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IX. Myths of the Maritime Koryak of the Western Shore of Penshina Bay

    46. The Daughter of Floating-Island 197
47. How Gull-Man offered his Sister in Marriage 198
48. The Stone-Hammer-Men    200
49. The Ermine People 203
50. Big-Kamak-who-turns-Himself-Inside-Out 204
51. Big-Grandfather and the Kamaks 206
52. The Shell People 207
53. Eme'mqut's Marriage with Kïlu' and Grass-Woman 209
54. Eme'mqut's Marriage with a Kamak Girl 210
55. Ptarmigan-Man 211
56. How the Kamak Woman caught Children 212
57. The Old Woman and the Kamaks 216
58. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's Marriage with a Monster 216
59. Contest  between the Wives of Eme'mqut and Envious-One 217
60. Grass-Woman and Diarrhoea-Man 218
61. Little-Charm-Man 219
62. The Abduction of Eme'mqut's Sister by the Kamaks 220
63. Ermine-Woman 221
64. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Mouse-Woman 222
65. Big-Raven's Visit to the Reindeer-Breeders 224
66.Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Fog-Man 225
67. How Triton-Man abducted Eme'mqut's Wife 227



Villages Big Itkana,  Paren,  Kuel,  and Mikino.

46.  The Daughter of Floating-Island.

         It was at the time when Big-Grandfather (Acicen-a'qu) lived. He had a son Eme'mqut. Their neighbor Envious-One (Nipai'vaticñin) would play tricks of all kinds to spite Eme'mqut. Whatever Eme'mqut put down, Envious-One would break. When Eme'mqut brought ice to his house, Envious- One would get behind the sledge, and break the ice into small pieces. This vexed Eme'm- qut, and he and his brother Big-Light (Oeskin'a'qu) decided to give Envious- One a thrashing. After the thrashing, Envious-One got up and said, "Now, you have given me a thrashing, but I can jump over a reindeer better than you." Eme'mqut said to Big-Light, "Bring a reindeer." His brother brought a reindeer, and they began to jump over it. Eme'mqut and his brother would jump across with ease, but Envious-One could not do it. Then Eme'mqut said to him, "There! you have been bragging that you can jump over a reindeer better than we, and now you cannot jump at all."

         Envious-One was not satisfied, and went on, "It is not a great thing to jump over a reindeer, but try and get Floating-Island's (U'lu-i'lis) daughter for a wife.    This you cannot do."

          Thereupon Eme'mqut went home and immediately lay down on his bed. Big-Grandfather looked at his son,  and said to him,  "Why have you prepared the wood so early, and gone to bed?"    Eme'mqut replied to his father, "Envious- One   is   always teasing me.     First he says that he can jump over a reindeer better   than   we.    Brother  and I have beaten  him.     And now he says that I cannot take Floating-Island's daughter for my wife.     That is why I have lain down: it is from vexation." — " And why did you not say to him, 'Let us go to   Floating-Island'?"   said   Big-Grandfather.      "Go  to  Envious-One to-morrow, and  call him to go with you and serve for Floating-Island's daughters."    On the morning of the following day Eme'mqut went to Envious-One.    Before he left, his father gave him an iron mouse, and said, "Take this along with you." Eme'mqut   went,   and   called   Envious-One   out   from   the   tent.     "Come   out, Envious-One, let us go to Floating-Island to serve for his daughters."     Envious- One came out,  and they drove off on their reindeer-sledge.     They stopped in the   wilderness   over   night.     Next  morning they got up and went on.     Soon Floating-Island became visible in the sea.     He was moving.     Toward evening



they reached an underground house of kamaks on the seashore. They entered the house. The kamaks treated them to food. Eme'mqut said to Envious- One, "Do not eat too much: the kamaks want to fatten and eat us." Envious-One did not mind him, and over-ate. They went to bed. In the night, Envious-One woke up, and called to Eme'mqut, "Arise, I have an attack of diarrhoea." — "I told you last night not to eat too much," said Eme'mqut. Then he took his iron mouse and let it loose. It gnawed through the wall of the kamaks' house, and conducted Eme'mqut and Envious-One straight to Floating-Island. Two underground houses were standing there. Each went into one of the houses, and began to serve. There were only old men and old women in these houses. They said to the new-comers, "You will serve in vain here: we have no daughters." In reality their daughters had been hidden. Eme'mqut and Envious-One contiued to serve. The sea-water would flood the houses during the day, and at night it would recede, leaving seals, white whales, and whales on the floor. Eme'mqut and Envious-One used to kill the seals and white whales, but they would not touch the whales, which, big and strong, would simply walk over the house.

         One morning Eme'mqut and Envious-One went for wood, as usual. In their absence the old men said to the old women, "The young men have killed so many seals and white whales for us, let us not torment them any more: let us give them our daughters." Then the old women let out the hidden girls. When Eme'mqut and Envious-One returned with the wood, they heard from afar conversation, laughter, and noise, such as they had never heard before. Eme'mqut said, "They have brought out the girls: they want to give them to us in marriage." He descended into his underground house, but Envious-One was ashamed to go in. A little later he also went in. The old men in the houses said, "You have killed so many seals and white whales for us, we will give you our daughters now." On the following morning Eme'mqut and Envious-One again went for wood, and told each other that many pretty girls had appeared from somewhere. They both married, and drove home with their wives.     That's all.

Told by Aya'tto, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the vil-
lage of Big Itkana, Feb. 13, 1901.

47.  How Gull-Man offered his Sister in  Marriage.

        Gull-Man (Yaxya'ximtila,n) lived with his sister Gull-Woman (Ya'xya-ña'ut). Once he began to sing, and to say, "Who will marry my sister?" Magpie- Man (Vaki'thimtila'n) came flying along, and said, "Ta, ki, ki, ki! I will take her." Gull-Man answered, "I shall not give you my sister, you may desert her somewhere under a store-house."     Magpie-Man flew away.



         Then Gull-Man sang again,   "Who will  marry my sister?"     Then Raven- Man   (Valva'mtila'n)   came   flying   along,   and cried,   "Kho,  kho,  kho!     I will teke  her"   But   Gull-Man   replied,   "No,  I shall  not give you  my sister, you leave her somewhere in  front of the houses while you are picking up all kinds of human refuse."     Raven-Man  flew off.

         Gull-Man began to sing again, "Who will marry my sister?" Then Cor- morant-Man 1  (Ivvelu'mtila'n) came flying along, and cried, " Ull-lau, lau, lau! I  will take her." — "No," answered Gull-Man, "I shall not give you my sister, you may drop her from a cliff into  the  sea."     Cormorant-Man flew  away.

         Then Gull-Man began to sing again, " Who will take my sister ?" Paroquet- Auk-Man2  (Apiga'mtila'n) came flying along, and said, "O-go, go, go! I will take her." Gull-Man gave him his sister. Auk-Man flew home with his wife, alighted with her on a sea-cliff,  and took  her into  his cave.

         Soon Auk-Man flew away to the sea to fish, and left his wife at home. While he was absent, Gull-Woman went out of the cave, beheld the sunlight on the cliff, and began to sing, "The sun used to shine upon my father's cliffs, and now we live in a cave without light." Her mother-in-law shouted from the cave, "Stop singing!" but Gull-Woman did not listen to her. She climbed upon the cliff, threw herself down, and was killed. Her husband came, and found his wife lying dead on the ground.

         Gull-Man went to the seashore, and found his sister dead.    Then he sang, "Get up!     Let us go up the river to fish there."    Magpie-Man came flying along, and cried,   "Oo, ki, ki, ki!     I  told you that  I would marry your sister.     She must  have   been   stealing,  and therefore has been  thrown  down the cliff." — "No," answered    Gull-Man,   "my   sister   is   not   a   thief.      She   killed   herself." Then   Raven-Man   came   flying   along,   and screeched,   "Kho,  kho,  kho, kho! I told you to give your sister in marriage to me.     She must have been stealing, and therefore has been thrown down the cliff." — "You lie!" shouted Gull-Man. "My sister is not a thief."     Gull-Man and Raven-Man began to quarrel.     Raven- Man said,  "This is not your land.     You are not able to stay here in winter: you   fly  away."     Gull-Man   replied,   "It is true,  you stay here all winter,  but what   do   you   live   upon?     Dog-meat!"   Raven-Man   rejoined,   "We stay here through   the  winter,  and live on  fresh and  frozen  fish." —   "You  are a liar!" Gull-Man  said.    What kind of fresh fish is there in the winter,  when all the rivers are frozen?     You live  on  dog-meat,  and  pick up  excrement."

         Raven-Man began to cry, and flew home. Crying, he went to his mother, RWoman (Ve'sve-ñe'ut), who asked him, "Why are you crying?" He replied, "Gull-Man said, 'You stay here all winter, and live on dog-meat and excrement.'" Raven-Woman said to her daughter, "It must have been Magpie- Woman (Vaki'thi-ña'ut) who said it. Go and call her." The sister of Raven- Man went to Magpie-Woman,   and   said,    "My   mother   wants   to   see   you."

1 Phalacrocorax pelagicus.                     2   Phalerìs psittaculus  Pall.



Magpie-Woman went to Raven-Woman, who asked her, "Have you come?" — "I  have," answered the former, and laughed, "Me, khi, khi, khi!" Raven- Woman said further, "It must have been you who told Gull-Man that we stay here through the winter, and live on dog-meat and excrement. Now he taunts my son with it." Magpie-Woman answered, "I did not mention it. Why should I, since we use the same kind of food?"    Magpie-Woman went home.

         Raven-Woman said to her son, "Go and tell Gull-Man that we stay here all winter, and do not eat dog-meat, but live on the meat of mountain-sheep." Raven-Man went to Gull-Man, and said, "We do not eat dog-meat during the winter: we eat mountain-sheep meat." Gull-Man laughed, and said, "What kind of sheep-meat would you eat? Your meat is dog-meat and excrement." Raven-Man began to cry again, and went to his mother. Raven-Woman asked him, "What are you crying about?" He answered, "Gull-Man said that our meat is just dog-meat and excrement." Raven-Woman called Magpie-Woman again, and said to her, "It must have been you who told Gull-Man that we eat dog-meat and excrement during the winter." — " Why, no!" insisted Magpie-Woman,  "how could I say that!    Don't we eat the same kind of food?"

         Raven-Woman let Magpie-Woman go, and said to her son, "Go and tell Gull-Man that he leaves this place in autumn because he is afraid of frosts. He would freeze to death here; but we stay here over winter, and feel so
warm that we perspire." Raven-Man flew over to Gull-Man, and said to him, "You leave this place every autumn, and you used to do so in times of yore, because you are afraid of frosts, and would freeze to death; but we remain here, and feel so warm that we perspire."

         That had an effect upon Gull-Man. They stopped quarrelling, and hence- forth lived in peace.    That's all.


Told by Ki'uña (Awakening-Woman), a Maritime Koryak woman,

in the village of Big Itkana, Feb. 14, 1901.

48. The Stone-Hammer-Men.

         It  was   at   the   time   when Eme'mqut lived.     He lay all the time in his underground house, so that at last his side stuck to the bed.     Once his brother Big-Light   (Qeskin-a'qu)   returned   from   hunting.     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut wished to give him   something to eat.     She took the food from the fireplace,  stumbled over Eme'mqut's   outstretched  legs,   and   fell   down.     Miti'   said   to   her daughter, "Why   don't   you   look where you are going when you carry food?"    Yiñe'a- ñe'ut answered,  "I stumbled over Eme'mqut's legs.     He always stays in bed." Miti'   said   to   her   older   son,   "Why do you  always stay in bed,  and not go anywhere ?"

