на главную

Designs 683
Arrangement of Designs 688  
Rhythmic Repetition of Designs 689  
Description of Coats 699  



Designs. — In order to be able to distinguish the latest designs in orna-mentation from the ancient ones, we must first of all turn to that of funeral dress or of other articles connected with ritual, such as the dress used in dancing at whale festivals, or to the ornamentation of articles no longer in use, such as quivers. The ornamentation of funeral clothes is especially marked by conservatism.

         On most of the funeral garments, ornamentation is made entirely of slit-embroidery, overlaid seams, caught-in strips, and skin mosaic. Sinew and hair applique occurs also, but not so frequently.

          The designs made in slit-embroidery have been described before, and it   has   been   stated   that   caught-in   strips   and   wound   strips  result in similar



designs;  characterized,   however,   by   wider   white   lines   as   compared   to  the remaining  black  background.  The more complicated forms do not appear in this  technique;  but   we   have,   on the whole,  series of rhythmically arranged rectangles,  as shown,  for instance, in the  narrow strips containing white bars in Fig. 208.

          There is another figure frequently found in the ornamentation of funeral and sometimes of ordinary clothing, — inscribed arches with elongated sides, or   ovals   with   one   end   cut   off.    These   figures   may   be   seen   on   the   two

funeral quivers before men-tioned.1 Embroidered figures of this kind are found on ancient Chukchee quivers2 and on some articles of the Alaskan Eskimo.3

          It is very interesting that, in the ornamentation of funer- al and dancing costumes, we do not find any realistic repro- ductions of men and  animals which could be considered as "guardians" of the dead or of the    shamans,    or    of   other

Fig. 202. Bead-Embroidery. a, Belt (width, 7 cm.); b, Pouch (height, 12 cm.).

  persons who perform the religious dances. In the shamanistic costumes of the Yakut, the Tungus, and other Siberian tribes, we do find figures of "guardians" of shamans in the form of outlines of men and other animals. These figures are embroidered on the dress with sinew-thread; and sometimes figures cut out of leather, cloth, tin, or copper, or wrought from iron, are sewed on the dress.

         Professor Boas has called attention to the difference in the decorative style applied in ceremonial and common objects among the Indians, the Eskimo,   and   the   Gold   of  the   Amur   River.4     Their ceremonial objects are

1  See Part I, Fig. 50, p. 107; also Fig. 43, p. 106; and Fig. 227 of this part.

2  See Bogoras, Chukchee Material Life, Plate XI, Fig. 1; The Chukchee, Vol. VII of this series, Fig. 76, p.157.

3  See Nelson, Plate xlv, Figs. 15, 31, 32; Plate XX, Fig. 6.

4  See   Boas,  The   Decorative   Art   of the   North   American  Indians (Popular Science Monthly, October, 1903,
pp. 484, 485).



covered with more or less realistic designs, while the decoration of ordinary garments represents geometrical motives. I have stated that the same phenomenon occurs among the Yakut and Tungus in reference to the decor- ation of their shaman's and ordinary wearing-apparel. We see the reverse among the Koryak. Their funeral and dancing garments are covered with geometrical designs, and realistic designs are found only among the decorative motives of ordinary coats and  on  fur rugs.

         In the ornamentation of funeral garments there is only one case of a figure resembling a starfish,1 and another resembling a frog. An ancient Chukchee quiver has embroidered figures resembling the Russian letter ,- which could be mistaken for a conventionalized frog. I point this out, be- cause, in the Gilyak cult, the frog plays an important part, and its figure serves as an amulet.3  In Yukaghir mythology the frog is mentioned,4  but neither in the Koryak nor in the  Chukchee myths do we meet with the frog.5

         This may be the proper place to say a few words as to the part played by figures in the decorative art of the Koryak in general. If we are to assume that, in the case of all tribes, every ornament has, or had at one time, a certain meaning, then I must confess that I have not succeeded in finding the required explanations, either because the Koryak have forgotten the meaning of their ancient ornaments, or because the particular persons from whom I tried to obtain the explanations were not familiar with them, in which case the subject still remains to be investigated.

         I was able to ascertain that all ornamental designs on dresses, as well as the tattooings, are called by the same name — ka'li or ke'le — as is used by the Koryak to designate, not only all kinds of drawings, but also the printing in books and Russian letters. Some Koryak said that simple, double, and concentric circles represent the sun, the moon, or the stars. I was told on one occasion that zigzags represent mountains; on another, that they represent waves. Cross-like figures are supposed to represent flying birds; but I was told that as a general rule the ornament had no special  significance. Even the information as to zigzags I obtained only after insistentquestioning, which may have stimulated the answer. The impression obtained by me was, that the persons interrogated were considering their replies while being questioned. For that reason, I do not attach special importance to their answers.     It will be clearly apparent from what follows, that the women

1  See woman's funeral overcoat, Part I, Fig. 51, p. 108.

2  See Bogoras, Chukchee Material Life, Plate XI, Fig. 2.
See Schrenck, III, p. 750.

4 See Jochelson, Yukaghir Materials, p. 5.

5 Mr. Sternberg has called my attention to the resemblance of some figures in the Koryak-Chukchee decorative
art  to   Gilyak   representations  of the  frog;   but I  have  never  seen  a  frog  in the country of the Koryak.    Neither
Krasheninnikoff (I,  p. 492) nor  Dittmar  (Reisen in Kamtschatka, p. 345) found it in Kamchatka.    If the ornament
in  question   really   represents  a  frog, this pattern must have been adopted from the south.    I should add, however,
that, according to Slunin's assertions (see Slunin, I, p. 339), one species of frog has been found in Kamchatka.



use the designs employed in the ornamentation of the common dress, which have undoubtedly been adopted from the Russians or the Tungus, merely for beauty,  without reference to their meaning.

