists, etc.) with researchers from environmental and post-volcanic subjects. Previous IMC meetings have been held in volcanic areas that present different problems in terms of eruption dynamics, products, and landforms. The venue of the next IMC will be Kamchatka – one of the most volcanically and seismically active regions on Earth. Besides 30 active volcanoes, Kamchatka hosts more than 20 monogenetic volcanic fields located both in frontal and back-arc settings. This volcanic region provides a unique place for holding this multidisciplinary volcanological forum due to its highly active nature. We suggest making a special focus at 8IMC on the subduction dynamic and its influence on the onset and development of monogenetic volcanism and phreatomagmatism.
The conference will include five days of scientific sessions, which will combine keynote speakers, oral presentations and posters. The field trips which will be scheduled during this meeting, will allow the participants to explore the diversity of volcanic landforms of this area focusing on monogenetic volcanism and phreatomagmatism.
Airport Elizovo of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky is situated only 30 km from the city. It is connected to Moscow, Vladivostok, Khabarovsk by regular daily flights; during summer there are direct flights to Fairbanks, USA (once in a week); direct connection with Southern Korea airports is under discussion at the moment. August and September are high seasons in Kamchatka. It is advised to book flights well before the trip (not later than March), otherwise the price will be rather high.
Regular bus services connect Elizovo with Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, taxi service is also available. A shuttle bus service from the airport will be arranged by the LOC at certain hours of the days before and after the meeting.
All those from outside Russia who would like to participate in 8IMC must plan to apply for Russian visa well in advance. An invitation letter is required for your visa application. So that we can provide the letter, please fill out the questionnaire (will be available at website of the conference soon) and send it together with an electronic copy (JPEG) of the two first pages of your passport to Oxana Evdokimova firstname.lastname@example.org not later than April 1st, 2020.
We can offer a limited number of grants that can provide support for registration and/or partial expenses (accommodation and meals), depending of available funding and number of applications. Students, young researchers and scientists attending from developing countries are encouraged to submit their applications. Information on the application procedure will be announced soon.
Weather: August in PK is generally sunny with occasional rain and a typical daytime temperature of 18°C. A period of heavy rain is possible.
Costs: We anticipate that costs for food and lodging will be average about $120/day, but the actual prices will be known only in 2020. Local currency is Russian rubles. Dollars and euro can be exchanged to rubles at Currency Exchange in any bank offices. There are ATMs in the city. Visa and MasterCard are accepted in many places.
Accommodation: Hotels “Idelveis”, “Petropavlovsk”, “Avacha”, “Arsenyev”, “Geyser”, “Chief of Kamchatka” are available. The cheapest suite fee is around $100 at the “Edelweiss” with basic facilities and is in easy walking distance to the IVS location. Hostels for cheaper accommodation are available as well. It is also possible to book the hotel in Paratunka hot springs resort area, which is situated about 70 km away from the city. LOC will organize shuttle bus from Paratunka to the conference venue at conference dates. The information about hotels and hostels is available at www.booking.com. Early booking is highly advisable, because August is a hot season in Kamchatka.
Entertainment for accompanying persons: it is possible to take part in the marine or onland tourist excursions organized by various tourist agencies. One can climb Avacha volcano or go by boat to Pacific ocean or have a walk at Khalaktyrka - the longest black-sand beach not far away from the city. There are as well helicopter excursions to Kuril lake – largest in Asia spawning grounds of Pacific salmon and place of inhabitance of a largest population of brown bears.
Helicopter trip, 20 people per one helicopter; 2 groups.
Flight time to the Vallery of Geysers ~ 1h 20min (one way).
Uzon-Geysernaia twin calderas form a 9 x 18 km depression, which originated as a result of large explosive eruptions in the late Pleistocene time ~ 39 600±1000 BP (Florensky, 1984; Braitseva et al., 1995). Associated ignimbrite sheet covers an area of 1700 km3.
Valley of Geysers and Uzon caldera are part of Kronotsky Reserve. Valley of Geysers is a narrow canyon, carved by the Gersernaya River. More than 40 geysers and numerous pulsating springs, mud and water caldrons, steam jets and other geothermal features are concentrated in this small area. This is one of the largest geyser fields in the world and the only one in Eurasia The northwestern part of the caldera (or Uzon caldera) hosts a large geothermal field and numerous hot and cold lakes. Present geothermal activity is concentrated in a 0.3 x 5 km zone filled with boiling springs, gas-steam jets, mudpots, small mud volcanoes, hot lakes and springs with colonies of blue-green algae and thiobacteria (Piip, 1937; Pilipenko, 1976; Karpov, 1992; Leonov et al., 1991). Some of the lakes are located in the craters of phreatic eruptions: a crater enclosing Khloridnoe Lake formed 1.5-2 ka BP; Bannoe Lake ~ 3.5 ka BP. The most recent phreatic eruption took place in 1989 and created a 14 m wide crater. The only definitely Holocene magmatic feature in Uzon is a maar filled with Dal’nee Lake.http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/volcanoes/holocene/main/main.htm
Maar Dal’nee lake is located at the NW part of Uzon caldera. Formation of maar inside Uzon caldera happened 3300 BP when migration of magma happened along a fault from Krasheninnikov volcano. At first magma came up to the surface at high elevations when scoria cones Duga and Zametny were emerged. Then at low elevations inside Uzon caldera, magma interacted with ground water, phreato-magmatic eruption started and maar was formed. At the terminal stage of the eruption the water influx to magma was run out, the eruption became pure magmatic, and a small scoria cone formed in the central part of the maar.
Maar is located at the altitude 670 m above sea level, its diameter 1.2 km and it is filled by closed lake 43 m deep. At the middle of the lake there is a small island composed by last portions of erupted material. Maar break through glacial deposit which filled Uzon caldera.