         Then Eme'mqut sat up.     "Give me my clothes," he said.     He was given



 hig  clothes He dressed and went out. He came to a river, and saw people catching  fish with nets. He approached them. They were Stone- Hammer- Men (Cipe'mtila'nu). Eme'mqut helped them, and caught many fish. Toward evening the  Stone-Hammer-Men stopped fishing, and went home with Eme'mqut. They gave him  in marriage their daughter Stone-Hammer-Woman (Ci'pa-ña'ut). Eme'mqut staid there for some time, and a son was born to him. One day Eme'mqut said to his wife, "We ought to visit our father." A little later, Eme'mqut's mother-in-law asked his wife, "What did your husband say to you?" She answered, "He told me, that, if it were  not for my parents keeping me here    we   would   go   to  his father's house."     Her mother said to her,   "Well, you may go."

         On the next day the Stone-Hammer-Men prepared them for the journey, and gave them sledges and reindeer of stone. Everything was placed in line. Then Eme'mqut started out. He dragged the stone sledge and reindeer along by a strap. At first it was hard work; but the farther he advanced, the easier it became. Suddenly he heard the reindeer running, and saw them thrusting  out their noses; and his wife shouted to him, "Sit down on the sledge!" Eme'mqut turned around, and saw behind him reindeer with iron antlers, hitched to iron sledges. He sat down on the first sledge, and drove the reindeer. When he approached Big-Raven's (Quikinn-a'qu) house, Illa'saw the train, and shouted, "Miti', come out to meet your son! He is coming with his wife." Miti' came out with a fire-brand. She met her son and daughter- in-law. They slaughtered reindeer as a sacrifice on account of their arrival. Illa' followed Eme'mqut, and said to him, "Tell me, Eme'mqut, where did you get such a rich bride?" Eme'mqut told him how he had found the Stone- Hammer-Men, how he got married, how they had given him the stone sledges and reindeer, and how the stones afterward turned into reindeer and sledges. "That is enough," said Illa'. "Now I understand, I shall also go to those people." Then they lived with Big-Raven. From this time on, Illa' would always lie down in his bed,  as Eme'mqut had done before.

         One day Illa"s younger brother, Qe'venik,1 came home from hunting. His mother, Xe'llu, the sister of Big-Raven, said to her daughter Kïlu', " Get some food for your brother. He has just come home from hunting." Kïlu' served him with food, but Illa' kicked her. She fell, and spilled the dish of seal-oil over her mother, who was sewing a coat of dog-skins. Her mother said nothing. Then Ilia' himself said to his mother, "Why did you not speak to me? You might  have told me to go away into the wilderness."     She answered, should I send you away?     Who would then carry wood for us from the forest?" -- "Well, I  shall leave you," said  he. 

         He  dressed himself and started to go.     His relatives tried to detain him, but he left  them.     He walked and walked until he reached the river.     He sat

1 The name  of a small sea-fish.





down on the bank, and suddenly he saw people not far off catching fish with nets. He went up to them. They were the Stone-Hammer-Men. He struck their stone heads together just for his own amusement. Then he helped them to cast their nets. He went to live with them. After a short while the Stone- Hammer-Men said among themselves, " Let us give our girl to Illa' for a wife." Thus the Stone-Hammer-Men married him to their daughter. Soon after, a daughter was born to Illa'. One day Illa' said to his wife, "I should like to take you to my father." His mother-in-law asked her daughter, "What did your husband say to you?" She answered, "He said that he would like to go to his father." — "Well, you may go," said the old woman. On the next day they made up a train of stone sledges for him, like the one they had made for Eme'mqut. They gave him more stones than they had given Eme'm- qut. He started out, drawing the whole train. He kept on drawing until he was tired out. Then he turned around to look at the train, and saw that only one-half of his wife's stone face had become human:  the other half still remained stone. He went up to her, and said, " I shall leave you here:  it is too hard for me to drag all those stones." She answered, " Go home. I shall also return to my people." Illa' left his wife and stone train on the trail, and went home alone. When he arrived, Eme'mqut asked him, "Well, did they give you a girl in marriage?" — "Yes," answered he, "they married me; but it was hard for me to drag the stone train, and I left it."

         Then  Eme'mqut  said to his younger brother,  Big-Light,  "Go and bring the woman and the sledges which Illa' left in the wilderness."    Big-Light went away, found the stone train, and began to pull it home.    He kept on pulling until it became easy to do so.    Suddenly he saw the reindeer running ahead of him and thrusting out their noses; and the woman shouted to him, "Stop walking,   sit  down   on the sledges!"    Big-Light sat down on the first sledge, and soon reached his home.     Eme'mqut said to his mother,  "Take fire-brands out  to   meet them."    She went out to meet Big- Light.    Illa' heard that Big- Light  was bringing the stone train that he himself had deserted,  and he ran out,   and   shouted,   "This   is   my   wife!"     But his wife pushed him away, and said,   "You deserted me in the wilderness,  now I don't want you."    Big-Light married her.     After that, they sacrificed some reindeer.     Illa' thought,  "I shall not let them sleep at night.     Wherever Big-Light and his wife lie down, there I will lie down."    He noticed the place where a bed had been made for them, and, after the light had been put out, he went there and lay down.     But there he found his sister KIlu'.     She had changed places with Big-Light purposely. Kïlu' shouted,   "See what he is doing! he came to his sister to sleep."    Their father   and   mother   arose   and   dragged  him   out   of his sister's sleeping-tent. Then   Illa'   said,    "Never   mind,   I   will   find   them."     When all lay down, he looked again for Big-Light's sleeping-tent, but got into  his mother's tent.    She shouted,   "What   are you doing! you came to sleep with your mother!"  He



did not  succeed in finding the bed of Big-Light and his wife.     In the morning, when  everybody arose, he said to Big-Light, "To-night I shall find you, though;" bat   he   did   not   succeed   any   better.      Every time he tried to find them, he would   find   either   his   mother or his sister.     Then  Illa'  stopped seeking Big- Light's sleeping-place.

         One day  Big-Grandfather (Acicen'a'qu) said to his sons, "Take your wives back to their parents." Eme'mqut, Big-Light, and their wives drove off to the village of the Stone-Hammers. The father and mother of Big-Light's wife asked her, "Where did you leave the husband that took you from here?" She replied, "Illa' deserted me on the trail; and Big-Light came afterward, took me to his home, and married me." Soon after, the brothers took their wives back to their father,  Big-Raven.

         They lived together comfortably. Illa' remained single, and did not marry again.    That's all.

Told by Ki'uña, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Big Itkana, Feb. 14, 1901.

49.  The Ermine People.

         There once lived a man named Ermine-Man (Imca'namtila'n). His daughter, Ermine-Woman (Imca'nam-ña'ut), said, "I am going to the Beetles (Ke'mlicun) to dance." She went to the Beetles, and began to dance, and to sing, "Ah, you dirty black things!" to which the Beetles sang, "Ah, you stinkers, you breakers of wind!" Ermine-Woman began to cry, and said to the Beetles,  " Why do you abuse me ?" To this the Beetles replied that she also had just called them dirty black things.

         Soon somebody came to call Ermine-Woman back home, because her sister was giving birth to a child. She went home. When she arrived, her father said to her, "Go to Big-Grandfather's (Acicen'a'qu) and get some rein-
deer-excrement. We are going to cook soup for the birth feast." She went to Big-Raven's (Quikinn.a'qu), got some reindeer-excrement, and took it home. Hersister was delivered of a son.

         They cooked some soup,  and  made pudding.     They were going to name the   boy.    The  Ermines said,   "Let us give  him the  name  One-who-defecates- with-Moss (Vata'p-a'llan)."     But the boy did  not like the name, and began to cry.   Then the Ermines said,   "Let us give him  the  name One-who-defecates- with-Black-Moss (Meñe'vala'n)."     The boy did not want this name, either, and continued to  cry.   Then  the Ermines said,   "What name shall we give him?" Old Ermine-Woman said, "He probably wants to have his grandfather's name. Let  us   name him Yilñikata'misñin."1   The boy laughed,  and this name was given to him. 

1  The meating of this word is unknown to me



         Then the Ermines said, "With what are we going to cut his navel-string?" They found a knife, looked at it, and said, "This knife is not sharp enough. We must get a whetstone and sharpen it." Finally they sharpened the knife, and cut the navel-string. Then the old Ermine said, "Take the pudding to Big-Grandfather." One of the Ermines took the pudding to Big-Grandfather, who, however, turned him out with the pudding, and sent him back home. The Ermines asked, "Well, how did Big-Grandfather like the pudding?" — "He wanted to have more," answered the messenger. The Ermines said, "Take some more pudding to him." Again the messenger was turned out by Big-Grandfather. He came, home, and said that now Big-Grandfather had had enough.

         Then the new-born child said, "I am going to Big-Grandfather to serve for his daughter Yiñe'a-ñe'ut." He went there, but Big-Grandfather turned
him out also, saying, " Go home! We are not going to give you our daughter  anyway."    That's all.

Told by Ki'uña, a Maritime Koryak woman of the village
of Big Itkana, Feb. 14, 1901.

50.  Big-Kamak-who-turns-Himself-Inside-Out.

         It was at the time when Big-Grandfather (Acicen-a'qu) lived.    Once Big-Grandfather   said   to his sons,   "Go up the river in your skin boat and catch some  fish."    They  went up the river.     On the bank of the river there lived Big-Kamak-who-turns-Himself-Inside-Out (Cihi'lh-kamakn'a'qu).     He   saw   the skin boat which was going up the river, and he hid himself.    The boat passed by.     Big-Grandfather's   sons   caught   some   fish,  loaded  their boat with  them, and started on their way back.     Again Big-Kamak-who-turns-Himself-Inside-Out hid   when   he   saw   the boat.     But Eme'mqut paddled up to  him,  and asked, "Do   you   not need a young girl  for a wife?"     Big-Kamak was silent.     Then Eme'mqut   said   again,   "Perhaps   you   would   marry   my   sister   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut?" Big-Kamak   still kept silence.     "Perhaps you would like to have my younger sister,   Can-a'i-ña'ut?"   continued   Eme'mqut.     Big-Kamak kept silence with an effort.     "Perhaps you would  like my youngest sister, Ici'me-ñe'ut?"    Then Big- Kamak   began   to   laugh,   and   laughed  so  much that his lips protruded until they reached back to his ears.     He was unable to go home.     Eme'mqut, with his brothers, left him in that state, and continued in their boat down the river. For   a   long   time   Big-Kamak's   wife   was awaiting her husband's return. Finally   she  went to look for him.     She found  him  on  the bank  of the river with   his   lips   turned   back   to   his   ears.     She turned his lips back,  and  took him home.

         Big-Kamak-who-turns-Himself-Inside-Out   was   no   cannibal;   he   was   only


JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.                                               

very  curious and funny, and liked to look at people.     Whenever he saw people, he  would   hide   himself and watch them;   but as soon as they saw him,  they would tell him funny stories to make him laugh, so that his mouth would turn inside out. 