         Although,   in   the   ornamentation   of  the   common   dress,   we   meet   with ancient   designs   which   we   have   seen   on   funeral   clothes,   yet we frequently find, also, realistic representations of men and animals, combinations of curved lines    and   conventionalized   plants.     The   realistic reproductions of animals in dress-ornamentation may have developed as a result of the imitation by women, in   their   designs,   of the   objects   produced   by   men   in   their   sculptural   art. Combinations   of curved lines and conventionalized animals, such as we have seen   on   knives   and   spears,   were   adopted,   in   my  opinion,  from the Amur through the medium of the Tungus;  while the conventionalized plants, as we shall   see   further   on,   were   copied from the designs on the calico prints im- ported   by   Russian   merchants.     Some   woman   referred  to the  Russo-Koryak half-breed   Fletcher1   as   the   author   of  certain   patterns.     These were mostly figures  representing  conventionalized plants,  copied from designs on imported calico   or   cloth.     The   woman   using   them  knows that the design represents plants   and   leaves,   but  personally I  know of no case where a woman  would imitate plants which grow naturally before her eyes.

         It is claimed that, among advanced agricultural tribes, the plant-ornament appears in decorative art after the animal-ornament. I should add, however, that, as regards the plant in Fig. 204, (3), or that on the rug in Fig. 239, I was told that it represents the flower of the dog-brier, which grows in abun-  dance in the valleys of the Koryak rivers. One Koryak even told me thatsome women copied the figures for the leather patterns from leaves and flowers of living plants. I admit the possibility of this, although personally I have not met such women. As the habit of observation on the part of man when on his hunting expeditions furnishes him with material for carvings and engravings, so does the observation of woman when gathering berries, herbs, and roots,  supply her with  material for designs.

         How women copy figures from drawings on imported calico prints and other tissues is shown in Fig. 203, representing specimens which I obtained from a girl in Kamenskoye. Fig. 203, a, represents a conventionalized plant- ornament as it appeared on a piece of Russian calico which I obtained from the woman; b, the pattern, is a copy reproduced by the woman from a. The pattern is cut out of a piece of the thick skin of a thong-seal. We can see that the copy is rather crude. It shows a freehand, rough silhouette. This design was used in cutting out the patterns from the dark fur of the fawn in the following manner: the pattern is put on the obverse side of the fur,   and   by   means   of  a   bone  knife its outline is drawn on the skin (some

See p. 665.



women even use Russian pencils for that purpose), and the figure is then cut out with the woman's knife, following the outline. Fig. 203, c, shows how the conventionalized  plant is sewed into the strip of white fur of a young

Fig. 203, a, Calico Pattern for Plant-Design b; b, ACopy of the Pattern; c, Border of Coat showing Application of Plant-Design.

reindeer, in place of the figures, which were cut out in the described manner by means of the pattern (b).

         Fig.   204   represents   a   piece  of  a fur strip for trimming the bottom of an   overcoat.     The   ornamental   figures   are   a  mixture of ancient animal and

Fig. 204. Skin- Mosaic Boarder of Coat. Width, 21 cm.

plant ornaments. One figure represents a dog running, with its tail turned upward and its tongue hanging out. The other figure represents the sil- houette   of  a   horse   with   a   saddle,   and   a  pack behind the saddle.     In this




silhouette it is very easy to recognize the horse. The use of the figure of a strange animal as a subject of decoration testifies to the power of observ- ation of the Koryak woman. Among the plant-figures, one represents a flower, the other- a bush with  two  birds sitting on  it.

         Later on, strips for trimming the bottoms of coats will be fully discussed. The middle part of many of these strips is embroidered with colored thread, in imitation of Russian designs. The cross in Fig. 211, in cotton thread, seems to have been adopted from Russian designs; while in Fig. 212 the entire strip, embroidered in silk,  represents conventionalized plants.

         Where fur mosaic occurs in funeral garments, we find only square, diago-nal, rhomb, or triangular checker-work, or narrow parallel strips in various arrangements, but no realistic figures. Thus it will be seen that all the characteristic ornamentation of funeral  dresses consists of geometric designs.

         Arrangement of Designs. — In treating of the arrangement of designs, three important points of view must be borne in mind, — the sequence of strips making up ornamental borders, the rhythmic repetition of motives recurring  these strips,  and their arrangement on the  garments.

         As regards the composition of borders from single strips, it would seem that the fundamental trait of arrangement consists in the attempt to set off a well-marked middle decorated stripe, which is accompanied by wider or narrower borders. Examples of such borders are fully discussed in the fol- lowing pages. The arrangement differs somewhat, according to the technique applied. Whenever the upper and lower borders of the ornamental strip are made of slit-embroidery, forms like those shown in Figs. 206-208 and 220- 223 are found. Borders made of applique-work are very common,  and these consist almost always of white triangles on a black or red background, asshown in Figs. 208, 212, and 216. Square checker-work in this arrangement is shown in Figs. 205, 220, and 223. Triangular or square checker-work is also made in skin mosaic, as illustrated in Fig. 209. The arrangement of the strips shows so much variation, however, that it is difficult to give any  generalized description. The same kind ofarrangement has also been applied in modern borders, with the only difference that for the ornamental middle row a strip of yarn or silk embroidery has been substituted.

