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    Winter Clothing of Men and Women 587
Summer Clothing 598
Children's Clothing 601
Coats with Tails 602 
Ornaments, Hair-Dressing, and Tattooing 603
Snow-Goggles, Snow-Shoes, Staffs, and Ice-Creepers 604
Yokes and Carrying-Straps 605
Bags for keeping Clothing 607
Belts 607


          Winter  Clothing of Men and Women. — The winter clothing  of both branches   of  the   Koryak   is   made   of reindeer-skins.     Skins of other animals are   used   only   for trimming or adorning  winter clothing.     Only fur caps and  mittens are not infrequently made entirely of dog, fox, or  wolf skin, and the soles   of  boots are  made of thong-seal or walrus hide.     Skins of grown rein- deer   are   not   used for clothing, but only those of fawns, beginning with the newly   born and up to seven months old.     The warmest clothing is made of skins   of  fawns   six   or   seven   months   old,   which   are  killed late in autumn. Their fur consists of fine,  soft,  not long, but very thick hair.     Clothing made of   fawn-skins   is    not   only   warm,   but   is   also   remarkably   light   in   weight. Owing to the  lack  of fawn-skins,  the Yukaghir and Tungus often  make their

winter overcoats of heavy winter skins of old reindeer. These are so heavy that they impede the motion of the wearer. Clothing made of the skins of mountain-sheep is equally heavy.

         Winter Coat. — The fundamental pattern of the coat is the same for
men and women. It has the shape of a fur shirt which is pulled down over the head. The man's coat, especially that of the Reindeer Koryak who ride astride on their light sledges, is shorter than that of the woman (Fig. 115). It does not reach down to the knees ; while that of the women falls lower, usually down to the calves of the legs.  The winter travelling-coats of old men, especially of the Maritime Koryak (Plate XXXII, Fig. 1), reach sometimes below the knees. The cut of the coat is   the   same as that of the Chukchee.


Fig. 115. Man's  Coat.

         The sleeves are very full about the fore-arms to enable the wearer to draw his hands out and hide them within the shirt, and narrow about the wrists to prevent the easy access of cold air. The difference between the Koryak coat and that of the  Chukchee is,  that between the lower border and the fur




trimming   there   is   inserted   a   strip  of reindeer-skin  about four or five inches wide,   and   of  a   color   different   from   that of the  whole  coat.     If the  coat is made   of  dark   skins,  the  inserted  strip  is  of light or  mottled  color,  and vice versa.      The   Chukchee   woman's   coat   is   generally   shorter   than  that of the Koryak.      Under   the   coat   of  the   Chukchee   woman   the   lower   part   of the trousers is visible,  but rarely under that of the Koryak woman.     Among the Chukchee,   coats   are   seldom   provided  with hoods, while among the Koryak all   the   women's   coats and  many of the men's travelling-coats, are furnished with hoods.     Funeral clothing is never made without hoods.1    The women of the   Maritime   Koryak   use   almost no caps at all,  contenting themselves with throwing their hoods over their heads.     The women of the  Reindeer Koryak go without caps,2 not only about the house,  but even to the herd.

         The travelling-coat of men for winter (la'xlan-i' san) is double, consisting of two fur shirts so adjusted that one is inside the other, and they are put on and taken off together. The inner shirt has the hair toward the body, the outer, outward. The two shirts are not sewed together, so that they are easily taken apart and can be worn separately. The outer one is made of the skins of fawns, preferably of those of mottled color killed late in the fall. Black or dark brown spots on a white or grayish background are considered particularly pretty, but the skins most commonly used have white or grayish spots on a dark or a light-tawny background. White or light-gray skins are used for funeral clothing only. 3  Russian settlers and Russianized natives prefer black or dark-tawny reindeer-skins. In certain localities this taste is devel- oping also among the Koryak. Thus the Koryak who are engaged in trade,  and rich reindeer-breeders, wear outer coats of dark skins. The inner coat is usually made of skins of younger fawns, fromone to three months old, so that the double coat may not be too thick and hinder movement. Besides, the tender fur of young fawns is more pleasant to wear next to the body than the thicker hair of the older fawns. The Koryak wear fur clothing next to the body. Excepting those entirely Russianized, very few Koryak wear chintz or calico shirts under the fur clothing. These are worn without change until they fall to pieces.4

         Women rarely wear a double winter coat, as they put the coat on over the double fur combination-suit which will be described later on. For the most   part,   women   wear   the   single   coat,   fur   inward.     The  skin side, well

1  See Part I, pp. 106, 108.

2      It  is interesting  to  note  here  Turner's  statement   that   the Eskimo of Hudson Bay "do not wear caps, the
hood of the frocks being the only head-covering" (see Turner, p. 209).

3  See   Part I,  p.   105.     According   to   Murdoch  (p. 109), the Eskimo of Point Barrow value the skins of the
white Siberian domestic reindeer highly "for full-dress jackets."    But the Koryak do not wear clothing of white skins.