         Eme'mqut took his  fish  home.     Two days later Big-Raven (Ouikinn-a'qu) said to  sons, "Go and gather some wood." They started in their skin boat from the seashore where Big-Raven lived, and paddled for the mouth of the river to gather the driftwood which had been carried out by it. They gathered the wood, loaded their boat, and were about   to go back, when suddenly they noticed Big-Kamak hiding behind a pile of driftwood, from
which he was peeping out. Eme'mqut and his brothers went over to him to
make fun of him. Eme'mqut said, "Would you like to marry  my  cousin Kïlu'?" Big-Kamak kept silent. Then Eme'mqut said to his brothers, "Let us give him Kïlu"s younger sister, White-Whale-Woman (Yi'yì-ñe'ut). Then Big-Kamak could not suppress his laughter. This time he laughed so heartily that his lips protruded until they turned over his head and reached down to his shoulders. Eme'mqut and his brothers left him in that condition,  and paddled home.

         In the evening Big-Kamak's wife said, " Why doesn't my husband come home? Something must have happened to him again." She went to look for him, found him, and with difficulty restored his mouth to its normal position. She conducted him home, and said, "Do not go any more to look at people, lest your lips protrude so  far that you will die."

         However, on the following morning, when he again saw Eme'mqut's skin boat approaching, he said to his wife, "I am going to look at them." — " Don't go! or at least let me sew up your mouth, so that you cannot laugh," answered his wife. Big-Kamak said, "I shall not laugh;" but his wife sewed up his mouth, just the same. He went down to the shore and hid behind a hillock. Eme'mqut soon noticed him, went up to him with his brothers, and said, "Big-Kamak, do you not wish to marry Yiñe'a-ñe'ut?" Big-Kamak kept silent. "Or perhaps you would rather have Can-a'i-ña'ut," continued Eme'mqut. Big-Kamak could not suppress his laughter, and laughed just a little, but enough to make the stitches give way. Eme'mqut said, further, "Perhaps you would like to have Ici'me-ñe'ut ?" Then Big-Kamak burst out laughing, and his mouth turned inside out,  so that his lips reached down to his feet.

         Eme'mqut   went   away   with   his   brothers.      In   the  evening Big-Kamak's wife   came   to   look   for   her   husband,   and  found him with his mouth turned inside out, his lips reaching down to his feet.     With a great effort she set his mouth right,   and   she   never let him go to look at people any more.     Thus they lived.    That's all.

Told by Ki'una, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Big Itkana, Feb. 14, 1901.



51.  Big-Grandfather and the  Kamaks.

         Big-Grandfather (Aciceira'qu) once said to his wife, "Let us go coasting downhill!" Miti' answered, "I have no time, I must twist threads for nets." But Big-Grandfather said, "I also have some work on hand, I have to make nets : let us go, just the same." They went to a slope, sat upon some seal-skins, and began to slide down. Big-Grandfather rolled straight down upon the roof of the kamaks' underground house, and fell into the roof-opening of the porch.1 Seeing that Big-Grandfather had fallen into the kamaks' house, Miti' hurried back home. The kamaks soon stopped the fire on their hearth, and closed the opening in the porch. Big-Grandfather lay in the porch. Toward evening the kamaks made a fire on the hearth. One of them went out to remove the plug, but he could not do so. Big-Grandfather was holding it from within. Then they sent another kamak. The latter pulled out not only the plug, but with it Big-Grandfather. "Eh!" said the kamaks, beholding him, "food came to us of itself." They took Big-Grandfather into the house, put him into a trough, as men would a seal, and covered him up with sedge-grass. They said to him, "We shall eat you to-night." He replied, "When I catch any kind of sea-animal, I never eat it in the evening: I always leave it for the following morning." Then the kamaks left him until the following morning. They put out the light and went to bed. At that time Big-Grandfather began to bewitch the kamaks with incantations. He sang, "My father used to tell me, 'Those two who are sleeping on the left side will help you : they will not allow you to be eaten;'" but they answered, "On the contrary, we shall ask for a great deal of meat when you  are killed."

         Big-Grandfather sang again, "There are two asleep in the front place; those, my father told me, will help me." Those two also answered, "No, we want a great deal  of your meat."

         Then Big-Grandfather sang again, "There are two asleep on the right side, they will help me!" but they also answered, " No, we have asked to be given a great deal  of your flesh."

         Thereupon Big-Grandfather asked to be allowed to go outside to pass water. The kamaks said, "There is no need of your going outside: we have plenty of chamber-vessels in the house." He answered, "They are too small for me. Have you seen the high tide of the sea? It rises when I pass water." — "Well, if that is so, better go outside, lest you flood our house."  The kamaks tied him to a long strap, and let him go out. Big- Grandfather said, "I will tell you when I am through. Then draw in the strap, and let two girls dance when I re-enter the house. When I catch a whale, I meet it in that way."

1  This refers to  the underground buildings of the Maritime Koryak (see p.  14, Footnote 4).



         Big-Grandfather went out.     Soon the kamaks  called to him from within, "Well    are   you through?"     Big-Grandfather answered,   "Not yet,  it takes me a long  time to pass water."     Meanwhile Big-Grandfather covered the entrance- opening  of the underground house with the cover,  put some logs upon it, un- fastened   the   kamaks'   strap   which   was   holding him  and tied it to the logs, and   said  to them,   "I am going home.     Give answer in  my place.     When  I have reached my house, you may tell them that I have finished passing water." Big-Grandfather went home.     After some time the kamaks asked, "Well, Big- Grandfather, have you finished?" —  "Yes,  I have," replied the Logs for him. The girls stepped into the middle of the house to dance.    The kamaks pulled the  strap,   and   the  logs fell into the house,  crushing the dancing-girls.    The kamaks carved the girls and ate them in the dark.     Then they asked each other, "How   is   it?     Had   Big-Grandfather   two   heads,   four   legs,   and four arms?" Some said,   " Yes, that is right,  he had two heads,  four legs, and four arms;" but   others   said,   "When have you seen  such people?    Let us light the lamp and  look."     They   lighted   their   stone   lamps,   and   saw  that they had eaten their own daughters.    They felt sorry,  and said,  "Indeed, it seemed surprising that  we   should   have   managed   to   eat  Big-Grandfather, while heretofore we were unable to do so.     He would always escape from  us."

         Big-Grandfather went home, and said to Eme'mqut, "Let us kill some Yukaghir. I wish to get even with the kamaks. They have killed and eaten their own girls, and they will be angry with me. I will take some dead bodies to them." Big-Grandfather and Eme'mqut started off to make war on the Yukaghir. They killed many people, and drove away their reindeer-herds. Big- Grandfather took the dead Yukaghir to the kamaks, and said, "Here is a ransom for me." The kamaks asked, " And how shall we pay you ? Shall we give you an iron cliff? Our daughter is hidden in it. Let Eme'mqut marry her." The kamaks gave Big-Grandfather an iron cliff. He put it near his house. After some time the cliff split; and a pretty girl, Kamak-Woman (Kama'keña) came out. Eme'mqut married her, and they lived together. That's all.

Told by Ki'uña, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Big Itkana, Feb. 15, 1901.

52. The Shell People.

         Once Big-Grandfather (Aciceira'qu) was walking along the seashore, and found a little shell (ki'lkak). He piced it up, and said,"  I wille   carry the Shell  home, and give it to my youngest danghter, Ici'me-ne'ut, to play with He took the shell home, put it near the house, and forgot about it entirely.Sitting, he thought of the little shell, and said to



his youngest daughter, "Go outside: I have brought a little shell for you to play with." She went out, and saw a little girl sitting near the house. She asked her, "Is it you whom my father brought to the house?" — "Yes," answered the girl, "he brought me." Icei'me-ñe'ut took the girl into the house, and said to her father, "You have brought a little girl!" Big-Grandfather • replied,  "And I thought that I had brought a little shell."

         They gave the little girl someting to eat. She grew up in Big-Grand- father's house, and Eme'mqut married her. After some time, Eme'mqut went hunting, and saw a small underground house. A girl lived there. He entered, and the girl said to him, "My brother Broad-soled-One 1 (Umya'ilhin) brought me over here, that you might marry me." Eme'mqut answered, "If you have been brought here for this purpose, then I will marry you." Eme'mqut married her, and lived with her for some time. Once he said to his new wife, "I am croing  home." He went home; and upon his arrival, his father asked him, "Where have you been all this timer" — "I am married," said Eme'mqut. "Broad-soled-One carried his sister to a place not far away, that I might marry her, and I did marry her." Big-Grandfather said, "So you have married a second time, and you have forgotten your first wife, whom you left here. Bring your new wife here, and let us all live together." Eme'mqut went away, brought his second wife, and they all lived together. After some time, Eme'mqut began to hate his first wife. He said to her, "You are without relatives, you have neither father nor mother."

        One night his first wife went outside and walked down the hill to the bank of the river. There she saw Ground-Spider-Old-Woman, who said to her, "You must be unmarried, since you are walking alone at night?" She answered, " No, I am married; but my husband took another wife, and hates me now." Ground-Spider-Old-Woman said to her, "Your brothers are looking for you, they will soon come to fetch you." The young woman went up to the house, and noticed that somebody came driving out of the sea on sledges to which reindeer with iron antlers and hoofs were hitched. She ran to meet them, and found that they were her brothers. They asked her, "Do you live here' We are looking for you. Father and mother think that you were carried out by a wave, dashed against a rock and killed. We will take you home now."    They put her on a sledge,  and drove off.

         At that time, Eme'mqut, who had been asleep, suddenly woke up. Some- thing caused his heart to sink. He ran outside, and met Ground- Spider -Old- Woman. She said to him, "Your wife is being carried off by her brothers. You must hurry, if you want to get her back. You may yet overtake them." He ran to the shore, found them there, sat down on their sledge, and went away with them. They arrived at the settlement of the Shells. The father and   mother   of  the   young   woman  came out to meet her.     They said,   " We

1 Wolves are thus called in some tales.



thoght   that   a   wave   had   dashed you  against a rock and killed you."     She answered,   "Big-Grandfather picked me up  on the shore,  otherwise the waves would have crushed me."    They entered the house, and made preparations for the  feast of equipping for the homeward journey the whale 1 which had been caught not long before.     The women were plaiting masks and bags of grass, and  preparing   puddings.     The   old   people   said   to   Eme'mqut   and   to their daughter,   "Let us first equip the whale for its homeward journey, then we will aet you ready for your return trip."     After the whale had been sent off, the old   people   started  to  fit out Eme'mqui and his wife for their journey home. They   also   sent   her brothers along, who were to serve for  Big-Grandfather's daughters.    The old people sent with their daughter one woman to do sewing, and   another   one   to   do   cooking.     They used reindeer with iron antlers and hoofs.     When they arrived at Big-Grandfather's house, they were met by the people   with fire-brands.     Big-Grandfather immediately slaughtered reindeer as a   sacrifice.     Then   they   went   into   the underground house,  and Broad-soled- One's sister was turned out of the house.     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Can'a'i-ña'ut were given   in   marriage   to Shell-Woman's brothers,  and they were sent back into the   settlement   of  the Shells.     Before leaving,  they said to their sister,   " We shall   send  you   household   dishes from home."    Soon after their departure, a strong wind commenced to blow, and the sea began to throw out kettles and dishes.    Eme'mqut's wife said,   " My father is sending this to me."    Eme'mqut grew rich,  and they lived happy.     That's all.