         The arrangement of stripes illustrated in Figs. 212 and 216, a, is found in many coats with embroidery;   is also laid out on the same plan, except that under the lower row of white appliquéed hanging- triangles a row of checker-work is repeated. Sometimes, in place of the rhomboid checker-work, square checker-work is found. In one specimen the upper checkered strip is missing. In still another specimen  only  the central embroidery with the adjoining applique strips of triangles are retained. In another one  we find, in place of the upper strip of checker-work, a single row of alternate black and white squares,  while in all



other respects the arrangement of the border is the same as in the specimens just described. In a few coats (for instance) the strips with applique triangles are replaced by slit-embroidery. The same is done in specimen, where, however, in the upper border, the slit-embroidery representing standing triangles is inserted between a strip of blue cloth with applique standing triangles and yarn embroidery. Under the embroidery, in the place usually occupied by the hanging applique triangles, we find black skin with rectangles in slit-embroidery. Two of these coats in which the slit-embroidery is  used  are  dancing-coats  made  of skin  dyed  red. 

Rhythmic Repetition of Designs. — More interesting than the succession of strips making up the border is the rhythmic repetition of motives in each strip and in the combined pattern constituting the whole width of the border. On the whole, there is a strong tendency to use alternate patterns intended to break the uniformity of an uninterrupted long border; but in many cases the rhythmic arrangement is much more intricate. In other cases the whole  front of the coat is occupied by one pattern, while a change of arrangementtakes place on the back. In still other cases the right and left sides of the back show different patterns. In the majority of cases there is one place in which the symmetrical or rhythmic arrangement of the patterns is interrupted.

Fig. 205. Funeral Belt. Width, 4.5 cm.

This place is generally found under the left arm, not quite so often under  he right arm. In some cases an exceptional pattern which does not fit into  the whole rhythmic series is inserted at this place. This may be due to the difficulty of adjusting the strip to the garment; but from this difficulty a tendency seems to have developed to make a break in the design, even when not necessary.

         It seems best to illustrate the peculiar tendency to rhythmic arrangement by the discussion of a number of borders. Fig. 205 represents part of a belt used in a man's funeral dress. The checker-work is made by weaving white dog-skin through slits in black hide. The ends of the slits are connected with applique hair embroidery. Each pair of white applique circles on the central strip is succeeded by one red circle.

          Fig. 206 also represents part of a belt of a funeral dress. It consists of a strip of black skin on which right-angled figures are made in slit-embroi- dery. The numbers of links in the central connecting chain vary somewhat from three to six, the distances between the bars and squares not being quite



regular. On  the   whole,  the   squares   and   their   distances   apart are a little wider   in   the   middle   of  the   strip  than at the ends.   Towards the ends the squares are a little narrower,  and they are slightly closer together.     The end auares number about eight stitches across.     The middle squares number ten or   eleven.     Throughout,   the   same width of the design, thirteen stitches, —


Fig. 206. Funeral Belt with Slit-Embroidery. Width, 4.5 cm.

that is, six stitches either side of the middle line, — is preserved. The second square from the left, here illustrated, shows an irregularity in the bottom row, in that two adjoining slits are treated as a unit.

         Fig. 207 is part of a wide border of a funeral coat which is trimmed with dog-fur. The whole border consists of alternate strips of black and white skin   sewed   together.     The   lowest  strip  is made of shorn  reindeer-skin with

Fig. 207.  Border of Funeral Coat with Slit-Embroidery. Width, 8.5 cm.

the flesh side up, dyed red. The designs on the upper row are arranged quite symmetrically. As shown in the illustration, these are of varying lengths, which are arranged as follows: 


cm 8 12 8 17 12.5 22 9 9 22 12 17 8 11 8 cm
Under arm. Under arm.

At the intervals hair tassels are caught in the seam. The vertical bars on this design consist, in the middle part, of single rows of stitches; while at both ends of the strip there is a tendency to substitute double rows, although not quite regularly. Seen from a distance, the impression is given that the middle part, which was probably placed on the front of the coat, contains finer and more regular work than the back, where the vertical bars are farther apart and heavier. The whole middle portion of the central black strip of the design consists of a regular alternation of rectangular fields of six  andthree stitches, as shown in the illustration, except that there is a slight irregularity   in   the   occurrence   here   and there of three  3-stitch fields instead



of two 3-stitch fields, as would be required by perfect regularity.     This portion of  the   black   middle   strip   extends  from  the point where the 17 cm. bar of the top row on  the left adjoins the  12.5 cm. bar, to the middle of the  17 cm. on   the   right.    The   whole   rest   of  the left side of this strip is occupied by one   continuous   row   of 3-stitch  squares with only slight variations, while the whole   rest   of  the   right-hand   side   continues   with  a design the same as the one   in  the  lower black strip,  only a little  narrower.     If this interpretation  is correct,   the   front   would   be   occupied  by  one  design,  and the left and right of  the   back   each   by   a different design.     The white strip  under the central black strip just described is embroidered in red yarn, except that portion which is   under   the  two narrow bars of the upper row in the middle of the whole strip,   which   is done in green.     It is obvious from this arrangement that the point   indicated   in   the   illustration   is   the   centre   of the front of the design. The   usual fringe of caught-in strips and hair tassels finishes the lower edge. Fig. 208  represents a strip for trimming the skirt of a woman's dancing-

Fig. 208. Part of Border of Woman's Dancing-Dress. Width, 17.5 cm.

dress. The outer border of triangles is done in white skin appliquéed on dark-red skin. The central ornamental row is done in slit-embroidery. The series of two patterns shown in this illustration are repeated three times along the lower border of the coat.    There are two types of circular designs on the

Fig.209.  Part of Border of Funeral Dress made of Skin Mosaic.

middle   row,   — one with a cross in the middle, the other  forming a double star.    On the  whole, they alternate in groups of three.

