|Winter Clothing of Men and Women||587|
|Coats with Tails||602
|Ornaments, Hair-Dressing, and Tattooing||603
|Snow-Goggles, Snow-Shoes, Staffs, and Ice-Creepers||604|
|Yokes and Carrying-Straps||605
|Bags for keeping Clothing||607
Winter Clothing of Men and Women. The winter clothing of both branches of the Koryak is made of reindeer-skins. Skins of other animals are used only for trimming or adorning winter clothing. Only fur caps and mittens are not infrequently made entirely of dog, fox, or wolf skin, and the soles of boots are made of thong-seal or walrus hide. Skins of grown rein- deer are not used for clothing, but only those of fawns, beginning with the newly born and up to seven months old. The warmest clothing is made of skins of fawns six or seven months old, which are killed late in autumn. Their fur consists of fine, soft, not long, but very thick hair. Clothing made of fawn-skins is not only warm, but is also remarkably light in weight. Owing to the lack of fawn-skins, the Yukaghir and Tungus often make their
winter overcoats of heavy winter skins of old reindeer. These are so heavy that they impede the motion of the wearer. Clothing made of the skins of mountain-sheep is equally heavy.
of the coat is the same
Fig. 115. Man's Coat.
The sleeves are very full about the fore-arms to enable the wearer to draw his hands out and hide them within the shirt, and narrow about the wrists to prevent the easy access of cold air. The difference between the Koryak coat and that of the Chukchee is, that between the lower border and the fur
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
trimming there is inserted a strip of reindeer-skin about four or five inches wide, and of a color different from that of the whole coat. If the coat is made of dark skins, the inserted strip is of light or mottled color, and vice versa. The Chukchee woman's coat is generally shorter than that of the Koryak. Under the coat of the Chukchee woman the lower part of the trousers is visible, but rarely under that of the Koryak woman. Among the Chukchee, coats are seldom provided with hoods, while among the Koryak all the women's coats and many of the men's travelling-coats, are furnished with hoods. Funeral clothing is never made without hoods.1 The women of the Maritime Koryak use almost no caps at all, contenting themselves with throwing their hoods over their heads. The women of the Reindeer Koryak go without caps,2 not only about the house, but even to the herd.
The travelling-coat of men for winter (la'xlan-i' san) is double, consisting of two fur shirts so adjusted that one is inside the other, and they are put on and taken off together. The inner shirt has the hair toward the body, the outer, outward. The two shirts are not sewed together, so that they are easily taken apart and can be worn separately. The outer one is made of the skins of fawns, preferably of those of mottled color killed late in the fall. Black or dark brown spots on a white or grayish background are considered particularly pretty, but the skins most commonly used have white or grayish spots on a dark or a light-tawny background. White or light-gray skins are used for funeral clothing only. 3 Russian settlers and Russianized natives prefer black or dark-tawny reindeer-skins. In certain localities this taste is devel- oping also among the Koryak. Thus the Koryak who are engaged in trade, and rich reindeer-breeders, wear outer coats of dark skins. The inner coat is usually made of skins of younger fawns, fromone to three months old, so that the double coat may not be too thick and hinder movement. Besides, the tender fur of young fawns is more pleasant to wear next to the body than the thicker hair of the older fawns. The Koryak wear fur clothing next to the body. Excepting those entirely Russianized, very few Koryak wear chintz or calico shirts under the fur clothing. These are worn without change until they fall to pieces.4
Women rarely wear a double winter coat, as they put the coat on over the double fur combination-suit which will be described later on. For the most part, women wear the single coat, fur inward. The skin side, well
See Part I, pp. 106, 108.
is interesting to
that the Eskimo of
Hudson Bay "do not wear caps, the
hood of the frocks being the only head-covering" (see Turner, p. 209).
Part I, p.
105. According to Murdoch
(p. 109), the Eskimo of Point Barrow value the skins of the
white Siberian domestic reindeer highly "for full-dress jackets." But the Koryak do not wear clothing of white skins.
the Russian settlers, the Koryak of Russianized villages wear chintz shirts,
flannel blouses, or knit
jackets under their fur coats. I saw some Maritime Koryak wearing American knit sweaters or coats purchased from
the American whalers. A very comical figure indeed was presented by a Koryak clad in trousers and boots 01
remdeer-skins and a cutaway coat of modern stile, which he wore without shirt and vest.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
dressed, is dyed a dark red or tawny hue, and adorned with pendants, stripes, and square patches of white skin, and with glass-bead embroideries.1
To the breast of the outer coat with attached hood, and near the collar, a fur flap made of the skin of reindeer-legs is sewed (see Fig. 116). This flap serves to protect the face from cold winds. In the funeral coat this flap is used for covering the face of the deceased.