Told by  Ama'aqen, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the
village of Big Itkana, Feb. 16, 1901.

53. Eme'mqut's Marriage with Kïlu' and Grass-Woman.

         Eme'mqut married his cousin Kìlu'.     One day he made some new snow- shoes, and said to his wife,   "I am going to try my new snowshoes."    He put them on and went up the river.     After he had gone some distance, he came to   Root-Man's   (Tatqa'hicñin)   house,   and   went in.    Root -Man's wife said to her   daughter,   Grass-Woman   (Ve'ai),   "Fetch some food to treat the guest." She   brought   in   all   kinds   of  food,   and set it before Eme'mqut.     Eme'mqut beheld  the   girl, and fell in love with her.     He sued for her then and there. Root-Man   said to him,   "Are you not married?" —  "No," he answered, con- cealmg   his   former   marriage   from Root-Man.     Thereupon Eme'mqut married her,  and remained with his father-in-law.     Kïlu' soon found out that Eme'mqut had  married  Grass-Woman.     She went to  Root-Man's house to look for her husband.     Grass-Woman   came   out   to   meet   her.     Then   Kïlu'  said,   "I am Eme'mgut'swife. To  this  Grass-Woman replied,  "I am also his wife."    Kïlu' then became  enraged, killed Grass-Woman,  and returned home.

1  See p. 65.




         Eme'mqut was away hunting when this happened. When he returned from hunting, Root-Man said, "You told me that you were not married; and now your first wife has been here, and has killed Grass-Woman." Eme'mqut immediately started off for his home, but he did not find Kïlu' in. She had put up a tent for herself, and had gone to live there. Big-Grandfather (Aci- cen'a'qu) said to his son, "Your wife has gone away from us to live by herself." Eme'mqut replied,  "Let her stay where she pleases,  I do not want her."

         Soon Fog-Man (Yiña'mtila'n) came to marry Yiñe'a-ñe'ut; but Eme'mqut said to him, "You had better take my former wife, and carry her away from our village." Fog-Man took Kïlu', and drove away with her to his house, using her reindeer-team. They made up a long train of reindeer-sledges. After their departure, Eme'mqut went into the underground house, Big-Grand- father said to his son, "Well, did Fog-Man take Kïlu' away?" — "Yes, he did," answered Eme'mqut. Then Big-Grandfather said to his daughters, "Let me have the dogs' soup. I am going to feed the dogs." They gave him the cooked food for the dogs. He took it outside, poured it into a trough, and called the dogs. Suddenly he saw that the reindeer which were carrying Kïlu' away had turned into dogs, and were running back in answer to his call, dragging along the sledges on which Kïlu' and Fog-Man were seated. Big-Grandfather laughed; but Eme'mqut said to Fog-Man, " Why did you come back?" He answered, "As we were driving, the reindeer suddenly turned into dogs, and dragged us back." Kïlu' became very poor, and remained single; and Fog-Man had to walk home alone.    That's all.

Told  by   Ama'aqen, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the

  village of Big Itkana, Feb. 16, 1901.

54.  Eme'mqut's  Marriage with a Kamak  Girl.

         Big-Grandfather   (Acièen-a'qu)   lived   alone.     There were as yet no other people.     Once   he   said   to   his wife,   "How  can  our sons live alone?    I  shall go   and   get   a wife for Eme'mqut."     He assumed  the shape of a raven,  and flew away to the river on the other side of the mountains.     There he saw an underground house.     He looked in, and saw kamaks inside.     He took a lump of  snow,   and   threw   it on the lamp that was burning inside the house,  thus putting  out the light.     Then, while it was dark, he descended, seized a kamak girl,   carried   her   home,   and   gave   her in  marriage  to  Eme'mqut.     She bore many children.     That's all.

Told by Ama'aqen, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the
village of Big Itkana, Feb. 16, 1901.

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55.  Ptarmigan-Man.

         Ptarmigan-Man (Laxla/ñela'n) was caught in a noose. Illa' took him out and carried him home. There they gave him some pudding, and let him go. When he came home, his wife asked him, "Where have you been so long?" He answered, "They caught me in a trap, then they gave me something to eat and let me go. Leave me! Henceforth I will live here alone. They may catch me again, and I  do not want you to worry about me."

         Ptarmio-an-Woman (Laxla'ña-ña'ut) went away, and her husband staid alone. He had taken a fancy to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut while he was in the house of Big-Grand- father (Acicerra'qu). One day he met her when she went to the woods to chop some willow-branches, and said to her, "Come with me, I want to marry you." She went with him into his tent, and became his wife. They went to bed. Next morning Ptarmigan-Man got up and went outside. He saw Broad- soled-One (Umya'ilhin 1), who asked him, "Why did you stay in bed so late this morning?" Ptarmigan-Man answered, "Because I got married. Now I am going to attend to my hunting." — "Well, go and look after the traps," said Broad-soled-One. Ptarmigan-Man went away; and Broad-soled-One went to his tent, and called out, "Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, come here!" She went out, and Broad-soled-One took her and carried her away.

         When Ptarmigan-Man came home and did not find his wife, he felt very much aggrieved. Soon Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's sister, Carra'i-ña'ut, went to the woods to get some willow-branches. Ptarmigan-Man saw her, took her to his tent, and married her.

         Next morning Ptarmigan-Man went out and saw Wolverene-Man (Oepi'm- tela'n). Wolverene-Man asked him, "Why did you get up so late?" Ptarmigan- Man replied, "I got married yesterday, and now I am going to look after my traps." — "Go," said Wolverene-Man, and went into the tent. He called Can-a'i-ña'ut and took her to  his tent.

         When Ptarmigan-Man returned in the evening and did not find his wife, he  went  to look for her.     In the mean  time her younger sister,  Ici'me-ñe'ut, had   gone   to   the   woods   to  get some willow-branches.  Ptarmigan-Man took her to his tent, and married her.     Next morning Ptarmigan-Man saw Wolverene- Man   and   Broad-soled-One   taking   their   wives   to   Big-Raven   (Quikinn'a'qu). They had very few reindeer.     Then Ptarmigan-Man said,  "I also am going to take   my   wife   to   her   father."      He   harnessed   many   reindeer,  and took the whole   herd  along.     When   they   arrived   at   Big-Raven's   house,   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut began   to   envy   her   younger   sister because she had a wealthy husband,  and she  said   to her own husband,   "Go and take some reindeer from Ptarmigan- Man. Broad-soled-One went out at night-time and killed the reindeer. Some-    

1  A mythical name for the wolf.



body notified Ptarmigan-Man, saying, " Broad-soled-One is going to devour your whole herd." Ptarmigan-Man replied, "I do not care if he does: maybe he needs it." Soon after that he went out and told the dead reindeer to fly away to the willow-bushes. They all became ptarmigan, and flew away to the bushes. Then Broad-soled-One felt ashamed; and at night-time, when everybody had gone to bed, he took his wife and went back to his camp, and since then he has ceased visiting Big-Raven. Ptarmigan-Man and his wife often came with reindeer to visit Big-Raven.    That's all.

Told by Ama'aqen, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the
village of Big Itkana, Feb. 17, 1901.

56.  How the Kamak Woman caught Children.

         Once upon a time a number of boys went out to play with their sleds. They went to the slope of a hill and began to coast. Finally they said, "Now, that's enough, let us slide down for the last time." They slid down, and unexpectedly struck the roof of a kamak's house. The kamak's wife (kama'- keña) said to her husband, "Go up and see what that noise means." He went out, looked at the tips of his shoes, and returned into the house, saying
to his wife, "There is nothing outside; only the magpies are there." The old
woman sent out a wooden pole. It went out, looked at the sky, and came back with the same answer, saying that only magpies were outside.

         Now, the old woman did not want to send her husband and the pole out again. She spread her fur coat in the middle of the house, let herself down on it, and shook her lice upon it. But she could not catch the lice, because the children looked in at the entrance-hole in the roof and kept out the daylight. Every time the old woman looked up, the children would turn quickly from the opening. The old woman then resumed her search, and at
once the children came back to the opening and kept out the light.

         Thus it went on for some time. Finally the kamak's wife got angry and cut off her nose, saying, "You are always in my light!" Then she put it into her mouth and ate it up. But this did not do any good : it was as dark as before. Then she turned suddenly to the hole in the roof, and there noticed the boys peeping in, before they had time to run away. "Aha!" said the kamak's wife to her husband, "human flesh (oya'myañ) has come to us of its own accord." But to the children she said, "Come down!" The son of the chief1 (e'yim) came down first. The other children followed him, so that the house was filled with them.

         The  kamak said to his wife,  "Let us go  and cut willow-branches in the woods   and  eat the bark, then we shall eat up the boys."    Before they went 

1 The chief's  name was Big-Raven (Quikinn-a'qu); and his son's, Eme'mqut.



to the  woods   they bundled the children into a fur coat, took them  outside, said  to  a   tall   tree   that   was   standing   there,   "Bend down your head!" The  tree bent down, and the kamak's wife hung up the coat with the children Then   the   kamaks   went   to   the   woods,   ate   willow-bark,   and   made some spits.

          During   their   absence   the   children   heard   a   noise,   and asked,   "Who is down   there?" ___    "It   is I," answered  Hare (Mi'lut).     The children said,   "We do not hope ever to see our fathers: you are happy, running about free, and you can see them." Hare answered, "My fur coat, I am sorry to say, is very poor, I cannot take you along," and ran away. After a while the children again heard some one running about near the foot of the tree. They made a   hole in the fur coat and saw Fox (Yä'yol). They called to her, "Go and see our fathers!" Fox asked them what they were doing on the tree. The children replied, "The kamak's wife has wrapped us up in her fur coat, and has hung us up on this tree. Soon she will come back from the woods, and will eat us up." Fox took the children down and set them free. Then she sent some to fetch alder, others for stone-pine,1 and still others for stones and sod. They brought alder, pine, stones, and sod. Fox made the children tear off the bark from the alder, and grind the pine with the stones and sod: she added water to it, and crushed it all up in a mortar. Then she put it all into the fur coat and hung it back upon the tree. Fox led the children away, taking care to obliterate their tracks with her tail.

         In the woods the kamak's wife said to her husband, "My mind is uneasy, the children at home may have done something." They went back to their house, looked for the fur coat, and believed they saw the children moving in it. The kamak  shot his arrows at it, and they struck the mortar. At once a red fluid flowed from the latter. The kamak's wife said to her hus- band, "You aimed splendidly, you have killed them." Then she took the bow, bared her right arm, and shot an arrow, which made a hole in the other end of the mortar. Then a black liquid began to flow from the stone-pine. "I made a still better hit than you," said the kamak's wife.

         They took down the fur coat, opened it, and found only the mortar, alder, stones, stone-pine, and sod. When the kamak's  wife saw that the children had disappeared, she turned upon her husband, and chased him about the house with a stick, repeating all the time, "It is your fault! You wanted to go to the woods to eat willow-bark." She beat him until he fell down, and then she ran in  pursuit of the children.