4  Like the Russian settlers, the Koryak of Russianized villages wear chintz shirts, flannel blouses, or knit
jackets under their fur coats. I saw some Maritime Koryak wearing American knit sweaters or coats purchased from
the American whalers. A very comical figure indeed was presented by a Koryak clad in trousers and boots 01
remdeer-skins and a cutaway coat of modern stile, which he wore without shirt and  vest.



dressed,  is dyed a dark red or tawny hue, and adorned with pendants, stripes, and square patches of white  skin,  and  with glass-bead embroideries.1

        To the breast of the outer coat with attached hood, and near the collar,  a fur flap made of the skin of reindeer-legs is sewed (see Fig. 116). This flap serves to protect the face from  cold winds.     In  the funeral coat this flap is used for covering the face of the deceased.

         At home, or when working near the house, the Koryak men, even in the cold of winter, ordinarily wear a single fur shirt with the fur side either in or out. A coat worn with the flesh side next the body has the advantage that the hairless skin does not afford nesting-place for insects; but, on the other hand, it is easily soaked by perspiration, and hardens when it dries again. The single coat is shorter than the double one, and has no hood. The neck is wide enough to allow the head to pass through freely. It has a hem of skin, through which a nettle cord or leather strap is passed for tightening the collar. The ends of the cord are tied in front. To the necks of most single shirts a collar of black dog-fur is sewed. These collars are of varying width. I saw particularly wide dog-  fur collars among the Reindeer Koryak of the Taigonos Peninsula (see Plate xl, Fig. 1). The fur of white dogs is used only for trimming funeral clothing.

Fig. 116. Woman's Coat.

Woman's Winter Combination-Suit. — It   has   been   stated  before that women do not wear fur shirts next to the skin. Under the shirt they wear a fur suit similar in cut to the modern combination underwear for women. Such fur suits are worn in Siberia by the women of the Chukchee, Asiatic Eskimo, and Koryak, and, according to a statement of Nelson, by the Eskimo women on Diomede and St. Lawrence Islands.3 In former times all the Kamchadal women also wore such suits.4 The Koryak call this suit ๑a'u-kei ("woman's combination") in contrast to the children's combination-suit called kei-kei.    The 

1  On the adornment of clothing, see Chapter XI.

2  See Bogoras, The Chukchee, Vol. VII of this series, p. 244.

3  Nelson, The Eskimo about Bering Strait, p. 30.
4 See Steller, I, p.  37; Krasheninnikoff, II, p. 64.



women's suit consists of a broad bodice joined to wide Turkish trousers which are gathered below the knees (Figs. 117, 118; and Plate XXXII, Fig. 2). On the chest and back the bodice has a deep cut into which the woman steps when putting on the suit. The sleeves are very wide, both at the shoulders and wrists, so that the hand can be taken out without any difficulty, which   must   be   done   when   the   woman   wants   to   let  down or take off the

garment. A double combination-suit for women, for use in winter, is made of fawnskins similar to those used in the man's double winter coat. A single, outer combination-suit is shown in Fig. 118; and an inner combination-suit, with hair side in, is represented in Fig. 119. Below the knees, where the trousers of the combination- suit are drawn in, the edges are trimmed with a leather hem, through which a cord runs for tightening the trous- ers and for tying them over the legs of the boots. The combination-suit of the Koryak woman is more carefully made, and of lighter weight, than that of the Chukchee woman, and thus does not render    movement   quite   so

Fig. 117. Woman's Combinations-Suit.

difficult. The suit of the Chukchee woman represents a huge skin sack with four appendages for the hands and feet. The ornamentation of the suit is also prettier than it is among the Chukchee. The lower portions of the sleeves and trouser-legs are often sewed together of alternate white and dark  vertical stripes of fur from reindeer-legs. The lower parts of the sleevesoften consist of black and white fur checks made of pieces of fur from rein- deer-legs. Women's funeral combination-suits are trimmed with particular care, and are very handsome (see Part I, Fig. 52, p. 108). The Reindeer Koryak women, however, do not trim their clothing with equal care. Plate XXXII, Fig. 2, represents a wealthy Reindeer Koryak woman from the Taigonos Peninsula, dressed in a combination-suit. She wears this suit over a chintz shirt, and  not next to her skin.



         The slit of the  bodice,  and  the  borders of the sleeves, are trimmed with strips of dog or wolf skin  or with  some  other long-haired  fur (see  Fig.117). Old   women   also   cover   the   neck   with   a   boa   of  squirrel-tails,   which   they acquire from  the  Tungus,  or  with  a woollen  scarf bought of the  Russians

         While the Chuckchee women wear no upper garments when near the   ouse, and when working near the fire or at the hearth bare the right arm or the entire bust to be free in their motions, the Koryak women are ashamed of being seen  in  the  combination-suit alone in the presence of strangers.   Not

Fig.118. Woman's Combination-Suit. Fig.119. Woman's Combination-Suit.

one woman of the Maritime Koryak consented to pose in front of the camera dressed in a combination-suit only. My wife succeeded in inducing a little orphan-girl of eleven or twelve in the village of Kamenskoye to have her photograph taken without her coat; but suddenly she refused because her uncle said that she ought not to do so. Among the Reindeer Koryak also the girls refused to be photographed without a coat, but the women did not present difficulties. Generally Reindeer Koryak women take their coats off in the inner tent only. On the Palpal, where the Koryak come in contact with the Chukchee, the women of the Reindeer Koryak, like the Chukchee women, wear nothing but the combination-suit near the house. Krashenin- nikoff1   says   that   the   Kamchadal   women   of   his   time   at   home   wore   the