At home, or when working near the house, the Koryak men, even in the cold of winter, ordinarily wear a single fur shirt with the fur side either in or out. A coat worn with the flesh side next the body has the advantage that the hairless skin does not afford nesting-place for insects; but, on the other hand, it is easily soaked by perspiration, and hardens when it dries again. The single coat is shorter than the double one, and has no hood. The neck is wide enough to allow the head to pass through freely. It has a hem of skin, through which a nettle cord or leather strap is passed for tightening the collar. The ends of the cord are tied in front. To the necks of most single shirts a collar of black dog-fur is sewed. These collars are of varying width. I saw particularly wide dog- fur collars among the Reindeer Koryak of the Taigonos Peninsula (see Plate xl, Fig. 1). The fur of white dogs is used only for trimming funeral clothing.
Fig. 116. Woman's Coat.
Woman's Winter Combination-Suit. It has been stated before that women do not wear fur shirts next to the skin. Under the shirt they wear a fur suit similar in cut to the modern combination underwear for women. Such fur suits are worn in Siberia by the women of the Chukchee, Asiatic Eskimo, and Koryak, and, according to a statement of Nelson, by the Eskimo women on Diomede and St. Lawrence Islands.3 In former times all the Kamchadal women also wore such suits.4 The Koryak call this suit ๑a'u-kei ("woman's combination") in contrast to the children's combination-suit called kei-kei. The
On the adornment of clothing,
see Chapter XI.
Bogoras, The Chukchee, Vol. VII of this series, p. 244.
The Eskimo about Bering Strait, p. 30.
4 See Steller, I, p. 37; Krasheninnikoff, II, p. 64.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
women's suit consists of a broad bodice joined to wide Turkish trousers which are gathered below the knees (Figs. 117, 118; and Plate XXXII, Fig. 2). On the chest and back the bodice has a deep cut into which the woman steps when putting on the suit. The sleeves are very wide, both at the shoulders and wrists, so that the hand can be taken out without any difficulty, which must be done when the woman wants to let down or take off the
||garment. A double combination-suit for women, for use in winter, is made of fawnskins similar to those used in the man's double winter coat. A single, outer combination-suit is shown in Fig. 118; and an inner combination-suit, with hair side in, is represented in Fig. 119. Below the knees, where the trousers of the combination- suit are drawn in, the edges are trimmed with a leather hem, through which a cord runs for tightening the trous- ers and for tying them over the legs of the boots. The combination-suit of the Koryak woman is more carefully made, and of lighter weight, than that of the Chukchee woman, and thus does not render movement quite so|
Fig. 117. Woman's Combinations-Suit.
difficult. The suit of the Chukchee woman represents a huge skin sack with four appendages for the hands and feet. The ornamentation of the suit is also prettier than it is among the Chukchee. The lower portions of the sleeves and trouser-legs are often sewed together of alternate white and dark vertical stripes of fur from reindeer-legs. The lower parts of the sleevesoften consist of black and white fur checks made of pieces of fur from rein- deer-legs. Women's funeral combination-suits are trimmed with particular care, and are very handsome (see Part I, Fig. 52, p. 108). The Reindeer Koryak women, however, do not trim their clothing with equal care. Plate XXXII, Fig. 2, represents a wealthy Reindeer Koryak woman from the Taigonos Peninsula, dressed in a combination-suit. She wears this suit over a chintz shirt, and not next to her skin.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
The slit of the bodice, and the borders of the sleeves, are trimmed with strips of dog or wolf skin or with some other long-haired fur (see Fig.117). Old women also cover the neck with a boa of squirrel-tails, which they acquire from the Tungus, or with a woollen scarf bought of the Russians
While the Chuckchee women wear no upper garments when near the ouse, and when working near the fire or at the hearth bare the right arm or the entire bust to be free in their motions, the Koryak women are ashamed of being seen in the combination-suit alone in the presence of strangers. Not
Fig.118. Woman's Combination-Suit. Fig.119. Woman's Combination-Suit.
one woman of the Maritime Koryak consented to pose in front of the camera dressed in a combination-suit only. My wife succeeded in inducing a little orphan-girl of eleven or twelve in the village of Kamenskoye to have her photograph taken without her coat; but suddenly she refused because her uncle said that she ought not to do so. Among the Reindeer Koryak also the girls refused to be photographed without a coat, but the women did not present difficulties. Generally Reindeer Koryak women take their coats off in the inner tent only. On the Palpal, where the Koryak come in contact with the Chukchee, the women of the Reindeer Koryak, like the Chukchee women, wear nothing but the combination-suit near the house. Krashenin- nikoff1 says that the Kamchadal women of his time at home wore the
Krasheninnikoff. II, p 64. At
present most of the Kamchadal dress just like the local Russian settlers.