         She reached the house of Fox. Fox crushed some stone-pine in a mortar, added water to it, and prepared a black paint, with which she painted her face.    Then she sat down.     She had the children in her bosom.     The kamak's

1   Finns pumila  Pall.



wife rushed into Fox's house, shouting, "You carried away some children from my house!" — "No," said Fox: "you see that I am very sick, my face has turned all black. Do not cry, and do me a favor. I am not able to carry out my chamber-vessel. Do it for me, but take it far away from the house, up  to  the steep rock,  and empty it there."

         The kamak's wife took the chamber-vessel and went out, but Fox followed her. When she looked back, Fox turned into a bush; and the kamak's wife said, "Yes, that is right, I did see a bush on my way." Now she came to the edge of the rock, and was about to empty the vessel, when Fox suddenly crave her a push from behind, and she fell down the steep cliff. Fox remarked, "I am a sly fox. You wanted to get the children from me. Here they are in my bosom, see!" The kamak's wife lay at the foot of the rock, bruised all over, and called up to Fox, "Throw down just one to me, the son of the chief. I should like to taste some meat  before I die. Do, please!" — "I shall grant your wish," said Fox. She took a stone, wrapped it up in a boy's fur shirt, and said to the kamak's wife, "Here is one for you! Open your mouth,  I  shall throw  him  into your  mouth."

         The kamak's wife opened her mouth, and Fox threw the stone, which killed the kamak's wife, passing through her body. Then Fox told the children to go home, giving them the following instruction: "When moving from the summer dwellings to the winter dwellings, and from the winter dwellings to the summer dwellings, do not forget to leave some food for me near the abandoned houses." Thus the boys went back to their folks, and told them that the kamak's wife would have eaten them up if it had not been for Fox, who came to their rescue.

         Now the people moved from their summer dwellings to their winter dwellings. Soon after that, Fox went into one of the abandoned houses, followed by Triton (Wa'miñan). They found an arrow, which they ate, and both became with child by it. Fox gave birth to a son with five fingers, and Triton gave birth to a daughter with three fingers. Triton sent Fox to fetch some moss for the children. Then Triton took her daughter and put her on Fox's bed, and the latter's son she took to herself. When Fox came back and looked into her bed, she said, "Why did you change our children?" But Triton denied the charge, and said, "You gave birth to a daughter, and I to a son." Fox did not want to quarrel any more.     "Let it be so," said she.

         The children grew up. The boy went out hunting. Once Triton said to him, "Let us build a house for ourselves: you cannot provide food for all of us." They built a separate house, lived very well from the game that the youth brought, and gave nothing to Fox and the girl. The boy did not know that Fox was his real mother. When Fox would send the girl to Triton to ask for food, Triton would chase her away, saying, "We have no food, either." As   a   matter  of fact, they had a large supply of fish,  and seal and reindeer

2 I 5


meat.  The   girl   would come back and say,   "They won't give us anything." They were starving,  and grew very thin.

         One day the boy went out into the wilderness to hunt wild reindeer.     He filed one, took out the entrails, skinned it, and cut up the carcass.     It began rain     The youth lay down  on a moss-grown hill, and covered himself with the reindeer-skin.     Then he heard a voice from inside the hill.     It was Ground- Spider   who   was   speaking.      "The   boy  thinks that he is supporting his own mother   [said   he],   but   his mother is starving.     If he would only look at the feet of his supposed mother,  he would notice that she has only three toes on her feet, while he himself has five, like Fox."    Then the youth said, "If it is known in the country that I support somebody else's mother, then, surely, all the inhabitants of the neighborhood must know about it."

         Ground-Spider then appeared from inside the hill, and told how Triton had interchanged the children. "If you wish to convince yourself," said Ground- Spider, "do as follows: make a bundle of this reindeer-meat, tie it up with the guts, and carry it home. Triton will come out to meet you, as usual. Then tell her that you feel ill, that your feet are feeble, and that you are not able to carry the bundle any farther. Then hear what she says." The
youth gave the reindeer-skin to Ground-Spider, made his bundle ready, and walked away. He was still far from the house when Triton came running to meet him. The youth made believe that he was lame. Triton took the bundle from him, and said, "My poor son, what is the matter with you?" — "My feet are sore," said the boy. His supposed mother wished to put the bundle on her own shoulder, but the guts parted and the meat fell to the ground. Then she said angrily, "That shows that he is Fox's and not my own son. My own son would tie the bundle with leather straps, but this one gnaws oft reindeer-skin."

         The youth threw himself upon Triton,  struck her, and said, "Why did you interchange us, if you knew that a Fox's child eats straps?" The youth chased Triton out of the house, and went to live with Fox. Fox was so weak from hunger that she could not walk. The marrow of her bones had wasted.    The youth took Fox on his shoulders and carried her to his home.

         Soon after this, Eme'mqut returned to his house. This was the name of the owner of the house in which Fox now lived with her son, and in which the arrow had been eaten.

         Eme'mqut asked, "How is it that you occupy my house?" The boy said, "My mother told me that you are my father." Eme'mqut said, "Let us move into our winter house, my father lives there also." But the boy said, "My mother is not yet able to go. The marrow of her bones is still poor. Till now I have not supported my own mother, because Triton kidnapped me and put her own child in  my place."

         Eme'mqut went home  and  said  to  his  father,  "In my summer house Fox



is living with her son." His father said, "Go and bring them over here." They were brought, and from that time on they lived together with Eme'mqut. That's all.

Told by Kilu', a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village

of Paren, October 28, 1900.

57. The Old Woman and the Kamaks.

         Once upon a time there lived an old woman by name Wuo'nem-ñe'ut. She had two little grand-daughters. One evening she said to her grand-children, "I am going out, do not follow me." She drew her fish-spear with double bone point from under the cross-beam of the house, and went out. She listened, and heard the voice of a kamak up the stream saying, "We shall soon eat them up."

         The old woman ran down to the river and lay down on the bank. Then she saw the kamaks sailing upstream in a skin boat, and heard them saying to each other, "The women are asleep now, we can easily devour them, we must hurry and reach the bank quickly."

         The kamaks landed. Then the woman arose, and cried, "You want to eat me, but you will not be able to. I am a woman shaman." When the kamaks heard this, they ran back quickly to their skin boat and sailed away. The old woman waited until the talk of the kamaks had ceased, and then went home.    That's all.

Told by  Yo'kowaaña, a Maritime Koryak girl, in the

 village of Kuel, October 10, 1900.

58. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut's Marriage with a Monster.


         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   and   Kïlu'   went   to   pick berries.     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut noticed some one,   and   shouted,   "Who   is   standing   there?"     Kïlu'   glanced   up,   and   saw nothing;   for   as   soon as she looked, the man let himself fall to the ground. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut  saw him, but Kïlu' could not see him.     They went on.     Yiñe'a- ñe'ut   shouted   again,   "Who goes there?"     Kïlu' looked up and saw nothing. She   said,   "Why   do  you deceive me?     Nobody is there."    Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said, "I see him; but as soon as you look up, he lets himself fall to the ground." Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   said,   "Let us go back home."    They arrived home and made a fire.     Then   they   heard   a   noise.     Right   after   that the monster Causing-to- Shudder  (Öeñti'ñitala'n)   entered, and sat down at Kïlu"s side.     Kïlu' pushed him to her cousin, and said, "You saw him before, now let him sit near you." The   monster   lay   down   to   sleep   with   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.     When they fell asleep, Kïlu' slunk away.     She ran through woods and bushes, which tore her clothing.

2 I 7


She was half naked and breathless when she reached her father, who lived on the bank of the river. Everybody who met her laughed at her torn clothing. She said to her father, " A kamak has eaten up Yiñe'a-ñe'ut." Her father said "Let us go and see what has happened to her." They went, and saw Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, accompanied by a handsome man, coming to meet them. Yiñe'a- ñe'ut said to Kïlu', "If you had not run away, he would have married you." Then Kïlu' began to envy her cousin.    That's all.

Told by Navaqu't, a Maritime Koryak woman, in  the
village of Kuel, October, 1900.

59.  Contest between  the Wives of Eme'mqut and Envious-One.

         One morning Eme'mqut came to Envious-One (Nipai'vaticñin) and asked, "Have you seen any girls anywhere?" His friend shouted, "Yes, I have. Now let us go there !" — "Wait a little," said Eme'mqut, "until I have finished roasting these guts." Eme'mqut left Envious-One. He roasted the guts and went away. Soon after, Eme'mqut found a wife and married her. Envious-One, on his part, took for his wife old We'ñnil.

         Both brought their wives home, and said,   " Now let us see whose wife is fairer."    Envious-One said,   "I am going to bring my wife here."     He went to his house, dressed his wife in a  nice fur coat with a border embroidered with long, dyed hair from the chest of a reindeer.     He ordered a pair of reindeer to be hitched up, and drove with his wife to Eme'mqut's.     On the way he stopped and   washed   his   wife's   face   thoroughly   with   snow.     They   arrived.     Then Eme'mqut   said   to   his   relatives,   "Hide   my  wife."     Envious-One came down into the house.'   They feasted him  on blubber.     "Now,  whose wife is fairer?" said Eme'mqut.    First they brought in We'ñnil, and made her sit down.    She sat   there   with   her   long   eyelashes,   in   her embroidered fur coat with a flap behind.    Every few moments Envious-One went to his wife, caressed her, and stroked and parted her hair.     " We'ñnil will always be fair," thought her husband. 

         Then   they   brought   in   Eme'mqut's   wife   from   her  hiding-place.    When Envious-One saw her, he was so fascinated with her beauty that he immediately had an attack of diarrhoea, and fainted.     When he came to, he said, "I have been  asleep.     Whatever came  out of my bowels is mine, I shall eat it again." He ate his excrement.     As soon as he cast his eyes again upon Eme'mqut's wife,   he   forthwith   passed   out   what   he   had   eaten,   and   fainted.      Soon   he recovered   his   senses,   and   said,    "I  have been asleep,  whatever came out of my  bowels is mine."     He ate his excrement again.

         Then   Eme'mqut said,   "Enough,  now  go  home"     But Envious-One said, Let our wives first show their shamanistic powers. . Let us see who will take the   prize."     We'ñnil   took   the   drum   first.      When   she   began   to beat it,  a   




number of wild reindeer appeared on the roof of the house, and ran about the opening. Envious-One said, "Look at the entrance-opening, and you will not doubt that my wife is a true shaman: she has enticed the reindeer." We'ñnil stopped beating the drum, and the reindeer disappeared. "Now let your wife show her shamanistic power," said Envious-One to Eme'mqut. As soon as she started to beat, sea-water came up and flooded the house, sea- birds appeared with clamor, seals emerged and dived again, and whales played about. Envious-One tried to flee from the waters. To save himself from drowning, he climbed up on the cross-beams of the house; but he fell down, and was nearly drowned. "That's enough!" he cried out. Eme'mqut's wife stopped beating the drum, and the water receded. Eme'mqut said to his guest,  "Depart now."    That's all.

Told  by  Yo'kowaaña,  a  Maritime  Koryak girl, in the

  village of Kuel, October, 1900.