         Fig.   209   represents   another   strip   for trimming the skirt of the funeral



dress      This   one   is   made of small strips and pieces of black and white fur`of young reindeer, sewed together,  with the fur outside.     The ornamentation is   exclusively  linear and geometric.     The double zigzag on the middle strip, interrupted   by   cross-strips   of  white  and black fur, is frequently found, both in ancient and modern Koryak ornamentation.1    The fields containing the zig- zag  are separated by rectangular fields consisting of a broad middle stripe ot red, bordered on each side by a narrow strip of black and white skin.     Most of the red strips are made of reindeer-skin inserted with the inner side outward. To these are sewed four rows of tufts of young seal-skin hair dyed red.     The seven   red   strips   on  the left are made of dyed skin without hair-tufts.    The white strips with zigzag are not of equal length, but there is no clear evidence of intentional order in their arrangement.     In one part of the design a wide and a narrow one seem to alternate quite regularly, while in other parts there seem   to   be  groups   of narrow ones followed by groups  of wide ones.    The triangular borders above and below seem to be arranged  so that each stripe is quite independent of the others.     There is no attempt to make the triangles either alternate or coincide so as to form  rhombi.

         The motive of a very beautiful border of a skin coat is illustrated in Fig. 210. It consists of a series of strips of skin embroidery, wrapped skin, and caught-in strips; the two broad white strips being made of wrapped skin, while the central and lowest strips are made of caught-in strips. The rhythmic arrangement of the motives in this specimen is very elaborate. The long fringe which is caught in a seam near the upper border is repeated at regular intervals. The slit-embroidery is interrupted at these places; and in place of the white bar design in the central strip, a piece of white skin is inserted under each fringe. The division of the upper row of slit-embroidery into three parts of unequal length will be noticed. Just under the intervals there  are two tufts of seal-fur, a little wider below than on top, and these are setoff more definitely by the arrangement of the caught-in strips in the lowest  two rows. The beaded effect in the lower seams is brought about by very short caught-in strips of reindeer-skin.

         It may be well to discuss at this place the rhythmic arrangement of more modern patterns, because apparently the principles of their rhythmic arrange- ment are the same as those used in older patterns. In the border shown in Fig. 204 the figures are arranged in one wider and one narrower symmetrical  group. The wider group was probably intended to form the front of the coat.    In this case, the front would contain the figures  in the order —

flower,     horse,     dog,     bush,     dog,     horse,     flower;

while  the  grouping  on  the  back  between  the  two  terminal  flowers  would have been dog, bush, dog.

1 See Part I, Figs. 43, 44. p. 106; Fig. 48, p. 107; and Fig. 53, p. 109.



Some of the rectangles with rhombic checkers in an embroidered stripe (Fig. 211) have a white background. In these there are two rows of blue (or purple)   rhombi  at each  end,  and two  middle rows of red rhombi (design 1).

Fig. 210. Detail of Border of Funeral Coat.

Other rectangles have a yellow background, with red rhombi at the sides and blue ones in the middle (2). Besides, there is one rectangle with red back-ground   and   black   rhombi  (3).  The   colors   of the   crosses   are   irregularly

Fig. 211.  Part of Coat- Border made of Embroidery in Skin Mosaic. Width, 16 cm.

arranged. There are four with predominating red and white (4),  and five with predominating yellow and blue (5). The most symmetrical arrangement of this  type   would   result   in   a yellow rectangle in the middle of the front.



One  end   of the strip (shown in the illustration) shows three  short blue bars on  a  red   background   (6).     The   peculiar   cut   at   this  end fits into a conrre- sponding   cut   at  the other end, and shows that the strip  has been taken off as it   is   from   a garment.     The general impression of the design is that the symmetry   of  the   crosses   is   subordinate   to   the symmetry of the rectangles. For this reason  I have placed the crosses in the arrangement of the symmetry in the upper line.

4 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 6
2 I I 2 I I 2 I 3 I



         The embroidery in Fig. 212 consists of four distinct elements, — one flower with leaves on each side (1), one branch with curved leaves (2), and one branch with terminal flowers (3); besides these, there is one other element

Fig. 212. Part of Embroidered Coat-Border. Width, 25 cm.

which occurs only once on the back of the coat, which is marked (4). The embroidered strip is not sewed symmetrically to the coat, but it has evidently been planned in such a way that the arrangement in front of the coat corre- sponds to the following sequence: —

2     3     2     1     3     1     2     3     2;

while the back is occupied by three designs of the pattern (3). On the back the small design (4) is found, the small designs on the whole back being arranged in the order —

2     2    4    2.


         On another coat not  illustrated here a similar kind of embroidery is found. The pattern consists all round of alternating rectangles containing a sinuous stem with triangular leaves and terminal flower (corresponding to design 3 of Fig. 212). This alternates with a symmetrical double design consisting of central flower and two pairs of diverging branches, which join again near the end, enclosing a heart-shaped space, and then diverge again, bearing   at   their   recurving  ends   a  single terminal  flower.     The only  irregu-



larity in this design is again under the left arm, where one half of a sym-metrical design is inserted between the two designs that would regularly succeed  each  other at this place.