1  See Krasheninnikoff. II, p   64. At present most of the Kamchadal dress just like the local Russian settlers.
75—Jesup north pacific exped., vol. vi, part 2.



combination-suit only. Hence the question arises, whether the modesty of the Koryak women in this regard is a result of the influence of the Russians, or whether it is due to the fact that the sexual relations of the Koryak differ from those prevailing among the Kamchadal and Chukchee, 1  and bring about different standards of modesty.

         When feeling warm or while working, the Koryak women take the right hand out of the combination-dress and let the empty sleeve dangle down under   the   upper   garment.      At   home   the   Koryak   women   always wear the

combination-dress that way. The end of the sleeve is seen hanging down under the skirts of the coat. There are no other openings in the combina- tion-suit save the one in the top of the bodice for getting into it, and those at the insteps for the feet. To satisfy the demands of nature the Koryak woman has to free her arms from the sleeves and drop the suit down to her feet. The Chukchee women do so openly, while the Koryak women perform this complex operation under the coat. First they take the arms out of the coat-sleeves, then they release the arms from the sleeves of the   combination-suit   and   put   them   back  into the coat-sleeves.     Then,  when

1  See Chapter XII.





long  legs, reaching up to the thighs, where they are tied or buttoned on to short loin-breeches. Nelson says that the lower garments of the women of the Alaskan Eskimo are boots and trousers combined,1 while Murdoch says of  the Eskimo of Point Barrow that women's trousers are combined with boots,  and that at times even  men wear such trousers.

Winter Foot-Gear.  —  Most of the winter foot gear consists of fur boots

(pla'kit) and stockings reaching up to the knees. The boots are usually made of the skin of the reindeer-leg. Its fur is short, glossy, and of greater dura- bility than the fur of other parts of the reindeer. Men's boots are either short (Fig. 123, a) reaching a little above the ankle, or they have legs extending up to the knee (see Plate XXXV, Fig.2). Both styles have

1  Nelson, p. 30.                                                  2   Murdoch, p.  126.




hair of which is cut short.   Hence the legs of women appear very stout about their   calves,   between   the  lower and upper strings with which the boots are tied.     A woman's winter boot,  with fur stockings inside, the legs of the boot ornamented with inserted parallel  lines of white fur, is shown  in Fig.   123, b. 

         Stockings   are made of the skins of large fawns,  and are worn with the hair side in.     With the boots,  the stockings form a double foot-wear, just as two   fur shirts compose a double coat,  and are mostly put on and pulled off together.     For   the   night,   however,  stockings which have  been  worn during the   day   are   taken   out   of  the  boots, turned inside out,  and hung over the hearth   or   out   of  doors to dry.     The skin  for stockings is dressed soft,  and the   flesh   side   is painted cinnamon-color.1    Stockings are   made large, with a wide semicircular toe, like the boots,  into which they fit snugly.    The cut of a   fur   stocking   differs   from   that   of  a   fur   boot   in   that   there   is   no stripe inserted  between the sole and the vamp.     A small leather strap is sewed  to the upper end of each stocking.     These are tied together when the stockings are hung up to dry.     Before the stocking is put into the boot, dry grass, of which   a   supply   is   always   kept   on   hand,  is put in.    The grass lining adds to   the   softness   of  the   fur   foot-wear,   and   protects the foot against injuries. The grass lining must be changed often to keep it dry and soft.

         When traveling in very cold weather, or sleeping over night under the open sky, short hare-skin socks are often worn inside the stockings. I also had occasion to see some of my Maritime Koryak drivers, when sleeping at night on the snow by the camp-fire, put on over their travelling-boots huge galoches made of the winter skins of reindeer. They would then put a long double fur shirt over the short one, draw hands and head within the shirt, and lie down on the snow, head to the fire. These large boots are evidently a Russian invention lately adopted by the Koryak. In general, the Koryak are not particularly careful to protect themselves against the cold when sleeping out of doors. Not infrequently herdsmen pass cold nights wearing only a single coat, with belt. The stockings for short boots of men are also short. 

         Winter Cap and Mittens. — The winter cap (la'xlan pe'nken) is double, and made of the fur of reindeer-fawns. The inner lining is the fur of a new-born fawn or of one a month old. The outer cap is often made of dog or wolf paws. In front and at the back it is trimmed with a strip of shaggy dog or wolf fur. Costly caps are trimmed with wolverene-fur all round. The top of the cap is rounded. It has the shape of an old woman's sweeping- cap (Fig. 124). In front the fur trimming protects the fore-head; at the back the cap covers the occiput and neck. A rather long leather strap, the ends of which are sewed to the lower edges of the cap, is twisted once under the chin (Fig.  124, a; and  Plate xxxii,  Fig.  1), and the end  loop is turned  back

1   See Chapter. X.



over the crown of the head to hold the cap down. When a Koryak feels too warm, he throws his cap back, and it dangles down from the loop which passes around his neck. A warm cap like the one here described is worn with a hoodless coat. A cap with light trimming is worn with the coat with a large fur hood. Herdsmen who have to run after the herd wear hoodless coats   and   light caps  They usually put on  the outer coat only for the night.