There is a good trail from heli landing place inside Uzon caldera to the maar rim. On the maar slopes there are several outcrops where phreato-magmatic deposits gradually changed to magmatic scoria, basaltic andesite in composition.
Helicopter trip, 20 people per one helicopter; 2 groups.
Flight time to Karymsky volcano ~ 40min (one way).
The Karymsky volcano and Academy Nauk caldera belong to a chain of volcanoes, calderas, and maars, the location of which is controlled by a local north-trending fault. Magmas erupted during Holocene time along the fault varied in composition from basalts to rhyolites, andesites and dacites being the most voluminous. Basalt eruptions in the Karymsky–Academy Nauk area have been rare and subordinate in volume. Karymsky is an 5300-yr-old andesitic stratovolcano located in the center of an 7900-yr-old caldera (Braitseva and Melekestsev, 1991). In historic time (since 1771) more than 20 prolonged eruptions are known. Before 1996 the volcano had been dormant since 1982. Now it is almost continuously active.
Karymskoye intracaldera lake (Figs.2,3) is located in an uninhabited region of the Eastern Volcanic Belt, 125 km north-east of the town Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. It is 7 km to the south from Karymsky stratovolcano. Around the lake there are several late Pleistocene-Holocene stratovolcanoes of basalt to rhyodacite composition and calderas. Karymskoye lake fills one of them—the Akademiya Nauk caldera which formed in the late Pleistocene time; the fission-track age is 28-48 ka. Karymskoye lake is 4 km across and has a maximum depth of 70 m. The surface of the lake has an altitude of 620 m above sea-level.
Eruptive activity in the lake included two pre-historic eruptions at c. 480014C yr BP. The first is interpreted as a Surtseyan eruption that occurred at the water depth about 50 m. The second of the 480014C yr BP eruptions deposited extensive cross-laminated base-surge deposits and is interpreted to have occurred in shallow water. These two eruptions, which occurred with short time interval have formed the underwater tuff ring which was expressed as a shoal in the northern part of the lake.
On 2-3 January 1996 an explosive eruption discharging ~ 106 kgs-1 of basaltic magma occurred in Karymskoye lake at an initial water depth of ~ 50 m. The eruption formed an underwater tuff ring of basaltic composition (52 – 53% SiO2) with crater 600 m in dimeter. The total volume of deposit is estimated as approximately 0.047 km3.
Characteristics of the deposits together with analyses of a videotape of several explosions have allowed to model the eruptive events. Initial vent-clearing phreatic explosions ejected blocks of country rocks (up to 3 m diameter) to distances of up to 1.3 km. Then followed 10-20 h of phreatomagmatic Surtseyan activity: 100-200 outbursts of water-gas-pyroclastic mixtures to heights of up to 1 km, with initial velocities of 110 m/s. The eruption slugs collapsed back into the lake and produced base surges with runout up to 1.3 km and average velocity 12.5 m/s. The convective eruption plume rose to a height of 3 km and deposited a thin distal fall deposit.
The most widespread hazards of the eruption were tsunamis and lahars. The highest runups of tsunami waves (20 – 30 m) occur on the shore immediately adjacent to the tuff ring, 700 m from the center of the crater.
Option 1 - onland trip, transportation by all-terrain vehicle; maximum 44 people.
Option 2 – helicopter trip, 20 people per helicopter, flight time ~ 1.5 hours.
Tolmachev Dol is a lava plateau northeast of Opala volcano. It host numerous Late Pleistocene and Holocene basaltic scoria cones. The latest eruption, which formed a scoria cone and a large lava flow in the far northwestern part of the plateau, occurred only 1600- 1700 years BP as suggested by stratigraphic position of its erupted products between OP (1500 years BP) and KS1 (1800 years BP) marker ash layers (Oleg Dirksen, personal communication)
The most unusual Holocene event at Tolmachev Dol was an eruption of about 1 km3 of rhyolitic tephra from a large Chasha (Bowl) crater in the northern part of the plateau. The eruption took place about 4600 14C years BP. Its ash layer, coded OPtr, is a good marker in the regions between Avachinsky volcano in the north and Mutnovsky volcano in the south.
Maar Chasha is located at the lowland Tolmachev Dol (southern part of Kamchatka peninsula), close to lake Tolmachevo. It is consisted of a group of funnels: one small dry funnel and at the distance of 200 m two more merged funnels occupied by a lake 1.2 km across. Maar has rhyolitic composition, the volume of erupted material 0,9-1 km3.
Tolmachevo lake and maar Chasha are closely connected through the aquifer. When as a result of dam construction in 1999-2000 the water level of Tolmachevo lake was elevated up to 18 m, the water level in maar Chasha raised up 12 m.
Tolbachik areal volcanic field.
Onland trip, transportation by all-terrain vehicle; maximum 44 people.
August 31- September 4, 2020 (4 nights).
Tolbachik volcano is located 600 km to the north from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. It has two rift-liked structures to the north-east and south-west from the volcano edifice. In Holocene more than 120 scoria cones up to 300 meters high were formed along these zones. During last 80 years 3 big eruptions happened here (in 1941, 1975-76 and 2012-2013), so this area is very well studied by a variety of methods.
It will take about 1,5 days to get to Tolbachik. Participants need to have the individual field equipment (sleeping bags, backpacks, etc – the full list will be provided later). The field trip includes 3-4 nights camping in the field.
Fig.1 - 3. Explosive activity in the crater of main scoria cone in December 2012 - January 2013.
Alexei OZEROV / IVS FEB RAS
Anna VOLYNETS / IVS FEB RAS
Anna VOLYNETS , IVS FEB RAS
Abstract submission will be opened soon