         The embroidered design of the coat  is the same as the one just described, the symmetrical design being in the middle of the front and of the back. Here an irregularity occurs under the right arm, where two of the asymmetrical designs are placed in succession. This asymmetry is emphasized by the division of the background of the design into a right darker and a left lighter half.

         On a third yarn-embroidered coat  an irregularity is found under the left arm, where, in place of the symmetrical design, is inserted a rectangle which is divided  into  five  equal  strips running  in the direction of the border.

The upper, middle, and lower stripes are red; while the intervening ones consist of nine squares of colored yarn, the middle one being green, and these being followed on both sides by a series of white, blue, yellow, blue squares.

Fig 213  Embroidery from Lower Border of Coat.

         The   embroidery   of  another coat (Fig.   213) consists of rectangles with a double-leaf design, which alternates with a red background and a background in greenish and bluish tints. The red varies from a light pink to a deep red, while the others vary from a very dark blue,  almost black, to a bright green.

In  one  coat (Fig.   214)  we  have  all  round  a double-leaf design on a

Fig. 214. Designs from the Lower Border of an Embroidered Coat.

single background alternating with another design consisting of three crosses. This pair of designs occurs in regular succession five times, but under the left arm it is interrupted by the two new patterns shown on the right-hand side of the figure.

         In still another coat (Fig. 215) we find the same series of designs in symmetrical arrangement on the front and on the back. The middle is occupied by a cross, and the other designs follow as indicated. Under the right arm an additional design, consisting of the central cross and the rhom- boidal fields with central dots, appears; while under the left arm a single field is  added, differing in  color from all  the others, but related to them in  form.

         Fig. 216, a, represents an ornamented coat of reindeer-fur. The middle trip of the coat-border consists of conventionalized plants embroidered in colored




silks. The designs in front are symmetrically arranged. The centre is occu-pied by a double leaf, evidently the same as the leaf with flower which is found to the left and to the right in the second position. Adjoining the central   leaf  is   a   simple  flower,  which on the front of the coat occurs again

Fig. 215. Designs from the Lower Border of an Embroidered Coat.

following the flower with double leaf. Under the left arm of the coat the symmetry is broken by the insertion of a single flower in place of the flower   with   double   leaf,   which   occupies   the   corresponding  place under the


Fig. 216. Fur Coats

right arm. On the back we find four single flowers, all turned in the same direction. The color-scheme seems very irregular. In front the central field   is   blue   with   a   red   leaf.     The   two adjoining fields are bright yellow,



with,  on   the   one   side   a   red,  on  the other side a purple,  flower.  The fol-Winc  fields  of central  flower with double leaf are,  on the right-hand side of the   coat    a central blue and lateral purple background,  on  which the flower is embroidered  in  red with  yellow outline, the leaves with light greenish-blue, and red  veins.   On   the   left-hand   side the central background is black, the lateral  background   blue,   on   which   the   flower  is embroidered in  fawn-color, the   leaves  in  bright   red  with  greenish-blue  veins;  i.e.,  the reverse arrange- ment   of  those   on  the right side.     On  the whole,  it would seem that in the

Fig. 217.  a,b  Fur Coats.

color-scheme,   yellow   and   pink   and  intermediate tints are almost equivalent, while blue and purple and intermediate tints are also equivalent.

         In   the   fur   coat   a break in the continuity of the design along the lower   border   occurs   under   the   left   arm.     The   narrow   white   strip of skin which   forms   the upper edge of the border alone is continued.    All the other designs   are   replaced   by   a  single  piece  of  reindeer-skin,  which  is  set in. Besides   this,   one   element   of the embroidered design is replaced by a piece of reindeer-skin.



        In the coat illustrated in Fig. 216, b, there is a narrow inset in the border on the left-hand side, in which the zigzag pattern is continued; the zigzags, however, being much closer together than in the rest of the pattern.

         In the beautiful coat illustrated in Fig. 217, a, there is also a break in the lower border on the left side of the coat. Instead of the upper and lower strips of checker-work, we find stripes of plain dark fawn-skin. In the upper one there is a central square field surrounded by a narrow white stripe, and containing seven  rows of dark and  light checkers.     The lower row has three

such squares with`somewhat coarser`borders and check-ers. In the middlerow the zigzag or-nament, which atthis place should be interrupted by a rec- tangular inset, is continued as a zig- zag line. This inter- ruption of the regu- larity of the border may be seen in the illustration. 

          Fig. 2 17, b, shows a man's coat made in Kamenskoye. The middle strip of the ornamental trim- ming of the skirt is embroidered   

Fig.218.  Skin Coat wuth Stamped Designs.


with beads of three colors, — blue, black, and white. The zigzag in the middle resembles the repetition of the letter M, and consists of two side curves of white  eads and a middle curve of red beads. The portion of the blue background under some of the crests of the wave-line is made in light-blue color, which alternates with dark blue, but not quite regularly. The left side of one crest rises over a line of blue; and the adjoining crest, including the two lesser crests on each side, rises over a black background. On the left side, from the middle of the front to the middle of the back, this arrangement alter- nates regularly;  while on the right side of the coat the light blue under one  wave-crest alternates with dark blue under two wave-crests. In the middle of the five wave-crests on the back, which rise over light blue, a number of red  beads  are  placed  in the  middle  under the crest of the wave.     The blue



all   round   the   coat,  over the  waves,  is  made of blue beads of medium  deep color.     The arrangement  of the  lower border  is  asymmetrical.