         Women very rarely wear caps, Maritime Koryak women, when going out of doors in winter, throw the hood of the coat over the head. Only the Reindeer   Koryak   women,   while   wandering   from camp to camp, wear  cap under the hood. Its shape does not differ from that of the men's cap. Women's funeral costumes have no caps, — a fact which shows that in former times the Kor- yak women did not wear caps. 

The Koryak fur cap is prettier and more neatly made than the Chukchee cap. Besides the pretty trimmings, it has in- serted in the crown, and at the place which covers the occiput or- naments made of alter-


Fig. 124. Winter Caps.

nate stripes of black and white skin from the legs of reindeer-fawns, or lozenge patterns. Behind, long tassels of seal-pup skin, dyed red, are sewed on; and on the sides, circles are embroidered with glass beads of various colors. To the crown of the cap are often stitched two pieces of fur or leather, which project upwards like the ears of a fox. Some caps are not rounded in shape at the crown, but have angular projections at the sides (Fig. 124, a). The man's funeral cap has the shape of a round decorated skull-cap with ear-flaps stitched on, and an embroidered leather-strap1 with which to tie  it  under the  chin.

1 See Part I, Fig. 48, p. 107.



        Men   who drive dog or reindeer teams, and who watch herds in winter, wear mittens made of the skin of reindeer-legs.     The hair of the skin of the reindeer-leg   is   short,   thick, and shiny.     It does  not readily wear out or fall off  from   dampness.      Further,   these   mittens   are   light   and  exceedingly soft when   well   dressed,   so that they are not in the way when  holding the reins and the whips, or doing any other work on the journey.     These mittens are not   very   warm,   since   they   are   not usually made of double skin, and have the   hair   side   out.     Sometimes they are lined inside with fur of a new-born reindeer-fawn;   but   young   people   go   without   the   inner   mitten, and do not suffer   from   cold.     Light mittens are also  made of the skin  from  dogs'  legs. Women   usually   wear  warmer double mittens,  with shaggy trimming of dog, wolf,   or   fox  fur,   about   the   wrist.     The   outside   mittens   are   made   of the dressed   skins   of reindeer-fawns;   the   inside   mittens,   of the fur of new-born fawns.    Mittens made of the fur of wolf-paws on  the outside,   and lined with the fur of young fawns, are regarded as warm and pretty.

         Summer Clothing. — In general, summer clothing differs little from winter clothing. Real warm summer days are very few in number. In summer, as well as late in spring and early in autumn, the old worn-out winter clothing is put on, only in single suits. At this season much of the hair has fallen off. Therefore in summer the Koryak present a shabby and unattractive appearance. This is true particularly of the Reindeer Koryak, who do not use special summer clothing while roaming with their herds in the mountainous regions, where it is colder than in the valleys; but the Koryak who live in the valleys and near the mouths of rivers, particularly those of the coast, have special summer clothing   for the warmer part of summer.

         Summer coat. — The ordinary summer coat (ala'kin-isไn) is a shirt of curried and smoked reindeer-skin, and shirts of this kind are worn by both sexes. Those of women are longer than those of men, and more frequently furnished with hoods. Sometimes a dog-skin collar is attached. The cover of the upper part of the tent which has been exposed to the smoke for a long time is often used as material for such shirts. The skin, after being smoked, is more waterproof than unsmoked skin, and does not harden after rain.

           Shirts of unsmoked leather, such as are worn in winter over fur coats,1 sometimes ornamented by means of wooden stamps (see Fig. 218), are also worn in summer; they are not used in rainy weather, or for fishing and sea- hunting,  as dampness hardens them.

         During the sea-hunting season, especially in damp and cold weather, the Maritime Koryak wear dog-skin coats, with the hair side in (Fig. 125). A dog-skin shirt is considered a good waterproof garment. Such a shirt rarely has   a   hood.     It   is   worn   mostly by lads in their teens.     At home, even  in

1   See p. 593.

Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. VI.                                                    Plate XXXIII


The Koryak.



winter, boys wear dog-skin coats (see the elder boy on Plate XXXIII, Fig. 1). Summer clothing of dog-skin is always saturated with fish and seal oil, and is dirty  in the  extreme.

         I have never seen a Koryak wearing a seal-skin coat, which is used by the Eskimo as a waterproof garment. I think that the absence of seal-skin coats for summer wear is due to the insufficient quantity of seal-skins, which are required in great numbers both for the household and for exchange.1 Likewise   I   have   never   seen   any   clothing   made   of  bird-skins   and  of seal-intestines,   which   they say was worn in olden  times.