60.  Grass-Woman and Diarrhcea-Man.

         Eme'mqut went to serve for a wife.     He came to the parents of his bride- elect  to begin his service; but the girl did not care for him.     Neither father nor   mother  were able to induce her to consent to the marriage.    Eme'mqut returned  to   his  father   and   told   him   about   it.     His father,  Big-Grandfather (Acicen-a'qu) went outside, and sat down to ease himself.     After he had wiped himself, he threw the rag on the ground, and kicked it with his foot, saying, "Turn into a man;" and the rag turned into a man.     Big-Grandfather named him Diarrhcea-Man (Poqa'ko).     He put a wooden chamber-vessel (aèa'lio) into his bag, and said, "Diarrhcea-Man, go to the parents of Grass-Woman (Ve'ai), and   serve   for   their   daughter,   but do  not marry her,  only frighten  her with your appearance and conduct."     Diarrhcea-Man went.     He came to the parents of Grass-Woman.     No  sooner had he descended the ladder than he sat down on his chamber-vessel in  the middle  of the house.     Then  he  called to  Grass- Woman,   "I   have   come   to   woo you.     It seems that you  have been waiting- just for me, since you  did not wish to have Eme'mqut for a husband.     Now, take my chamber-vessel,  and-empty it outside."

         Grass-Woman seized the chamber-vessel, ran up the ladder, and threw it down to the ground outside. Then she ran to a neighbor's house and hid herself there. Diarrhcea-Man went out and found his chamber-vessel broken on the ground. He picked up the pieces, went up to the entrance-opening, and called into the house, "Bring me a drill." They answered from within, "We have no drill." Diarrhcea-Man then sat down over the opening, and eased himself right into the dwelling. This induced them to give him a drill . at once.     He repaired his chamber-vessel and went to look for his bride.     He

 2 I 9



found the house in which Grass-Woman was in hiding.     " My bride is in hiding here" said he.     "Let her come  out forthwith."

         Grass-Woman had to come out of the house, but she succeeded in fleeing from Diarrhcea-Man. Without looking back, she ran into the wilderness, and came to an underground house. Two sisters of Diarrhcea-Man were sitting there by a blubber-lamp. She called to the two girls, speaking through the entrance-opening, "Hide me! Diarrhcea-Man is pursuing me!" but the girls shouted, "This is Diarrhcea-Man's bride: let us get hold of her !" Grass- Woman ran away from them. They pursued her. Grass-Woman took out an ear-ring, and threw it far behind her. Each of the sisters wished to have the ring, and they began to quarrel. After a while Grass-Woman dropped her other ear- ring. While the sisters were fighting over the ear-rings, Grass-Woman had reached Eme'mqut's house. She went down and said, "A repulsive man is pursuing me.     His name is Diarrhoea-Man."

         Then Eme'mqut married her. Diarrhoea-Man followed her tracks. He said, "Her footprints lead to my sisters' : surely they will not let her off." He came to his sisters', and asked them, "Now, where is my bride?" They answered: "She was here. We tried to catch her; but she threw her ear-rings to us, and while we were quarrelling over them she ran away." Diarrhcea-Man was very angry, and kicked his sisters until they turned into rags. Then he followed Grass-Woman's footsteps, reached Eme'mqut's house, and ran about the entrance- opening. Grass-Woman saw him, and said, "Here is that wretch who annoyed us. He will not let us alone here, either." Big-Grandfather went out of the house, kicked Diarrhcea-Man with his foot, and Diarrhcea-Man turned into the rag from which he had been created.     Big-Grandfather returned quietly into the house.

         After some time, Eme'mqut said to his father, "I wish to take my wife to her father's. He thinks, probably, that she was caught by Diarrhcea- Man." They caught reindeer, and fitted out a long train for their journey.

         Eme'mqut drove on with his wife, and they soon arrived at the house of Grass-Woman's father. Her mother asked her, "Where do you come from? Not long ago you did not want to take this fellow for a husband!" She replied, "This is the work of Big-Grandfather. He sent Diarrhcea-Man over here in order to bring me to Eme'mqut." Eme'mqut said, "I came to show you your daughter." They spent some time there, and returned to Big-Grand- father.     Thus they lived.     That's all.

Told  by   Yo'kowaaña,  a  Maritime  Koryak  girl,  in the
village of Kuel, October, 1900.

61.  Little-Charm-Man.

         There was a man named Little-Charm-Man (Ikle'mtila'n).     Once he went out to  hunt wild  reindeer.     He  went out  of his  house,   climbed  upon the roof



of a dog-kennel, and lay in wait. He had a pointed stick. When a puppy came out of the kennel, Little-Charm-Man thrust his stick into its ear and killed it. He skinned it, cut it in two, made a bundle of it, and carried it into the house. Little-Charm-Man's daughter came to meet him, and called to her mother. "Father is bringing something, he is carrying a reindeer." But when she saw the dog's skin dangling from Little-Charm-Man's bundle, the mother replied,  "It is not true: where should he get a reindeer?"

         Little-Charm-Man arrived. He stepped on the ladder, and, descending into the underground dwelling, he said, "See! I never come home without game." His wife said, "Yes, you are known everywhere as a good hunter." He replied, "And you, on your part, are a fair woman." Then they carved the meat. With one eye Little-Charm-Man looked at the meat, and with the other at the sky. They cooked the meat, and Little-Charm-Man said to his daughter, "Invite all our relatives." Presently Kïlu', the owner of the puppy, arrived, crying, "At least, return to me the dog's skin." They gave her the skin. She took it, went home, and said, "Little-Charm-Man has killed our
puppy."    That's all.

Told by  Yo'kowaaña,  a maritime Koryak girl,  in  the
village of Kuel, October, 1900.

62. The  Abduction of Eme'mqut's Sister by the Kamaks.

           Yiñe'a-ñe'ut lived all alone in an underground house that stood away from the   other   houses.     Suddenly  she disappeared.    The kamaks had stolen her. Big-Raven (Ouikinn'a'qu), her father, looked for her.     He came to Ermine-Man (Imca'namtila'n), and said, "Give me your fur coat.     I want to go in search of my daughter.    The kamaks have stolen her."    Ermine-Man gave his little fur coat to   Big-Raven,   who  put it on  and started  off.     He reached  the settlement of the   kamaks.     A  woman by the name of Good-Kamak-Woman  (Pal-kama'ka- ña'ut)   came out of the underground house.     Of all the kamaks,  she was the only one who would not eat human  flesh.     She asked Big-Raven,  "What did you come for?    The kamaks will eat you."    Big-Raven answered,  "I have lost my   daughter:   I am looking for her." —   "Your daughter is here," she said; "but the kamaks cannot eat her, she is a shaman."     Big-Raven said to Good- Kamak-Woman,   "I   shall   send   three men here.     Put my daughter into your bosom,  carry her outside,  and hand her over to those people."

         Thereupon Big-Raven went home. When he arrived, he said to his son Eme'mqut, "Go to River-Man (Veye'mila'n) and to Rocky-Crag-Man (Vomi- ñye'cemla'n),  and tell them to go with you to  release your sister."

         Eme'mqut went to ask for their help, and soon the three started off into the   village   of  the   kamaks.     They went to  the  entrance  of the underground




house and looked in. Then the kamaks exclaimed, "Food has come to us of its own accord." The new-comers, however, did not go into the house, but only looked in from above. Finally Good-Kamak-Woman said, "I am sure they are afraid of Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, and therefore they do not dare to come in. I will carry her outside." She took Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, carried her out, and handed her to Eme'mqut, saying, " Here is your sister: take her." She returned into the underground house.

         The strangers still remained outside, looking into the house, but did not descend into it. Eme'mqut finally said to the kamaks, "We do not go down because you do not meet us with dancing." Then the kamaks began to dance. River-Man was the first to descend. He was hardly halfway down the ladder, when he turned into a stream, which flooded the underground house, and drowned the kamaks. Then Rocky-Crag-Man descended, fell from the ladder down into the house, and crushed to death those who remained. Then Eme'mqut and his companions went away, taking Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Good-Kamak-Woman along with them. They arrived at Big-Raven's house. Rocky-Crag-Man married Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, and River-Man Can'a'i-ña'ut. Eme'mqut himself married Good- Kamak-Woman. River-Man and Rocky-Crag-Man took their wives home, and there they lived.    That's all.

Told by  Navaqu't, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the
village of Kuel, Jan. 11, 1901.

63.  Ermine-Woman.

         It was at the time when Ermine-Man (Imca'namtila'n) lived. Once his daughters went to strip willow-bark. They came to some willows. Eme'mqut was there at the same time. He helped Ermine-Man's daughters to strip the bark by bending the top of a tall willow-tree down to the ground. Ermine- Man saw it, and shouted to Eme'mqut, "Why do you touch my daughters?" Eme'mqut answered, "I am not touching them; I am helping them strip some bark."

         He left them, travelling on his snowshoes, and came to the Woodpeckers in the woods. There'he married Woodpecker-Woman (Keli'utki-ñe'ut). The Woodpeckers had no reindeer, and Eme'mqut had to take his wife home on foot. When they were passing by Ermine-Man's house, the latter called them in. "Come in," he said. "Why do you walk? Have you no reindeer at all?" They entered his underground house, and staid there over night. There Eme'mqut took a second wife, Ermine-Man's daughter, Stinking-Woman (E'ige- ne'ut). On the following morning, Eme'mqut drove home with his two wives. Ermine-Man hitched only ermines to the sledge  of his son-in-law.

       Eme'mqut  took his wives home,  and lived with  them.     Stinking-Woman




was a thief. She would steal whatever came within her reach. The people in the house, however, suspected Woodpecker-Woman of theft, and therefore hated her. Soon Ermine-Man came to visit Big-Raven (Quikinn-a'qu), who gave him whale skin and blubber and meat. Ermine-Man took the food home, and ate it all, without sharing with anybody. When he had finished eating, he again started off to visit Big-Raven. At that time the people had discovered that it was not Woodpecker's daughter who was stealing, but Ermine-Woman (Imca'nam-ña'ut). When Ermine-Man came back, Big-Raven put Ermine- Woman into a bag and gave her to her father, saying, "There, take this home." Ermine-Man went back to his house, and on his arrival threw the bag with all his might on the ground, saying, "I will not divide with anyone. I will eat it all by myself." His wife examined the bag. She also said, "We will not divide it with anyone. We will eat it all by ourselves." She opened the bag, and suddenly beheld her daughter. She took her out quietly, put her on her bed, and covered her up with an ermine coat. The mother asked her, "Why did they put you into the bag? You must have done something wrong there." The daughter answered, "My husband's other wife accused me of stealing."

         Eme'mqut continued to live with Woodpecker's daughter. He killed whales, seals, and white whales. When autumn came, he took his wife on a visit to her father. When they were passing by Ermine-Man's house, the latter came out and asked, "Why did you drive my daughter out?"— "Because she is a thief," answered Eme'mqut. He went on, reached the Woodpeckers, and gave them whale skin, blubber, and meat that he had brought for them. He took a whole herd of reindeer to his wife's father. He staid there for some time, and then prepared for his homeward journey. His wife's brother, Woodpecker-Man (Keli'ut-kihimtila'n), who afterward married Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, went with them. He took her home. Thus they lived, and called upon one another. 
Eme'mqut did not take Stinking-Woman back,  but renounced her entirely.

Told  by  Navaqu't,  a   Maritime  Koryak woman, in the 

village of Kuel, Jan.  11,  1901.

64.  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and  Mouse-Woman.