75Jesup north pacific exped., vol. vi, part 2.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
combination-suit only. Hence the question arises, whether the modesty of the Koryak women in this regard is a result of the influence of the Russians, or whether it is due to the fact that the sexual relations of the Koryak differ from those prevailing among the Kamchadal and Chukchee, 1 and bring about different standards of modesty.
When feeling warm or while working, the Koryak women take the right hand out of the combination-dress and let the empty sleeve dangle down under the upper garment. At home the Koryak women always wear the
combination-dress that way. The end of the sleeve is seen hanging down under the skirts of the coat. There are no other openings in the combina- tion-suit save the one in the top of the bodice for getting into it, and those at the insteps for the feet. To satisfy the demands of nature the Koryak woman has to free her arms from the sleeves and drop the suit down to her feet. The Chukchee women do so openly, while the Koryak women perform this complex operation under the coat. First they take the arms out of the coat-sleeves, then they release the arms from the sleeves of the combination-suit and put them back into the coat-sleeves. Then, when
1 See Chapter XII.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
long legs, reaching up to the thighs, where they are tied or buttoned on to short loin-breeches. Nelson says that the lower garments of the women of the Alaskan Eskimo are boots and trousers combined,1 while Murdoch says of the Eskimo of Point Barrow that women's trousers are combined with boots, and that at times even men wear such trousers.2
Winter Foot-Gear. Most of the winter foot gear consists of fur boots
(pla'kit) and stockings reaching up to the knees. The boots are usually made of the skin of the reindeer-leg. Its fur is short, glossy, and of greater dura- bility than the fur of other parts of the reindeer. Men's boots are either short (Fig. 123, a) reaching a little above the ankle, or they have legs extending up to the knee (see Plate XXXV, Fig.2). Both styles have
1 Nelson, p. 30. 2 Murdoch, p. 126.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
hair of which is cut short. Hence the legs of women appear very stout about their calves, between the lower and upper strings with which the boots are tied. A woman's winter boot, with fur stockings inside, the legs of the boot ornamented with inserted parallel lines of white fur, is shown in Fig. 123, b.
Stockings are made of the skins of large fawns, and are worn with the hair side in. With the boots, the stockings form a double foot-wear, just as two fur shirts compose a double coat, and are mostly put on and pulled off together. For the night, however, stockings which have been worn during the day are taken out of the boots, turned inside out, and hung over the hearth or out of doors to dry. The skin for stockings is dressed soft, and the flesh side is painted cinnamon-color.1 Stockings are made large, with a wide semicircular toe, like the boots, into which they fit snugly. The cut of a fur stocking differs from that of a fur boot in that there is no stripe inserted between the sole and the vamp. A small leather strap is sewed to the upper end of each stocking. These are tied together when the stockings are hung up to dry. Before the stocking is put into the boot, dry grass, of which a supply is always kept on hand, is put in. The grass lining adds to the softness of the fur foot-wear, and protects the foot against injuries. The grass lining must be changed often to keep it dry and soft.
When traveling in very cold weather, or sleeping over night under the open sky, short hare-skin socks are often worn inside the stockings. I also had occasion to see some of my Maritime Koryak drivers, when sleeping at night on the snow by the camp-fire, put on over their travelling-boots huge galoches made of the winter skins of reindeer. They would then put a long double fur shirt over the short one, draw hands and head within the shirt, and lie down on the snow, head to the fire. These large boots are evidently a Russian invention lately adopted by the Koryak. In general, the Koryak are not particularly careful to protect themselves against the cold when sleeping out of doors. Not infrequently herdsmen pass cold nights wearing only a single coat, with belt. The stockings for short boots of men are also short.
Winter Cap and Mittens. The winter cap (la'xlan pe'nken) is double, and made of the fur of reindeer-fawns. The inner lining is the fur of a new-born fawn or of one a month old. The outer cap is often made of dog or wolf paws. In front and at the back it is trimmed with a strip of shaggy dog or wolf fur. Costly caps are trimmed with wolverene-fur all round. The top of the cap is rounded. It has the shape of an old woman's sweeping- cap (Fig. 124). In front the fur trimming protects the fore-head; at the back the cap covers the occiput and neck. A rather long leather strap, the ends of which are sewed to the lower edges of the cap, is twisted once under the chin (Fig. 124, a; and Plate xxxii, Fig. 1), and the end loop is turned back
1 See Chapter. X.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
over the crown of the head to hold the cap down. When a Koryak feels too warm, he throws his cap back, and it dangles down from the loop which passes around his neck. A warm cap like the one here described is worn with a hoodless coat. A cap with light trimming is worn with the coat with a large fur hood. Herdsmen who have to run after the herd wear hoodless coats and light caps They usually put on the outer coat only for the night.