          In summer and autumn, shirts made of winter reindeer- skins with shorn fur, and others of summer skins of grown rein- deer with short new fur, killed just after the shedding of the hair, are also worn. Women wear coats made of such skins, the flesh side out. This side is well dressed, and dyed a cinnamon color, and adorned with strips of white leather, tufts of hair, circles embroidered in applique-work, and other embellishments. At home the Maritime Koryak women wear such coats even in winter. Dan- cing-coats (mi'lau-i'sใn) are made up in the same way, only they are more elaborately deco-rated than the ordinary garments.2 The dancing-coats of men have no hoods.3 


Fig. 125. Man's Dog-Skin Coat.

         Summer Trousers and Combination-Suit. — In midsummer, men wear trousers of curried leather (Fig. 126), the pattern of which does not differ from that of the winter trousers; while women wear a combination-suit of leather under their coats. The leather of which both men's and women's summer trousers are made is either ordinary, soft-dressed, or curried and smoked reindeer-skin. The latter is used for waterproof clothing worn during   the   fishing-season.      Waterproof  trousers   for   men,  made of seal-skin,

1 According to Tale 21 (Fart I, p. 162), clothing made of seal-skins is regarded by the Koryak as that of
poor people. From this it may be inferred that seal-skin clothing was used in olden times, when the reindeer was
not domesticated.

2 See Part I, Fig. 27, p. 68.                                             3 Ibid., Plate I, Fig.  I.




are rarely found. While engaged in sea-hunting, the Maritime Koryak, espe-cially lads, often wear dog-skin trousers. In autumn, and on cold days in midsummer, the Koryak wear old, worn-out, single winter trousers of reindeer- skin with the fur on.

Summer   Boots,  Caps,  Mittens,   and Gloves. — Summer foot-wear con-sists of boots or short shoes alone.     In summer,  stockings are not worn, and

only grass linings are used in boots and shoes. Summer boots or shoes are made of the skin of the legs of reindeer-fawns or dog-pups, of dressed skin of the ringed-seal and of curried leather made of reindeer-skin. Summer and winter boots and shoes are the same in shape; but summer foot-wear is smaller than that for winter, because it is worn without the stocking. The soles of all summer foot-wear are made of thong-seal skin or of walrus-skin split in  two. Short boots or shoes are worn by men only. The leather straps passing through the lower hems of the trou- ser-legs are drawn to-  gether tight around the upper   end   of the   legs

of these short boots. The legs of men's high boots, and generally also those of women, reach up to the knees, and are drawn together with leather straps over the trousers. Waterproof boots are made of ringed-seal skin treated with blubber. Boots made of smoked reindeer-skin do not get wet as quickly as those made of unsmoked skin. Often only the vamps of the boots are made of seal-skin or of smoked leather; and the legs, of ordinary dressed reindeer- skin. Among the Maritime Koryak I found long-legged waterproof boots for men reaching up to the thighs (Fig. 127). The soles are made of thong- seal skin; the vamp and legs, of ringed-seal.



Women's   summer   boots,   like   men's   dancing-boots   with  legs  of curried leather,   are   decorated   with pinked stripes of the thin  soft white skin  of the dog's   neck,   forming   the so-called "tooth-pattern."     Sometimes the toes up to the   instep   are   made   of the skin  of ringed-seal  dyed black,  while the instep and   legs are of reindeer-leather dyed a cinnamon  color.     The women  of the Maritime   Koryak   wear   such   boots   also   in   winter,   when at home;  or they put   them  on  after finishing their out-door work,  or while drying their winter boots on returning home from a trip.     But such leather foot-wear, for change, is   made   larger   than   the   summer leather boots,  so that they can be put on over the  fur stockings.

         I have said before, that, even in winter, women rarely wear a cap, but cover their heads with the hood which is attached to the coat. In summer they also go bare-headed, or in stormy weather they throw the hood of the summer coat over the head. Nowadays many women tie a kerchief on their head in summer, as is customary among Russian women (see Plate xxx, Fig. 2).

         Men's summer caps are  made  either of fawn-skins or of the dressed skin of ringed-seal, with the hair on (Fig. 128). The latter material  is used   chiefly  by the  Maritime  Koryak .

       Summer mittens are made of curried reindeer-skin, or of the dressed skin of ringed-seal, or of spotted seal. During the sea-hunting season the Maritime Koryak ear mittens of dog-skin.

         The Koryak very rarely wear gloves, which, to judge by the pattern, have been adopted from the neighboring Tungus tribes. The back and the palm of each glove are cut from the same pattern. These  parts are placed one upon the other, and the edges,and also the sides of the hand and fingers, stitched together with sinew-thread. The thumb is cut sepa- rately, and consists, like the rest of the glove, of two  halves of the same shape. It is inserted in an opening left in the glove under the index-finger.

Fig. 128. Man's Cap.