       It was at the time when Eme'mqut lived. He had a sister Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. The reindeer-breeder Frost-Man (Anna'mayat) married her, and he settled down to live with Eme'mqut. Autumn came, and snow fell in the mountains. Then Frost-Man said to his wife, "Come, let us drive our herd up the stream to the mountains, to let the reindeer eat some fresh snow." They started with their herd up the river, came to the foot-hills of the mountain-range, and encamped there.     Frost-Man put his head on his wife's knees, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut



began   to   louse   him.      Not   far   from  them  there was a settlement  of Mouse people.     Mouse-Woman   (Pipi'qca-ña'ut)  came  out of her  underground house, beheld   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   lying   with   her   husband,   and   envied her.     She returned home    and   said  to her mother,   "Give birth to  some brothers for  me."    The old   Mouse   gave   birth   then   and there,  and brought forth several little male Mouse   children.     She  asked her daughter,   "How many did I  give birth to?" Her daughter replied,   "Plenty,  that will  do now."     She took one  of her little brothers,   whom   they   called   Young-Mouse-Man   (Oai-pipi'qilñin),   carried him outside,   and   said   to  him,   "Go, enter Frost-Man's anus, and, no matter how many shamans try to cure him, do not go out until they call me to cure him." The little Mouse went, got into Frost-Man's anus, and he immediately became sick.    Then he said to  his wife,   "Go  home to your father's house, and I will go   to   mine."     Frost-Man   went to his father's house and went to bed.     His father   invited all kinds of shamans,  but none of them was able to  cure him. Finally they called  Wolf-Man  (E'hi'mtila'n).     He began his incantations, then he   stopped,   and   said,   "I   cannot   cure   him.      Call   Running-over-the-Grass's (Poina'qu)   daughter,   Mouse-Woman.     She   will surely cure him."    Then they called her.    She came and began to treat him.     She beat the drum, and sang, "I, your sister, have come.     Come out."    The little Mouse came out forthwith from Frost-Man's anus.     Mouse-Woman put him into her sleeve, and said,  "I am   going   outside   now."   She   went  out,  let the little  Mouse free,  and said, "There  is our house:  go there."    She returned to Frost-Man's tent, and saw that   he   was   up and quite well.     His relatives said to Mouse-Woman,   "You are a real shaman.     Nobody  could cure him,  and you did."    And Frost-Man said to her, "You have cured me, and in return I will marry you."    They went together to her father,  Running-over-the-Grass, and settled down to live there.

         At   that   time,   Athap 1  came to  Big-Raven  (Ouikinn'a'qu),  and began to
serve   for  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut; but she refused to  marry him.     One evening, Yiñe'a- ñe'ut   went   outside,   and   noticed   that   smoke was coming out from  Running- over-the-Grass's underground grass house.     She thought to herself, "I will go and see why they have a fire so late."     She went, looked into the house, and saw   that   her   husband   was lying with  Mouse- Woman.     At that time a little Mouse jumped upon Frost-Man,  and teased him, saying,  "Why did your head turn   bald?"     Then   the   Mouse himself added,   "Because  I  was inside  of you, in your intestines."     Frost-Man became angry,  and said to  Mouse-Woman, "I will   forsake you  now.     It was you yourself who let the little  Mouse into me to make me ill."

       Yiñe'a-ñe'ut had heard all they said, and ran home. Frost-Man followed right after her. She scolded him, but he tried to defend himself: "I married  her because no one could cure me, and she did. Now that I have found out that she caused  my  illness,  I have  deserted her, and returned to you."     They

1  A story-name of the  wolf.



continued to live as before. Öan'a'i-ña'ut was given to Wolf-Man in marriage. Frost-Man and Wolf-Man took their wives home. Then they called upon one another.

         Mouse-Woman remained single. She killed her little brother for having betrayed her to  Frost-Man.

Told by  Navaqu't,  a  Maritime Koryak woman, in the 

village of Kuel, February, 1901.

65.  Big-Raven's Visit to the Reindeer-Breeders.

         It was at the time when Big-Raven (Quikinn'a'qu) lived. His sons went fishing up the river. Big-Raven's provisions had given out. He said to his wife Miti', "Give me my boots. I will drive over to the camp of the Rein- deer people for some meat." He dressed himself, and called his reindeer. All sorts of beasts came running to him, — bears, wolves, wild reindeer, and others. He would strike every one of them over the nose, and say, "I did not call you." They all ran away. Finally the mice came. Big-Raven allowed them to stay. He hitched them to a large sledge, and drove off to the camp of the Reindeer people, who laughed at him, saying, "Big-Raven has hitched mice to a large sledge." Then they loaded his sledge with meat, fat, and other provisions; they also put skins there and entire tents of reindeer-skins. "Now let us see how you drive," said the Reindeer people, laughing. Big- Raven whipped the mice, and they went off flying. The Reindeer people pursued him with their reindeer, but they could not overtake him. Big-Raven came home, and released the mice.

         When   Big-Raven's   sons   came   home   from   fishing,  Big-Raven scratched his   nose   until   it bled, and said to them,   " I am going to die now.    Do not burn   me   on the funeral  pile,  but put  me  into  an  empty  underground  house, and   put   some   roe,   dried   fish,   fat,  and various roots with me."     Thereupon Big-Raven made believe that he was  dead.     His sons put  him into an empty underground house, and left all kinds of food with him.     When they had gone out,   Big-Raven got up and pounded the roots,  roe,  and fat together.     After a   little   while   his   sons looked into  the house,  and saw that their father was making   a   pudding.     They went away,  and told  their mother about it.     She said   to   them,   "Get   me   a  ptarmigan."     Her sons brought her a ptarmigan. She  plucked its feathers and down,  cut off her breasts and attached them to the   ptarmigan,   and   said   to   it,   "Go to  the  old man,  and scare  him."     The ptarmigan went to the house where Big-Raven was, and began to sing.     Big- Raven   was frightened,  ascended the stairs,  and  went running to his wife  . . . (Unfinished.)

Told by Navaqu't,   a  Maritime Koryak  woman, in the
village of Kuel, March, 1901.



66.  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and Fog-Man.

         Big-Raven (Ouikinn-a'qu) lived alone with his family. Once he said to his wife, "We live all alone, we have no neighbors: it seems that we are the only people who were born in the world. There is our daughter Yiñe'a-ñe'ut living by herself in the wilderness. Let us bring her over here and marry her to our son Eme'mqut." — "Stop talking nonsense!" said Miti! "What are you thinking of, to marry a sister to a brother! There are plenty of Reindeer people on our earth." Big-Raven rejoined, "Those Reindeer people must be far away: there are none around here. Let us fetch our daughter: let Eme'mqut marry her." Miti' did not wish to go, and said, "Will you not be ashamed when later on the Reindeer people visit our house?" — "Never you mind," said  Big-Raven.     "Go and fetch our daughter."

         Miti' went to the house of her daughter, who asked her, "What did you come for?" Miti' answered, "Father has sent for you. He wants your brother to marry you, because there are no people around here from whom to select a wife for our son." Yiñe'a-ñe'ut did not wish to go with her mother. Miti' said, "Neither do I want you to go. Better leave, and go far away to the Reindeer people."    Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went away to the Reindeer people.

         She walked for a long time. Then she beheld the camp of the Reindeer people. She came up to a tent, and heard a voice inside. It was Fog-Man (Yiña'mtila'n), who was beating the drum, and singing shaman-songs. When Yiñe'a-ñe'ut came up close to the tent, he stopped beating the drum.

         Then Fog-Man said to his mother in the tent, "By beating the drum and by incantations I have induced Big-Raven to desire to marry his son Eme'mqut to his daughter, and to send for her; and I have induced her to run away and to come to me. Go and see now! She has arrived, and is here in front of the door." His mother went out, looked about everywhere, but did not find anyone, for Yiñe'a-ñe'ut was hiding behind a tree. The old woman went back into the tent, and said, "There is nobody outside." But her son sent her out again, saying, "Go and look! She has come. When I beat the drum, I saw her." Fog-Man's mother went out again, and picked up some wood for the fireplace.     Then  she found Yiñe'a-ñe'ut hiding behind the tree.

         "Who are you?" asked the old woman. "I am Big-Raven's daughter," answered the girl. " So it is you for whose sake my son has always been beating the drum. He would neither go hunting nor watch the reindeer-herd; he would not eat or drink.     He only kept on beating the drum.     Go into the tent."

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went in, and Fog-Man's mother followed her. The old woman said to her son, "Here! she has come. Now stop beating the drum."— "Yes, I will stop," answered her son. "Put the food on the fire. I have not eaten for a long time."     At this  his  mother  brought  him  some food.     He ate of it,




and said, "I shall marry Yiñe'a-ñe'ut now." But his mother objected, "I also have made incantations, and I have seen that her brother Eme'mqut married her before." —   "This is  not. true," answered  Fog-Man;   "he did not."

         Fog-Man married Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, and children were born to them. One day Fog-Man asked his wife, "Is it true that your father wanted to marry you to your brother?" — "It is true," she answered. "That is why I ran away to you." — "Let us go and visit your father," said Fog-Man. Yiñe'a- ñe'ut answered, "I will not go. I am ashamed to go to my father: he wanted to marry me to my brother." — "Well, never mind: let us go. My incantations caused your father to  wish it."

         Fog-Man   killed   some   reindeer  for the journey, and Yiñe'a-ñe'ut cooked the meat.    They made a covered sledge of iron for the children.    Yiñe'a-ñe'ut gave  birth   only  to   boys.    They  cooked plenty of fat meat, and started off. When   they came near Big-Raven's,  Fog-Man asked his wife,   "Have we still far  to   go?" —  "We   have   covered   half of the way," answered Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. "Let us stop here over night, and we shall arrive to-morrow."    They stopped for the night, put up a tent, and went to bed.     When Fog-Man was asleep, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut got up cautiously and walked to her father's house.     She descended into   the   underground  house, felt her way to her mother's bed, and fumbled around to find her mother's head.     Miti' woke up and asked, "Who is fumbling around   my   head?"     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   said,   "I   am   your   daughter, I have come. I am married, and now I have come here with my husband.     We are stopping for the night not far from here, and  I have run ahead to inform you of our arrival."    After that, she returned to her tent, and lay down with her husband. They got up on the following morning,  and started off to Big-Raven's house. When they were approaching,  Miti' went out to meet them with a fire-brand. Then Kïlu' came  out to  meet them,  and  Eme'mqut followed her.     Eme'mqut asked his sister,  "Where do you come from?"     She answered,  "Fog-Man made me come to him,  and he has  married  me."     The  guests  were conducted into the   underground   house,   and   were   given   food to eat.     Eme'mqut asked his sister   whether   her   husband   had   a   sister.      She  answered in  the  affirmative. "Then I am going with you to serve for your husband's sister," said Eme'mqut. 

         When   Fog-Man   and his wife started  on their return journey, Eme'mqut went   with   them.     Fog-Man's   mother   met   them,   carrying a fire-brand.     On seeing   Eme'mqut,   she   asked,   "Who   is   that   who   has   come with you?" — "This   is   my   brother,"   answered   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.     "He came to woo my sister- in-law and to serve for her."     When  they entered  the tent,  Fog-Man said to his mother,   "Let Eme'mqut  marry her right  now,  without service.     I  did  not serve   for   my   wife,   either."      His   mother   consented,   and said  to  Eme'mqut, "Well,   go   ahead,   catch   your   wife."     Eme'mqut   ran  after Fog-Man's sister, caught her, and she gave birth then and there.     Fog-Man asked  his mother, "Well, has Eme'mqut  married her?" —   "Yes,  he has  married her, and a son



has been born to them." Soon Eme'mqut made preparations to go home with his wife. Fog-Man gave to Eme'mqut half of his reindeer-herd, and they left for Bic-Raven's home. When the people from Big-Raven's house saw them approaching, they said, "Eme'mqut is driving a large herd over here." He arrived with his wife, and  Miti' came out to meet them;  and since then they have lived with  Big-Raven.