Women very rarely wear caps, Maritime Koryak women, when going out of doors in winter, throw the hood of the coat over the head. Only the Reindeer Koryak women, while wandering from camp to camp, wear cap under the hood. Its shape does not differ from that of the men's cap. Women's funeral costumes have no caps, a fact which shows that in former times the Kor- yak women did not wear caps.
The Koryak fur cap is prettier and more neatly made than the Chukchee cap. Besides the pretty trimmings, it has in- serted in the crown, and at the place which covers the occiput or- naments made of alter-
Fig. 124. Winter Caps.
nate stripes of black and white skin from the legs of reindeer-fawns, or lozenge patterns. Behind, long tassels of seal-pup skin, dyed red, are sewed on; and on the sides, circles are embroidered with glass beads of various colors. To the crown of the cap are often stitched two pieces of fur or leather, which project upwards like the ears of a fox. Some caps are not rounded in shape at the crown, but have angular projections at the sides (Fig. 124, a). The man's funeral cap has the shape of a round decorated skull-cap with ear-flaps stitched on, and an embroidered leather-strap1 with which to tie it under the chin.
1 See Part I, Fig. 48, p. 107.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
Men who drive dog or reindeer teams, and who watch herds in winter, wear mittens made of the skin of reindeer-legs. The hair of the skin of the reindeer-leg is short, thick, and shiny. It does not readily wear out or fall off from dampness. Further, these mittens are light and exceedingly soft when well dressed, so that they are not in the way when holding the reins and the whips, or doing any other work on the journey. These mittens are not very warm, since they are not usually made of double skin, and have the hair side out. Sometimes they are lined inside with fur of a new-born reindeer-fawn; but young people go without the inner mitten, and do not suffer from cold. Light mittens are also made of the skin from dogs' legs. Women usually wear warmer double mittens, with shaggy trimming of dog, wolf, or fox fur, about the wrist. The outside mittens are made of the dressed skins of reindeer-fawns; the inside mittens, of the fur of new-born fawns. Mittens made of the fur of wolf-paws on the outside, and lined with the fur of young fawns, are regarded as warm and pretty.
Summer Clothing. In general, summer clothing differs little from winter clothing. Real warm summer days are very few in number. In summer, as well as late in spring and early in autumn, the old worn-out winter clothing is put on, only in single suits. At this season much of the hair has fallen off. Therefore in summer the Koryak present a shabby and unattractive appearance. This is true particularly of the Reindeer Koryak, who do not use special summer clothing while roaming with their herds in the mountainous regions, where it is colder than in the valleys; but the Koryak who live in the valleys and near the mouths of rivers, particularly those of the coast, have special summer clothing for the warmer part of summer.
Summer coat. The ordinary summer coat (ala'kin-isไn) is a shirt of curried and smoked reindeer-skin, and shirts of this kind are worn by both sexes. Those of women are longer than those of men, and more frequently furnished with hoods. Sometimes a dog-skin collar is attached. The cover of the upper part of the tent which has been exposed to the smoke for a long time is often used as material for such shirts. The skin, after being smoked, is more waterproof than unsmoked skin, and does not harden after rain.
Shirts of unsmoked leather, such as are worn in winter over fur coats,1 sometimes ornamented by means of wooden stamps (see Fig. 218), are also worn in summer; they are not used in rainy weather, or for fishing and sea- hunting, as dampness hardens them.
During the sea-hunting season, especially in damp and cold weather, the Maritime Koryak wear dog-skin coats, with the hair side in (Fig. 125). A dog-skin shirt is considered a good waterproof garment. Such a shirt rarely has a hood. It is worn mostly by lads in their teens. At home, even in
1 See p. 593.
Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. VI. Plate XXXIII
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
winter, boys wear dog-skin coats (see the elder boy on Plate XXXIII, Fig. 1). Summer clothing of dog-skin is always saturated with fish and seal oil, and is dirty in the extreme.
I have never seen a Koryak wearing a seal-skin coat, which is used by the Eskimo as a waterproof garment. I think that the absence of seal-skin coats for summer wear is due to the insufficient quantity of seal-skins, which are required in great numbers both for the household and for exchange.1 Likewise I have never seen any clothing made of bird-skins and of seal-intestines, which they say was worn in olden times.
summer and autumn,
made of winter reindeer- skins
with shorn fur, and others
summer skins of grown rein-
with short new fur, killed just
after the shedding of the
are also worn. Women
coats made of such skins,
flesh side out. This side
well dressed, and dyed a
color, and adorned
strips of white leather,
of hair, circles embroidered
applique-work, and other
At home the
Koryak women wear
coats even in winter. Dan-
(mi'lau-i'sใn) are made
in the same way, only
are more elaborately deco-rated than the ordinary garments.2 The
dancing-coats of men have no hoods.3
Fig. 125. Man's Dog-Skin Coat.