         Children's Clothing. — Clothing for children up   to   the   age  of five or six, and sometimes that of children even a little older, consists, like the women's underwear, of a com- bination-suit, called kei-kei or ma'l๑i-kei ("bifurcated kei"). The children's combination-suit differs from that of women in several respects. It often has a hood sewed on. It has a long slit between the two halves of the trousers, and a fur flap (Koryak, mใka) stitched on at the back, over the slit. On the inner side of this flap dry moss and powdered rotten wood are placed. The flap is passed up in front between the legs, and the two straps attached to   its   ends   are   tied   around  the  waist.     The child's excretions are absorbed

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by the moss and powder, and remain there until the mother unties the flap.  The soiled moss is thrown out, the babe's body is wiped with clean moss, and the flap is tied up anew. In infants's suits, the sleeves and the legs are sewed up.1 Nurslings up to a year and over have two suits, — one for the daytime, made of soft fawn-skins; and one for the night, made of thin skins of new-born fawns, or of curried leather. Older children sleep naked at night, like adults, and hence have only suits for the day. Children's night-suits are made light to keep them from being too hot under the fur blanket. The night-suit is put on infants to       event soiling the bedding. This preventive is the more necessary, as the  Koryak have no cradles or cribs, and the children sleep  with their motl               er one blanket made of reindeer-skins.

          Children able to walk ru               out the house or the camp with the flap untied, and dangling down  lik           tail. When it is time to break camp, these children, like nurslings, have their flaps tied up. When children begin to walk, slits are made at the wrist parts of their sleeves to enable them to stick their little hands out and take them in; and instead of closed trousers, boots with separate stockings are given them. In the camps of the Reindeer Koryak I had occasion to see children seven or eight years old in children's combination-suits with the flaps hanging down at the back. On Plate XXXIII, Fig. I, are represented a boy and girl of seven or eight years, with their flaps tied up. As this was in April, at a temperature of not lower than — 15ฐ C, they no longer wore their hoods; and the girl had even freed her right arm, and was playing in the cold with her breast bare. Plate XXXIII, Fig. 2, represents a boy without coat. At about the age of five, boys and girls begin to wear men's and women's clothing (Plate XXXIV).

         Coats with Tails. — It is interesting to note that the skirts of funeral coats,2 chiefly those of men, terminate at the back in a tail-like flap. This flap has a special name, ๑oi๑in. It is evident that in former times even common coats were cut that way. In some myths we find tails described and considered as ornaments of ordinary coats .3  In describing Kamchatka clothing, Steller 4  says that only wome       ats were furnished with tails; while Krash- eninnikoff 5  says that men,  to           d to wear tailed coats, and that accordingly the   round   and   tailed   coats            distinguished.    On the  Kolyma tundra the cut-away coat of the Reind     Yukaghir, who have adopted this style from the Tungus, has a tail beh       Something similar is found in the coat of the Yenisei Tungus, as des bed by Middendorf.6   As is well known, the peculiar  coat of many Eskimo women is cut in deep at the sides, so that in

1   See Bogoras, The Chukchee, Vol. VII of this series, Fig.  184, p. 252.

2   See Fig. 225; also Part I, Fig. 44   p. 106.

3   See, for instance, Tale 59, p. 217. The wife of Envious-One had an embroidered fur coat with a tail.

4   Steller, p. 307.

5   Krasheninnikoff, II, p. 6l.

6   Middendorf, p. 702.

Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. VI.                                                                                                         Plate XXXIV.



FIG. 1. KORYAK BOY.                                   FIG.2. KORYAK GIRL.,

The Koryak.



front   and   behind   the  rounded  ends of the  coat dangle like  an  apron  and  a tail.     The  flap  behind  is longer than the one in front.     Among most Eskimo, only the  men   wear   short  coats  cut  evenly all round.     But  Nelson states that "from   the   Yukon   mouth   northward   to Point Barrow, the frocks of the men are  cut  a  trifle  longer behind  than  in  front."1     This  calls to  mind the tail of the coat of the tribes of northeastern Siberia.     In describing the dress of the Iglulimiut,   Parry2   says   that   "the   men   have   also   a tail in the hind part of their  jacket,"  but   smaller than  with women.     According to Boas,3 coats with short   tails   behind   are   also   worn   by   the   Cumberland Sound Eskimo.     The reindeer-skin   coat of men  of the  Hudson  Bay Eskimo has a tail behind.4    It is quite possible that this cut of the back of the coat of the tribes mentioned has a   common   origin.     So far as is known  to  me,  however, the Chukchee have no tails on their coats, and the illustrations given by Bogoras show no such tails.

         Excepting the funeral coats, the Koryak nowadays cut all their coats evenly all  round,  even those used in  dancing and those worn by shamans.

         Ornaments, Hair-Dressing, and Tattooing. — I shall speak later on of the ornamentation of dress.5 Here I shall only say a few words on personal adornment. In Part I (pp. 45, 46) I have already spoken of charm bracelets, necklaces, pendants for the hair, and the tattooing of the face and other parts of the body,  all of which play the part of "protectors."    These charmed

objects differ nearly always from ordinary ornaments, which have no connection with magic in their lack of beauty or symmetry. Thus straps made of skin and hair serve as amulets, which are worn on the arms, feet, and neck. The brass and beaded bracelets and ear- rings6 are much better executed than the corre- sponding     charms.      Hair-

  ornaments worn by women (Fig. 129) may be readily distinguished by their beauty, from the beads, straps, or tufts of reindeer, hare, or wolf hair, which are braided in with the hair of the head as charms against headache. Nearly all Koryak women wear the head-dress shown in Fig. 129 (see also Plate XXXVI), which consists of a beaded string with two large metal buttons at the ends, and a leather strap with pendants behind. Sometimes the back part of the string consists of a metal chain without leather foundation.  