         Fig. 218   represents   a   shirt   of  soft   dressed   white   reindeer-skin,  which bears   the   imprint   of  stamps   in   the   shape of rings,  stars,  etc.,  all  of a red  color obtained from  the extract  of alder-bark.     The rings and stars are foundin   ancient   Koryak   ornaments.      The   other   figures,   I   believe,  were adopted from   Russian   designs.      The   shirt   is   ornamented   with   six different figures; the   stamps   for   three   of  them,   cut   out   of wood,  being shown  in  Fig.   201. This   method   of  colored  decoration   is   used   by   the   Indians   of the  Ungava district   in   ornamenting  their   buckskin   dress.     They  also use paint-sticks on these   occasions.1     The   arrangement   of  these designs is symmetrical.    If we call   the   designs  from  the   middle  line  on  towards  the sides   1,   2,  3,  4,  the arrangement   is,   for   each   quarter,   1   2   3   4   1   2   3;  the last one (3), which has   the   circle   with   the inscribed   cross,2   being at each side under the arms, and   belonging   to   both   the   design   at   the  back and to the design in front.

On the sleeves the designs are ar-ranged in circles running around the arm from the shoulder towards thewrist. The row of designs around the wrist apparently represent a flower.

         Description of Coats. — The borders the arrangement of which has been described in the preceding pages are generally applied to the skirts of fur coats, as shown in Figs. 216 and 217. In the dancing-coats  and in the more elaborate coats,additional    decorations    are    found.

Fig. 219. Decoration from the Flap of a Skin Coat


Often the flap which hangs down over the chest, and which may be used for protecting the face, is decorated, as shown in Figs. 216, b, and 217. On another coat  the flap is decorated with a white upright cross, under which there are two white circles. Another type of decoration of the flap, which occurs on two coats, is shown in Fig. 219. The flap of a woman's dancing-coat  is decorated with rhomboidal checker-work made of dark and white fur. The fourth and sixth dark lines of these rhombi from each  side are made of skin dyed red, which, even when looked at from a little distance, is hardly distinguishable from the brown reindeer-fur. This whole square has thirteen vertical rows of white checkers. The top of the hood is sometimes decorated with a design which may represent reindeer-antlers, as   shown   in   Fig.  217, a.     This   coat,   one   of the   most beautiful specimens

1 See Turner, pp. 296, 297.

2 In the account illustrated in Fig. 249 this design designates the number 100.



of  skin   ornamentation,   is   elaborately   decorated,   somewhat   in   the   style   of dancing-coats.     It   is   characterized   by   the   decoration   of  the sleeves, — the vertical  strips running up from the lower border to the shoulders,  and down in   the   same   way   along  the back, — and by the decorative patches on the chest.     In   other   cases   we   find   on the ceremonial coats a decorative middle strip,   as   in   Part   I,    Plate   I,    Fig.   2;   still   others   contain   both   the   lateral strips   just   described   and   the   middle   strip,   as   shown   in   Fig.   51,   p.   108. In   the   men's   funeral   coats   these   arrangements   are even  more complicated, and   it   seems   best   to   describe   a   number of these coats in  detail.     Another  characteristic   trait   of  these   highly   decorated   coats,   particularly   of dancing-coats   made   of skin   dyed   red,   are  tassels,  which are often attached to skin rosettes (see Fig.   227).

        Figs. 216 b and 217 a  represent two men's coats made of skins of young reindeer, in the ornamentation of which we find only the figures with which we have become familiar in the ornamentation of funeral dress. The designs are made of bits of black and of white reindeer-fur, of tanned leather, and  of dressed skins of two colors. The two strips of checker-ornament inFig. 217, a, are made up of squares of skin of three colors, — white, black,  and brown. The entire ornament in this coat is made with wonderful skill,regularity, and regard for rhythm and symmetry.

         The middle strip of the lower border contains a number of vertical stripes adjoining the triangular and checkered designs in this field. These small stripes are made up of seven or eight rows of bright-red tufts of wool, which appear as a continuous red field, contrasting forcibly, by its brightness, with the subdued colors of the skin. Down along; the back are two lateral stripes continuing the checkered lateral stripes of the front, which are the same in design as the small square on the left side of the chest, — two zigzags running down the back, bordered by a single white stripe. Front and back stripes meet exactly on the shoulder. The fields bordered by red, described before, in the middle line of the lower border, are all different. Those on the back are shown in Fig. 217, a, under the sleeves. On the back of the hood, just under the two horns of the figure shown in the front view, are two round white spots. The borders on the sleeves are similar in style to the lower border of the coat, the pattern consisting of checkers, — of one diagonal row made of the inner side of the skin, and followed by six diagonal stripes, alternating white and brown. The border  of the hood is also similar in style. The small crosses are made of skin dyed red, while all the other squares are white and dark skin. The crosses in the horn-like design on the hood have centres of skin dyed red.

         On a woman's dancing-coat (see Part I, Fig. 27, a, p. 68) we find elaborate decoration with tassels. The coat has two small beaded circles in front,   and   three  groups  of tassels,  each  consisting of a small  patch of white



skin with long pendants of the same material. There are also two pairs of black and white beaded strings on the front. On the back there are two circles near the shoulders, while farther down there are three pairs of tassels similar to those in front. They are attached to a small circle of white skin. The tassels attached to each of these are double; and the base of each tassel is wrapped with a piece of fur, which is again wrapped  with a piece of blue cloth, around which a narrow strip of white skin is tied firmly in aspiral. These wrappings recall the wrappings of the braids of Eskimo women. On the back of the double-pointed hood there are also two small circles with  concentric  rings  with tassels of white skin.