Told by Eu'ña, a Maritime Koryak woman, in the village
of Mikino, Jan. 10,  1901.

67.   How Triton-Man  abducted  Eme'mqut's Wife.

         Gull-Man (Yaxya'ximtila'n) once said to Raven-Man (Valva'mtila'n), "Let s go to Big-Raven (Ouikinn'a'qu) and serve for his daughters." They went to Big-Raven's house, and began to work there. After some time Big-Raven said to his wife, "What shall we do? Shall we give them our daughters?" Miti' consented. Both the young men married. Raven-Man married Yiñe'a- ñe'ut, and Gull-Man married Can'a'i-ña'ut, and they staid with Big-Raven. Then Eme'mqut said, "I will also go and serve for a wife," and went to Root- Man's (Tatqa'hicñin) house. When he arrived there, Root-Man was making snowshoes. On seeing Eme'mqut, he exclaimed, "Oh, here is a visitor! Come inside!" They went inside, and Root-Man ordered refreshments to be served. They offered some to Eme'mqut; but he ate very little, for he was anxious to announce to Root-Man the object of his visit. "I came to you to woo your daughter," said Eme'mqut. "All right," answered Root-Man, "you may stay here." Eme'mqut staid at Root-Man's house, serving for the woman, and soon married his daughter, Grass-Woman (Ve'ai). Eme'mqut lived there for a long time. A daughter was born to him. Once Eme'mqut said to his father-in-law, "I should like to go home, and take my wife with me." His father-in-law replied, "You might have done so long ago if you had so desired." They were fitted out for the journey; but only four driving-reindeer were given to them, — two to Eme'mqut, and two to his wife, — because Root-Man was not well supplied with  reindeer.

         When Eme'mqut and his wife reached home, they were met by Miti'. They went into the house, and staid there. Gull-Man and Raven-Man were still living with  Big-Raven.

         Once Grass-Woman went to pick berries, and did not return home. Eme' mqut  looked for her everywhere, but could not find her. After some time, Gull-Man told him that Triton-Man (Wamina'mtila'n) had carried his wife away. Eme'mqut went back to his father and told him of what had happened. Big- Raven replied, "Never mind! Don't follow her, you will be killed." But Eme'mqut said, "No, I must go. I do not care, even if I should suffer death." 

         Eme'mqut   set   out   on   his   trip,   and  at  nightfall  arrived  at the camp  of



Triton-Man,  who  was out with his herd.     Eme'mqut went into the tent, took his wife,  and started homeward.

         In the mean time, Triton-Man, who was far away with his reindeer, suddenly jumped to his feet, and said, "How my heart flutters! I must go home. Surely something has happened there." He went home at once. When he entered his tent, he asked his mother, "Where is Grass-Woman? Where is my wife?" — "Eme'mqut was here and took her away," answered his mother. Then Triton-Man started in pursuit, overtook Eme'mqut and killed him; then  he carried Grass-Woman back.

         Big-Raven waited for his son a long time. Finally he said to his sons- in-law, "It is a rather long time since Eme'mqut left, and still he has not returned. Go out and look for your brother-in-law. You are married to his sisters, and you ought to try to find him." Gull-Man and Raven-Man started in search of him. Soon they found Eme'mqut, and brought his body home. gain Big-Raven spoke to his sons-in-law, saying, "You must do something to revive him." To this, Raven-Man replied, "I will try, but you must first kill a white reindeer." Big-Raven killed a white reindeer, which was brought into the house. Its meat was cut up. Raven-Man ordered the meat taken away, and had only the blood left on the reindeer-skin. Then Raven-Man took a drum, beat it several times, and poured some blood over Eme'mqut's head. Eme'mqut began to stir. Then Raven-Man thrust a piece of bone- marrow into Eme'mqut's mouth, and asked him, "Do you taste the sweet of the marrow?" — "No," answered Eme'mqut, "it is as tasteless as wood." Raven-Man again took up the drum, beat it several times, and poured some blood over Eme'mqut's head. Then he gave him some more marrow, and asked him if he tasted its sweetness. "Yes," answered Eme'mqut. "When I shot wild reindeer, and took marrow out of their bones, it tasted as sweet as what I taste now." — "You are now entirely revived," said Raven-Man, "and you may arise."

         As soon as Eme'mqut rose to his feet, he said, "I shall set out once more to recover my wife." Big-Raven said to his son, "Don't go! Triton-Man will kill you." — "No, I won't stay. I do not care if he does kill me," said Eme'mqut. He came again to Triton-Man's camp in the evening, when Triton- Man was out with his reindeer, and called out, "Come out, Grass-Woman! let us go." She came out, and Eme'mqut and his wife started home. In the mean while Triton-Man became alarmed again, and said, "Why is it that I feel so much disturbed? I must go home to see if anything has happened. Eme'mqut must have come again  to carry off his  wife."

         He ran home, and asked his mother if his wife was at home. "No," said his mother. "Eme'mqut took her away." Triton-Man started in pursuit, overtook Eme'mqut, and, after killing him, cut him up into small pieces. "Now," said he, "you will not revive."     He took Grass-Woman back with him.



         Big-Raven waited in vain for Eme'mqut, and finally said to his sons-in-law, "Go and look for your brother-in-law."     They went in search of him, and soon found his body, which had been cut to pieces.     They  gathered up the pieces and took them home.     When they brought Eme'mqut home, Big-Raven said, "Well   Raven-Man,  revive him again."     Raven-Man  replied,   "I will try, but I do   not   know   whether   I   can   revive   him   or  not.     Kill two white reindeer." Big-Raven killed two white reindeer and brought them into the house.    Raven- Man   began   to beat the drum.     After he had beaten it for a long time, the pieces re-united.     Raven-Man again beat the drum.     After a while he stopped, poured some blood over Eme'mqut's head, and gave him some marrow taken from a reindeer-leg.    Then he asked, "Do you taste the sweetness of the marrow?" — "No,"   said   Eme'mqut,   "it   is   as tasteless as wood."    Raven-Man again beat the drum, and poured some more blood on Eme'mqut's head.    Then he put more   marrow into his mouth.     "Do you taste the sweetness now?" he asked Eme'mqut.     "Yes," replied Eme'mqut.     "It is as delicious as the marrow which I   used   to   take from leg-bones of the wild reindeer that I killed." —  "Then you may arise," said  Raven-Man.     "You are entirely revived."

         Before he had time to rise to his feet, Eme'mqut said again, "I shall set out again to recover my wife." Big-Raven said, "Don't go! Triton-Man will kill you." — "No, I won't stay," said Eme'mqut. "I do not care if he does kill me." Again he reached the camp of Triton-Man at night-time, while Triton-Man was herding the reindeer. He said, "Grass-Woman, come out! I will take you away!" She came out, and they went away. Triton-Man, although far away, noticed that something was happening, and said to himself, "I must hasten home. Eme'mqut must have carried his wife away again." He reached home, and asked his mother, "Is Grass-Woman at home?" — "No," answered his mother, "Eme'mqut has carried her away." Triton-Man started in pursuit. He overtook Eme'mqut, killed him, burned his body, and threw the bones into different lakes. "Now," said Triton-Man, "you will not revive."    Then he took Grass-Woman back home.   .

         Big-Raven, after waiting for his son  a long time,  again  said to his sons- in-law,   "Go   and   look  for your brother-in-law."    They went to look for him, and found his ashes, but could not find his bones.     Then Gull-Man flew about over   the   lakes,   dived   into   the   water,   and   pulled   up from  the bottom one bone   at  a time,  until he had gathered them all up.     After that,   Raven-Man and Gull-Man took them home.     Big-Raven again told  Raven-Man  to revive Eme'mqut.      "This   time   I   cannot revive him," said  Raven-Man.     "Oh, try!" said Big-Raven.     "I do not know whether I can revive him.     Let four reindeer be   killed,"   said   Raven-Man.     They were killed and brought into the house. Raven-Man  beat the drum all day and all night.     Then  the bones re-united, and   covered   themselves   with   flesh.      Raven-Man poured reindeer-blood over Eme'mqut's   head,   and  put  marrow  into  his  mouth.     "Is the marrow sweet?"



asked Raven-Man. "No," replied Eme'mqut. Raven-Man again beat the drum, poured more blood over Eme'mqut's head, and put more marrow into his mouth. "Well," asked Raven-Man, "do you taste the sweetness of the marrow now?" --- "Yes, this marrow is just as sweet as the marrow of the wild rein- deer which  I used to  kill,"  answered  Eme'mqut.

         Then Eme'mqut arose hale and well. One whole day he did not mention his wife; but when evening came, he asked his father, "Shall I not go and recover my wife?" But Big-Raven said to him, "No, do not go again ; better go hunting."

         Next day Eme'mqut started out  on a hunting-trip. Soon he killed a wild reindeer, and lay down under a stone-pine-bush to rest. All of a sudden he heard a voice from under the ground. "Grandma," a child's voice was saying, "tell me a story!" — "What shall I tell you?" answered an old woman's voice. " I do not know how to tell stories, unless I tell you the story of Eme'mqut." — "Well, well! tell me that story," said the child. "Triton-Man," began the old woman, "carried Eme'mqut's wife away. Eme'mqut took his wife back three times; but Triton-Man overtook him every time, and killed him." — "And how is Eme'mqut going to get his wife back?" asked the child. "If I were to tell Eme'mqut how to get her, he would be able to take her back," answered the old woman.

         Eme'mqut looked under the stone-pine-bush and saw a hole leading into an underground house. He descended, and found old Spider-Woman and her grand-daughter, who lived there.

         The old woman served Eme'mqut with food, but Eme'mqut did not touch it. He  only said to her,   "You just told your grand-daughter that you could tell Eme'mqut how to get his wife back from Triton-Man.     I am Eme'mqut, will you tell   me?"     Spider-Woman   replied,  "Go to Triton-Man, but do not take your wife.     First you must take the box which stands in a corner of the tent.     In this box lies the heart of Triton-Man.     Take this out of the box and carry it away." Eme'mqut   left with the  old woman  the  reindeer that he  had  killed,  and ran home.     Big-Raven  was lying there ;  but,  on  seeing Eme'mqut,  he sat up, and asked him,  "Why are you so cheerful?     You must have some good news." Eme'mqut   replied,   "Spider-Woman  has told  me how to kill  Triton-Man,  and how to get my wife back." — "Then try once more," said Big-Raven.     Eme'm- qut arrived at Triton-Man's camp,  entered the tent,  took the box that was in the   corner,   took   Triton-Man's   heart   out  of it,  and carried it home.     When he reached home, he started a great fire, and threw the heart into it.     When it   began   to   burn,   Triton-Man,   who   at the time was out with his herd,  felt very sick;  and when the heart was burnt up,  he died. 

         Then Eme'mqut went to take his wife back home.     After that, they lived quietly with Big-Raven.

Told by Ka'mak, a Maritime Koryak man, in the village
of Mikino, Jan. 10, 1901.