1 Nelson, 34.                                 2 Parry, II, p. 495.                               3 Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 50.

4 Turner, Fig. 51, p. 211.      5 See Chapter XI.                             6 See Chapter X.



         The Koryak women part the hair in the middle from the forehead down to   the   neck,   and   braid   it   behind   in   two braids, so that each braid begins quite close to the ear.    The back of the head is thus left free for the orna- mented   leather strip, which extends nearly from one ear to the other.    This style   of dressing   the   hair   is   found   also  among the women of the Eskimo,  Chukchee,   and   the   tundra   Yukaghir.     Even  nowadays   stone   pendants  are often attached to the ends of the braids.1    At present the ends of the braids are   usually   tied   with   a   thong  or   sinew-thread   on   which beads are strung. The  braids  tied in this way rest on the chest or back, oftener on the chest. 

         The men cut or shave the hair with a sharp knife in the middle of the head, forming a round tonsure like that of a Catholic priest, leaving all around  a thick ring of short hair; so that the forehead is free, and the hair is removed from   the   nape   of  the neck and the region about and under the ears.    The ring of hair is often supported by a small thong.     The Koryak tie their hair with  this thong  when  fighting,   running races, tending the flock, or working.

         Tattooing for the sake of ornament has nearly gone out of use.    I have spoken   before   of tattooing  as a protective device.2    Ornamental tattooing is practised   by   women   only,   but   I   have   seen   very   few  tattooed women; all were   married.    Two  of them were childless,  so that the tattooing may have been   done   as  a cure for barrenness.    That in former times tattooing among women   was   widespread,   may   be   concluded from several myths     Thus it is related 3   how   River-Man,   on turning into a woman, had his face tattooed to please Illa'.    Neither Steller nor Krasheninnikoff mentions that the Kamchadal practised   tattooing;   both   state 4   that   the   Kamchadal painted their faces red and white.    Ornamental tattooing is called by the Koryak l๕-kele; i.e., "paint- ing   of the   face."     Perhaps   this   appellation   applies  as   well   to painting the face with colors, a custom no longer met with.    Allusions to this custom are found in mythology: for instance, it is told that Big-Raven's elder son painted his   own belly.6    Judging from Nordquist's and  Borgoras's descriptions,  Chuk- chee   tattooing   is   more   complex than that of the  Koryak.     The tattooing of Koryak  women,  which I had occasion to see, consisted of two or three hori- zontal lines over the nose, or of two or three equidistant curves on the chin and cheeks.    The Koryak, and the other tribes of eastern Siberia that practise tattooing,   do   not   apply   the   designs   by   pricking, but by passing under the skin   a   needle   and   thread   which   is   coated   with   coal   mixed   with   grease. Hence   the   Gishiga   Russians   call   the   Koryak   tattooing   "face-embroidery." I   learned   from   one Koryak that in olden times the  method  of pricking and rubbing greasy black paint into the holes was also practised.

         Snow-Goggles   Snow-Shoes,   Staffs, and Ice-Creepers.  —  Like all other Arctic   tribes,   the   Koryak   use   snow-goggles   to   protect   the   eyes   from   the

1  See Fig.  138, p. 610.                    2  See  Part I, p. 46.                                       3  Ibid., p. 304.

4  Steller, p. 300; Krasheninnikoff, II, p. 68.                   5  See Part I, pp.  166, 177.




dazzling   light   reflected   in   spring   by the  snow-fields.     The snow-goggles are made  of birch-bark or of wood, with a slit for the eyes.1     In spring, protection of the eyes  is  of particular importance to herdsmen, who are constantly in the open  air,  and  to  drivers,  who  undertake to  carry merchandise on dog-sledges. 

         Snow-shoes    are    of   two    kinds.      One    kind   are   short,   and   are   called "crow-feet"  el-yegit).2     They consist of a willow frame plaited with a thong. Herdsmen and hunters wear these snow-shoes for walking over uneven around and hard snow.     The  other kind are long, and are called ti-yegit.3    They are made   of a   thinly   planed   aspen   board,   with   pointed   ends   and   tip   turned upwards,   and are  lined  underneath with the skin  from  reindeer-legs, the hair running  backward.     These snow-shoes are suitable for level regions, and give  a  good support on  soft snow,  thanks to their light weight and large surface.When   "crow-feet"   snow-shoes   are   used,   the   feet   are   frequently   lifted as in walking, while on  long snow-shoes gliding alone is resorted to.    The Eskimo who,   when   hunting   seal   in winter, have to cross rough and hummocky ice,  employ   snow-shoes   similar   to  the Koryak "crow-feet;" 4  while the long snow-shoes   are   used   more   by   hunters   like   the   Tungus   or Yukaghir,   who hunt wild  animals  in the forests or river-valleys covered with deep and soft snow. The   Koryak,   as   a   rule,   do   not make the long snow-shoes themselves,

but purchase them from the Tungus. The flesh side of the skin is fastened with fish-glue under the wooden snow- shoes. The edges of the skin are turned over to the  upper side.