         Patterns   made   only   of  skin   mosaic   are   not   common   in  coats of bare skin.     One   dancing-coat   (Fig.   220),   however,   is   decorated   in  this manner.

The checker-work of the middle strip of the lower border is made of skin mosaic, consisting in the main of white and black skin, from which is set oft at every ninth white square a large square made up of pieces of skin dyed red. Circles of skin mosaic are often placed at the base of tassels (see Fig.  227).

Fig. 220. Part of Border of a Dancing-Coat.

         In   Figs.   221   and   222   the details of ornamentation  of  the  woman's   funeral overcoat shown in back view in Part I, Fig. 51, p. 108, are given. The top of the hood is ornamented with a horseshoe-shaped border, the open side forward. The top of this border can be seen in the back view of the whole coat. The inside of this horseshoe is occupied by a rectangle standing on its narrow side, which consists of a piece of black skin surrounded by a narrow border of white skin without hair. On the black skin is checker-work made in slit- embroidery, each checker consisting of four rows of from five to eight slits.  The rectangle is eight checkers wide by twelve high. The front of the coathas the same design as the  back, except that the shoulder-strips terminate on both sides at the seams of the inset, which occupies the upper part of thechest, and which is  covered by the chin-flap. That portion of the design rising over the horizontal waist-band shown in the back view is also absent. The border design of the hood, and the upper horizontal border on the front of the coat and the same border on the back, together with the whole border on the upper part of the back, are made up of the same elements (lower part of Fig. 221). In the design on the hood these appear in the order,  from theinner side of the border to the outer side, chain of rectangles, circles, chain of rectangles, circles, white. In front they appear in the order white, circles, chain of rectangles, circles, white. It is worth remarking that in the middle   of this  strip, just over a central vertical strip, two double circles are



applied, separated by one single circle. In the closed design on the upper part of the back the order is, from the inner side outward, white, circles, chain of rectangles, circles, chain of rectangles, circles, white, at the bottom and right and left; while on top the outer chain of rectangles is followed by a slit-design, shown  in  Fig.   221,  in which  the  upper right-hand corner of the

closed design  on the back, with the adjoining part of  the   shoulder-strip,  is shown.     The other strips — those on the shoulders, sleeves, and the vertical strips on the back are shown in the upper part of Fig.   221.     They   consist   of   applique   work   with overlaid   seams.      The   large   spots   in   the middle rows   are   made   of   skin   dyed   red.     The   lower border of the coat is similar to the borders previ- ously described, and is shown in Fig. 222.     Under the right sleeve the regular pattern is interrupted. This   part   is   shown   in the illustration.    The star in   the   triangle   on   the    back   is   made of slit-em-broidery in white sinew and in colored yarn.

         Another coat has the usual lower border, and a vertical strip down the middle of the front in slit- embroidery (Fig. 223, a), and on each side on the

Fig. 221. Detail of Ornamentation from a Woman's Funeral Coat, Borders on Right Shoulder.

 front of the chest, a rectangle consisting of seven stripes of checker-work on a black back- ground, surrounded by a border of white skin, and with three simple tassels of white slit skin at the bottom.     The rectangle on the   left  side has an eighth row under the seven rows of checkers consisting

Fig. 222  Detail of Ornamentation from a Woman's Funeral Coat, Lower Border  

of six circles. On the back of the coat, on each shoulder-blade, are rectan-gles of skin dyed red, with complicated irregular designs (Fig. 224) consisting of   five   checkered   circles,   a   few   small    white   circles,   and   checkered   bars.



A little lower down, and nearer the middle, are two large checkered rosettes; nd down the middle of the back runs a stripe the design of which is shown in Fig. 205. Around the sleeves, in the same position as shown in Part I, Fig. 51, p. 108, is a strip of black and white checker-work. The lower border consists of two narrow strips of slit-embroidery bordering a wide strip of checker-work  done  in  applique  (Fig.  223,  b).     Below this is a narrower strip,

Fig. 223. Details of Decoration on a Woman's Funeral Coat. a, Slip- Embroidery in White on Black Background down the Front; b, Part of the Lower Border  (the Middle of the Front of the Coat); c, Lower Part of the Border on the Left Side of the Back; d, Lower Part of the Border on the Right Side of the Back.

which   consists   partly   of  a   similar   kind   of  checker-work,   partly   of circular designs   in   appliqué-work,   partly   of  slit-embroidery   on   a  black  background

(Fig. 223, b-d). The upper wide strip consists of two different halves, occupying approximately the right and left border of the coat. Both parts of this strip are shown in Fig. 223, b. The lower border also consists of distinct designs. The design on the right-hand side of the front is seen on the left in Fig. 223, b; the one on the left side of the front is shown on the right in the same figure. The left side of the back is shown in c, while the right side of the back is shown in d.