Summer Trousers and Combination-Suit. In midsummer, men wear trousers of curried leather (Fig. 126), the pattern of which does not differ from that of the winter trousers; while women wear a combination-suit of leather under their coats. The leather of which both men's and women's summer trousers are made is either ordinary, soft-dressed, or curried and smoked reindeer-skin. The latter is used for waterproof clothing worn during the fishing-season. Waterproof trousers for men, made of seal-skin,
1 According to Tale 21 (Fart I, p.
162), clothing made of seal-skins is regarded by the Koryak as that of
poor people. From this it may be inferred that seal-skin clothing was used in olden times, when the reindeer was
2 See Part I, Fig. 27, p. 68. 3 Ibid., Plate I, Fig. I.
76 JESUP NORTH PACIFIC EXPED., VOL. VI. PART 2.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
are rarely found. While engaged in sea-hunting, the Maritime Koryak, espe-cially lads, often wear dog-skin trousers. In autumn, and on cold days in midsummer, the Koryak wear old, worn-out, single winter trousers of reindeer- skin with the fur on.
Summer Boots, Caps, Mittens, and Gloves. Summer foot-wear con-sists of boots or short shoes alone. In summer, stockings are not worn, and
only grass linings are used in boots and shoes. Summer boots or shoes are made of the skin of the legs of reindeer-fawns or dog-pups, of dressed skin of the ringed-seal and of curried leather made of reindeer-skin. Summer and winter boots and shoes are the same in shape; but summer foot-wear is smaller than that for winter, because it is worn without the stocking. The soles of all summer foot-wear are made of thong-seal skin or of walrus-skin split in two. Short boots or shoes are worn by men only. The leather straps passing through the lower hems of the trou- ser-legs are drawn to- gether tight around the upper end of the legs
of these short boots. The legs of men's high boots, and generally also those of women, reach up to the knees, and are drawn together with leather straps over the trousers. Waterproof boots are made of ringed-seal skin treated with blubber. Boots made of smoked reindeer-skin do not get wet as quickly as those made of unsmoked skin. Often only the vamps of the boots are made of seal-skin or of smoked leather; and the legs, of ordinary dressed reindeer- skin. Among the Maritime Koryak I found long-legged waterproof boots for men reaching up to the thighs (Fig. 127). The soles are made of thong- seal skin; the vamp and legs, of ringed-seal.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
Women's summer boots, like men's dancing-boots with legs of curried leather, are decorated with pinked stripes of the thin soft white skin of the dog's neck, forming the so-called "tooth-pattern." Sometimes the toes up to the instep are made of the skin of ringed-seal dyed black, while the instep and legs are of reindeer-leather dyed a cinnamon color. The women of the Maritime Koryak wear such boots also in winter, when at home; or they put them on after finishing their out-door work, or while drying their winter boots on returning home from a trip. But such leather foot-wear, for change, is made larger than the summer leather boots, so that they can be put on over the fur stockings.
I have said before, that, even in winter, women rarely wear a cap, but cover their heads with the hood which is attached to the coat. In summer they also go bare-headed, or in stormy weather they throw the hood of the summer coat over the head. Nowadays many women tie a kerchief on their head in summer, as is customary among Russian women (see Plate xxx, Fig. 2).
Men's summer caps are made either of fawn-skins or of the dressed skin of ringed-seal, with the hair on (Fig. 128). The latter material is used chiefly by the Maritime Koryak .
Summer mittens are made of curried reindeer-skin, or of the dressed skin of ringed-seal, or of spotted seal. During the sea-hunting season the Maritime Koryak ear mittens of dog-skin.
The Koryak very rarely wear gloves, which, to judge by the pattern, have been adopted from the neighboring Tungus tribes. The back and the palm of each glove are cut from the same pattern. These parts are placed one upon the other, and the edges,and also the sides of the hand and fingers, stitched together with sinew-thread. The thumb is cut sepa- rately, and consists, like the rest of the glove, of two halves of the same shape. It is inserted in an opening left in the glove under the index-finger.
Fig. 128. Man's Cap.