         For smooth and slippery ice, the Koryak tie iron creepers under the soles of their shoes (Fig. 130). In ancient times ice-creepers were made of hard wood or bone.

         I rarely saw snow-staffs like those of the Chukchee and Eskimo, with    attached   ring.      The   Koryak use more often ordinary willow rods, such as are employed in their walks from village to village, from camp to camp, or in foot-races (see Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 1). 

         Yokes and Carrying-Straps. — For carrying loads when going afoot, Koryak men use a wooden le'tel. It is usually made of alder or of willow, and consists of a flat stick about 50 cm. long, planed, and somewhat bent so as   to   fit   the   chest   (Fig.    131),   with   notches at both ends for attaching the

1  See Bogoras, The Chukchee, Vol. VII of this series, Fig. 192, a, b, p. 260.

2  Ibid., Fig. 193, b, p. 261.

3  Ibid., Fig. 193, a, p. 261.

4 See Nelson, pp. 212-214; Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, pp. 40, 41.



loops of straps that are tied to the bag or other burden (Plate xxxv, Fig. 1). In carrying burdens, the yoke or cross-bar is placed over the chest, the straps rest on the fore arms, while the load rests on the small of the back. This is a clumsy method of carrying burdens. The yoke presses against the chest, the straps hinder the motions of the arms, and the burden lies too low on the back. To prevent the yoke from slipping down in walking, it is  fastened by means of a thong to the neck or coat-colla.

         While the method  used by the men, of carrying loads by means of chest-yokes,  is found also among the Eskimo,1 the method employed by the Koryak


Fig. 131. Man's Chest- Yoke. Length, 53 cm.

women is met with among many Indian tribes.2 The carrying-strap is depicted on codices and monuments of ancient Mexico.3 It is in use among the Ainu. Among the ancient Kamchadal, only the women used the head-band, while the men used the breast-yoke like the Koryak.4 The Koryak women put burdens, and also their children, into grass, nettle, or skin bags, which they hold on the back, and carry them by means of a head-band passing across the forehead. Plate XXXVI shows how women carry children on their backs, in a bag or without one, by means of head-bands. The head-band or carrying-strap is made of        t  thong-seal hide.  Fig. 132  shows the strap

stretched out. The small sticks in the middle are inserted to stretch the skin and make it thinner. The ends of the strap are cut out and provided with slits through which to pass the straps of bags and of wooden or skin buckets, for tying (see Plate xxxv,  Fig.   2; and  Plate XXXVI; also Fig. 160, a).

1  See Nelson, p. 211; and Mason, The Human Beast of Burden, Fig. 2, p. 256.

2  See Mason, The Human Beast of Burden, pp. 262, 263, 265, 268, 273, 277, 282.

3  See Morse, Was Middle America peopled from Asia? (Popular Science Monthly, November, 1898, p. 5).

4  See Krasheninnikoff, II, p. 24.

Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. VI.                                                                           Plate XXXV.


The Koryak.

Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. VI.                                                                Plate XXXVI.



The Koryak.



          Bags for keeping Clothing. — The Koryak keep their reserve clothing in bags made of the skins of ringed-seals, of spotted seals, or of ribbon- seals. The skins are dressed on the flesh side, and the hair is left on. The bags are made with the hair side out, and, like those of the Eskimo are of two shapes, — wide bags with a top opening, which is tied with thongs; and elongated bags, resembling a seal in shape, or made of an entire seal- skin, the flippers of which are sewed up. The openings of bags of this kind are   slit  across the chest and laced up.1     The Maritime Koryak keep articles

not in use, and spare clothing, in such bags, in the houses or in storehouses. In the houses these bags, with their contents, serve as pillows. In winter, bags containing summer clothing are kept in the storehouses; and  in summer the winter clothing is kept inthe same way. Funeral clothing not fully  finished is also kept in storehouses.

         Belts. — Women very rarely wear a belt. Embroidered carrying-straps2 belong to the funeral clothing of women. The belt, however, forms, part of the funeral dress of men.3 This points to the fact that the belt has been used by male Koryak for a long time. The Koryak gird up their house-coats and their short travelling-coats with their belts. The long fur travelling-coats, or the overcoats of leather or imported cloth, are worn without belts (see Plate XXXII,  Fig. I).


The belt consists of a dressed strap of thong-seal skin, two or three fingers wide, with a large iron buckle.4 In ancient times, buckles were made of ivory, and these may be seen even now. On the belt hangs a small belt- knife in a sheath, a case embroidered with glass beads containing a birch- bark tobacco-box, and often iron tweezers for pulling out hair (Fig. 133). These tweezers seem to me to have been adopted from the Tungus. Among the Maritime Koryak, belts are frequently embroidered with glass beads (see Fig.  202).

1  See illustrations in Bogoras, The Chukchee, Vol. VII of this series, p. 192; and Nelson, p. 44.

2  See Part I, Fig. 54, p. 109.            3 Ibid., Fig. 46, p. 106.              4 See Fig. 205.