Fig. 224. Shoulder-Patch on Back of Woman's Funeral Coat

         Fig. 225 represents the front (a) and back (b) of a funeral coat; and Fig.  226  shows the front view of the upper part of the hood.    The sleeves, skirt, and hood are trimmed all round with shaggy white




dog-fur. The flap of shaggy fur sewed on at the neck is raised in the illustration.1 This is the way it rests on the corpse, so as to cover the face. The   ornamentation   is of the same character as in the case of the specimens

Fig. 225.   a,b Front and Back of Man's Funerel Coat

in  Figs.  205-208, only the embroidery in front is made mostly with colored silks instead of with the material formerly used for embroidery; namely, sinew-

1 In the illustration of the funeral coat shown in Part I, Fig. 43, p. 106, this flap is concealed inside so as
not to cover up the ornamentation on the chest. I call attention to this to prevent the erroneous conclusion that
there are funeral coats without flaps, as is the case with ordinary coats.



thread and hair of reindeer and other animals. The zigzags do not form sharp angles, but a wavy figure. It is of interest to note that some of the lines on the hood are embroidered with glass beads, which are not found in ancient ornaments, being an article with which the Koryak became familiar through the Russians or the Tungus. The women very conservatively avoid using beads in ornamenting articles having any relation to the cult. The dark, wide, vertical strips set into the white fur on the front part of the funeral coat are pieces of fur of a young seal dyed red.     The tassels of hair

under the embroidery are dyed the same color. The dark vertical stripes appear to be the inner side of the skin of reindeer. On the inside of the coat the rein- deer-hair cut short may be seen. The flesh side of the skin is dyed red, — in some cases light red, in most cases very dark. These vertical stripes are  set with nine rows of tas-sels (the middle one with twelve), partly made of the hair of young seal, partly  (on the middle stripes) made of  crewel. Under the strips  of embroidery, fringe con-sisting of red tassels and  caught-in strips is sewedon. Along the strip of embroidery  just   over the

Fig. 226.  Hood of Man's Funeral Coat

  lowest row of vertical dark stripes, the fringe consists of alternate red and blue parts, which do not correspond to the lower vertical strips. The tassels under the lowest vertical strip are so arranged that there are five under the  broader middle strip, while there are three under each of the four narrower strips which are found on each side of the front of the coat. In addition, there are three in the middle of each white space. Under the second stripe of embroidery running around the sleeve, under the shoulder, the tassels are  red and light green. The embroidery between the single stripes on the front consists of black and white checkers, and rectangles consisting of three stripes, in which either the outer stripes are of a reddish to yellowish tinge, and the inner some bluish or violet color, or vice versa.     There does not seem to be



any   regular   arrangement   of  these   colors.     The   narrow strip of embroidery running   over   neck  and shoulders,  between  the sleeves and back,  is also set with   a   red   and   green   fringe.      The   fringe   above   the   strip at the coat-tail consists   of  2   red   rows,   I  green,   I   red,   I   green,   2  red rows.     At the side, between   the   two   strips   across   the   bottom   of   the   coat,   a   broad   vertical white   strip   is   set   in   with   embroideries.     This   may   be   seen   on   the   left- hand   side   of  the   back   view   of  the coat.     In the seams running along the sides of the coat, from  under the arms to the bottom border,  there are tufts  of red   and   blue   yarn.     The cap  has two  ears made of cylindrical pieces of fur, which  may be seen in the back view of the whole garment.    The design on the front (shown in  Fig.  226) is made up, in the lower rows, of a mosaic of dark and light reindeer-fur,  with  red tassels between the two upper strips. Over  this  is  the  usual  type  of  slit-embroidery  surrounding  a  strip  of em-  broidery in thread.    A similar arrangement is repeated on the upper part of the   cap.     The   two   rows   of  embroidery   seen in the back view of the coat over the ears adjoin the row of tassels seen on the top of the cap in Fig. 226. 

         Fig.  227  represents the back of a woman's coat made of skins of young reindeer   in   Alutor,   near   Bering  Sea.     It is ornamented all  over with bead-  embroidery   and   loose   bead-strings.     The figures embroidered with beads on the skirt resemble the oval halves on the funeral quivers (see Part I, Fig. 50, p.  107).     The   two   upper   circles   on   the   back are embroidered with beads, while   the   inner   rings   of  the   three   lower   circles   consist  of thin disks with imprints   of the   cross,   and   figures   of  animals   sewed   on.     These   disks, of course,   are   of  foreign  origin.     The coat is made with the fur turned inside, and the skin on the outside  is dyed brown.

         A dancing-coat  made of skin dyed red has tassels attached to circles. The lower border consists of a strip 12.5 cm. wide, edged above by appliquéed pendant triangles, below by standing triangles. Under the right arm the upper row is interrupted by three pendant bells, while under the   left arm the lower row is interrupted by six standing bells. 

         The coat  differs in style from the older coats. It is made of reindeer-skin, and has the cut of a European overcoat, the front being tied together with strings. Both sides of the front and the collar are trimmed with a strip of white fur. Each front is trimmed with a strip of alternate black and white checkered rectangles, the latter being bordered above and below by a strip of brown and a strip of white. The lower border consists of two rows of square checkers, beginning with a narrow strip of white, fol- lowed by a narrow strip of dark; then follows a 3-row checker-work of dark  and white, which, in turn, is followed by one dark and one white strip. Under these is another strip of checker-work made up of squares slightly smaller than those of the upper row. While all the other upper strips are about   1  cm. wide,  these  checkers  are only about  8  mm.  wide.  Instead of



regular alternation of black and white diagonal squares, we have at intervals of approximately fourteen squares two heavier dark diagonal stripes made up of the regular diagonal series, — squares of dark fur, immediately followed by another series of squares made of skin dyed red. This is followed by a series of white squares; and next we find another diagonal of squares of skin dyed red followed by the regular series of squares of dark skin. These diagonals   run   from   left   below   to right above.     In one place there are two


Fig. 227. Woman's Coat, From Alutor.

double   dark   diagonals  separated by fields of checker-work.     The sleeves are finished off with  checker-work enclosed by one dark and one white strip.