Children's Clothing. Clothing for children up to the age of five or six, and sometimes that of children even a little older, consists, like the women's underwear, of a com- bination-suit, called kei-kei or ma'l๑i-kei ("bifurcated kei"). The children's combination-suit differs from that of women in several respects. It often has a hood sewed on. It has a long slit between the two halves of the trousers, and a fur flap (Koryak, mใka) stitched on at the back, over the slit. On the inner side of this flap dry moss and powdered rotten wood are placed. The flap is passed up in front between the legs, and the two straps attached to its ends are tied around the waist. The child's excretions are absorbed
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JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
by the moss and powder, and remain there until the mother unties the flap. The soiled moss is thrown out, the babe's body is wiped with clean moss, and the flap is tied up anew. In infants's suits, the sleeves and the legs are sewed up.1 Nurslings up to a year and over have two suits, one for the daytime, made of soft fawn-skins; and one for the night, made of thin skins of new-born fawns, or of curried leather. Older children sleep naked at night, like adults, and hence have only suits for the day. Children's night-suits are made light to keep them from being too hot under the fur blanket. The night-suit is put on infants to event soiling the bedding. This preventive is the more necessary, as the Koryak have no cradles or cribs, and the children sleep with their motl er one blanket made of reindeer-skins.
Children able to walk ru out the house or the camp with the flap untied, and dangling down lik tail. When it is time to break camp, these children, like nurslings, have their flaps tied up. When children begin to walk, slits are made at the wrist parts of their sleeves to enable them to stick their little hands out and take them in; and instead of closed trousers, boots with separate stockings are given them. In the camps of the Reindeer Koryak I had occasion to see children seven or eight years old in children's combination-suits with the flaps hanging down at the back. On Plate XXXIII, Fig. I, are represented a boy and girl of seven or eight years, with their flaps tied up. As this was in April, at a temperature of not lower than 15ฐ C, they no longer wore their hoods; and the girl had even freed her right arm, and was playing in the cold with her breast bare. Plate XXXIII, Fig. 2, represents a boy without coat. At about the age of five, boys and girls begin to wear men's and women's clothing (Plate XXXIV).
Coats with Tails. It is interesting to note that the skirts of funeral coats,2 chiefly those of men, terminate at the back in a tail-like flap. This flap has a special name, ๑oi๑in. It is evident that in former times even common coats were cut that way. In some myths we find tails described and considered as ornaments of ordinary coats .3 In describing Kamchatka clothing, Steller 4 says that only wome ats were furnished with tails; while Krash- eninnikoff 5 says that men, to d to wear tailed coats, and that accordingly the round and tailed coats distinguished. On the Kolyma tundra the cut-away coat of the Reind Yukaghir, who have adopted this style from the Tungus, has a tail beh Something similar is found in the coat of the Yenisei Tungus, as des bed by Middendorf.6 As is well known, the peculiar coat of many Eskimo women is cut in deep at the sides, so that in
1 See Bogoras, The Chukchee, Vol. VII of this series, Fig. 184, p. 252.
2 See Fig. 225; also Part I, Fig. 44 p. 106.
3 See, for instance, Tale 59, p. 217. The wife of Envious-One had an embroidered fur coat with a tail.
4 Steller, p. 307.
5 Krasheninnikoff, II, p. 6l.
6 Middendorf, p. 702.
Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. VI. Plate XXXIV.
FIG. 1. KORYAK BOY. FIG.2. KORYAK GIRL.,
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK
front and behind the rounded ends of the coat dangle like an apron and a tail. The flap behind is longer than the one in front. Among most Eskimo, only the men wear short coats cut evenly all round. But Nelson states that "from the Yukon mouth northward to Point Barrow, the frocks of the men are cut a trifle longer behind than in front."1 This calls to mind the tail of the coat of the tribes of northeastern Siberia. In describing the dress of the Iglulimiut, Parry2 says that "the men have also a tail in the hind part of their jacket," but smaller than with women. According to Boas,3 coats with short tails behind are also worn by the Cumberland Sound Eskimo. The reindeer-skin coat of men of the Hudson Bay Eskimo has a tail behind.4 It is quite possible that this cut of the back of the coat of the tribes mentioned has a common origin. So far as is known to me, however, the Chukchee have no tails on their coats, and the illustrations given by Bogoras show no such tails.
Excepting the funeral coats, the Koryak nowadays cut all their coats evenly all round, even those used in dancing and those worn by shamans.
Ornaments, Hair-Dressing, and Tattooing. I shall speak later on of the ornamentation of dress.5 Here I shall only say a few words on personal adornment. In Part I (pp. 45, 46) I have already spoken of charm bracelets, necklaces, pendants for the hair, and the tattooing of the face and other parts of the body, all of which play the part of "protectors." These charmed
|objects differ nearly always from ordinary ornaments, which have no connection with magic in their lack of beauty or symmetry. Thus straps made of skin and hair serve as amulets, which are worn on the arms, feet, and neck. The brass and beaded bracelets and ear- rings6 are much better executed than the corre- sponding charms. Hair-|
ornaments worn by women (Fig. 129) may be readily distinguished by their beauty, from the beads, straps, or tufts of reindeer, hare, or wolf hair, which are braided in with the hair of the head as charms against headache. Nearly all Koryak women wear the head-dress shown in Fig. 129 (see also Plate XXXVI), which consists of a beaded string with two large metal buttons at the ends, and a leather strap with pendants behind. Sometimes the back part of the string consists of a metal chain without leather foundation.
1 Nelson, 34. 2 Parry, II, p. 495. 3 Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 50.
4 Turner, Fig. 51, p. 211. 5 See Chapter XI. 6 See Chapter X.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
The Koryak women part the hair in the middle from the forehead down to the neck, and braid it behind in two braids, so that each braid begins quite close to the ear. The back of the head is thus left free for the orna- mented leather strip, which extends nearly from one ear to the other. This style of dressing the hair is found also among the women of the Eskimo, Chukchee, and the tundra Yukaghir. Even nowadays stone pendants are often attached to the ends of the braids.1 At present the ends of the braids are usually tied with a thong or sinew-thread on which beads are strung. The braids tied in this way rest on the chest or back, oftener on the chest.
The men cut or shave the hair with a sharp knife in the middle of the head, forming a round tonsure like that of a Catholic priest, leaving all around a thick ring of short hair; so that the forehead is free, and the hair is removed from the nape of the neck and the region about and under the ears. The ring of hair is often supported by a small thong. The Koryak tie their hair with this thong when fighting, running races, tending the flock, or working.
Tattooing for the sake of ornament has nearly gone out of use. I have spoken before of tattooing as a protective device.2 Ornamental tattooing is practised by women only, but I have seen very few tattooed women; all were married. Two of them were childless, so that the tattooing may have been done as a cure for barrenness. That in former times tattooing among women was widespread, may be concluded from several myths Thus it is related 3 how River-Man, on turning into a woman, had his face tattooed to please Illa'. Neither Steller nor Krasheninnikoff mentions that the Kamchadal practised tattooing; both state 4 that the Kamchadal painted their faces red and white. Ornamental tattooing is called by the Koryak l๕-kele; i.e., "paint- ing of the face." Perhaps this appellation applies as well to painting the face with colors, a custom no longer met with. Allusions to this custom are found in mythology: for instance, it is told that Big-Raven's elder son painted his own belly.6 Judging from Nordquist's and Borgoras's descriptions, Chuk- chee tattooing is more complex than that of the Koryak. The tattooing of Koryak women, which I had occasion to see, consisted of two or three hori- zontal lines over the nose, or of two or three equidistant curves on the chin and cheeks. The Koryak, and the other tribes of eastern Siberia that practise tattooing, do not apply the designs by pricking, but by passing under the skin a needle and thread which is coated with coal mixed with grease. Hence the Gishiga Russians call the Koryak tattooing "face-embroidery." I learned from one Koryak that in olden times the method of pricking and rubbing greasy black paint into the holes was also practised.
Snow-Goggles Snow-Shoes, Staffs, and Ice-Creepers. Like all other Arctic tribes, the Koryak use snow-goggles to protect the eyes from the
1 See Fig. 138, p. 610. 2 See Part I, p. 46. 3 Ibid., p. 304.
4 Steller, p. 300; Krasheninnikoff, II, p. 68. 5 See Part I, pp. 166, 177.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK
dazzling light reflected in spring by the snow-fields. The snow-goggles are made of birch-bark or of wood, with a slit for the eyes.1 In spring, protection of the eyes is of particular importance to herdsmen, who are constantly in the open air, and to drivers, who undertake to carry merchandise on dog-sledges.
Snow-shoes are of two kinds. One kind are short, and are called "crow-feet" el-yegit).2 They consist of a willow frame plaited with a thong. Herdsmen and hunters wear these snow-shoes for walking over uneven around and hard snow. The other kind are long, and are called ti-yegit.3 They are made of a thinly planed aspen board, with pointed ends and tip turned upwards, and are lined underneath with the skin from reindeer-legs, the hair running backward. These snow-shoes are suitable for level regions, and give a good support on soft snow, thanks to their light weight and large surface.When "crow-feet" snow-shoes are used, the feet are frequently lifted as in walking, while on long snow-shoes gliding alone is resorted to. The Eskimo who, when hunting seal in winter, have to cross rough and hummocky ice, employ snow-shoes similar to the Koryak "crow-feet;" 4 while the long snow-shoes are used more by hunters like the Tungus or Yukaghir, who hunt wild animals in the forests or river-valleys covered with deep and soft snow. The Koryak, as a rule, do not make the long snow-shoes themselves,
but purchase them from the Tungus. The flesh side of the skin is fastened with fish-glue under the wooden snow- shoes. The edges of the skin are turned over to the upper side.
For smooth and slippery ice, the Koryak tie iron creepers under the soles of their shoes (Fig. 130). In ancient times ice-creepers were made of hard wood or bone.
I rarely saw snow-staffs like those of the Chukchee and Eskimo, with attached ring. The Koryak use more often ordinary willow rods, such as are employed in their walks from village to village, from camp to camp, or in foot-races (see Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 1).
Yokes and Carrying-Straps. For carrying loads when going afoot, Koryak men use a wooden le'tel. It is usually made of alder or of willow, and consists of a flat stick about 50 cm. long, planed, and somewhat bent so as to fit the chest (Fig. 131), with notches at both ends for attaching the
See Bogoras, The Chukchee,
Vol. VII of this series, Fig. 192, a, b, p. 260.
Fig. 193, b, p. 261.
Fig. 193, a, p. 261.
4 See Nelson, pp. 212-214; Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, pp. 40, 41.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
loops of straps that are tied to the bag or other burden (Plate xxxv, Fig. 1). In carrying burdens, the yoke or cross-bar is placed over the chest, the straps rest on the fore arms, while the load rests on the small of the back. This is a clumsy method of carrying burdens. The yoke presses against the chest, the straps hinder the motions of the arms, and the burden lies too low on the back. To prevent the yoke from slipping down in walking, it is fastened by means of a thong to the neck or coat-colla.
While the method used by the men, of carrying loads by means of chest-yokes, is found also among the Eskimo,1 the method employed by the Koryak
131. Man's Chest- Yoke. Length, 53 cm.
women is met with among many Indian tribes.2 The carrying-strap is depicted on codices and monuments of ancient Mexico.3 It is in use among the Ainu. Among the ancient Kamchadal, only the women used the head-band, while the men used the breast-yoke like the Koryak.4 The Koryak women put burdens, and also their children, into grass, nettle, or skin bags, which they hold on the back, and carry them by means of a head-band passing across the forehead. Plate XXXVI shows how women carry children on their backs, in a bag or without one, by means of head-bands. The head-band or carrying-strap is made of t thong-seal hide. Fig. 132 shows the strap
stretched out. The small sticks in the middle are inserted to stretch the skin and make it thinner. The ends of the strap are cut out and provided with slits through which to pass the straps of bags and of wooden or skin buckets, for tying (see Plate xxxv, Fig. 2; and Plate XXXVI; also Fig. 160, a).
See Nelson, p. 211; and Mason,
The Human Beast of Burden, Fig. 2, p. 256.
Mason, The Human Beast of Burden, pp. 262, 263, 265, 268, 273, 277, 282.
Morse, Was Middle America peopled from Asia? (Popular Science Monthly, November,
1898, p. 5).
Krasheninnikoff, II, p. 24.
Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. VI. Plate XXXV.
Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. VI. Plate XXXVI.
WOMEN CARRYING CHILDREN.
JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.
Bags for keeping Clothing. The Koryak keep their reserve clothing in bags made of the skins of ringed-seals, of spotted seals, or of ribbon- seals. The skins are dressed on the flesh side, and the hair is left on. The bags are made with the hair side out, and, like those of the Eskimo are of two shapes, wide bags with a top opening, which is tied with thongs; and elongated bags, resembling a seal in shape, or made of an entire seal- skin, the flippers of which are sewed up. The openings of bags of this kind are slit across the chest and laced up.1 The Maritime Koryak keep articles
not in use, and spare clothing, in such bags, in the houses or in storehouses. In the houses these bags, with their contents, serve as pillows. In winter, bags containing summer clothing are kept in the storehouses; and in summer the winter clothing is kept inthe same way. Funeral clothing not fully finished is also kept in storehouses.
Belts. Women very rarely wear a belt. Embroidered carrying-straps2 belong to the funeral clothing of women. The belt, however, forms, part of the funeral dress of men.3 This points to the fact that the belt has been used by male Koryak for a long time. The Koryak gird up their house-coats and their short travelling-coats with their belts. The long fur travelling-coats, or the overcoats of leather or imported cloth, are worn without belts (see Plate XXXII, Fig. I).
The belt consists of a dressed strap of thong-seal skin, two or three fingers wide, with a large iron buckle.4 In ancient times, buckles were made of ivory, and these may be seen even now. On the belt hangs a small belt- knife in a sheath, a case embroidered with glass beads containing a birch- bark tobacco-box, and often iron tweezers for pulling out hair (Fig. 133). These tweezers seem to me to have been adopted from the Tungus. Among the Maritime Koryak, belts are frequently embroidered with glass beads (see Fig. 202).
See illustrations in Bogoras,
The Chukchee, Vol. VII of this series, p. 192; and Nelson, p. 44.
Part I, Fig. 54, p. 109.
3 Ibid., Fig. 46, p. 106.
4 See Fig. 205.
77JESUP NORTH PACIFIC EXPED., VOL. VI, PART 2.