Sedge-Man's Daughters


The Dogs of Creator


Eme'mqut in Search of his Brother


Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and the Cloud People


Eme'mqut and Grass-Woman


Big-Raven's War with the Chukchee


Creator, Miti', and their Dogs


Eme'mqut's Wife abducted by a Kala


How Universe makes Rain


Little-Bird-Man and Raven-Man


Camps on the  Topolovka, Kilimadja,  Chaibuga, and Avekova Rivers.  

I.  Sedge-Man's Daughters.

         Yine'a-ne'ut and Can'a'i-fia'ut lived alone in the wilderness. Their mother used to carry food to them. They never saw their father's house : they were quite young when they were taken to the wilderness. They only knew their mother. All they knew of their father and their brothers was what their mother had told them.

         One day Eme'mqut went out into the wilderness. Suddenly he noticed a house. Two girls, Sedge Man's (Velaute'mtila'n) daughters, were living there. The younger sister came out, and said to Eme'mqut, "Let us have a shooting-match, and try to hit each other." "I have not come here to shoot at you," replied Eme'mqut. "I went out into the wilderness, and came upon your house by chance." She said, "Go home and get your bow. People don't come to us without purpose. Whoever comes has to have a shooting-contest with us."

         Eme'mqut went home, and took Illa' and Big-Light (Oeskin'a'qu) along. "Come on!" he said to them. "There are two girls who wish to have a shooting-game."

        The three of them went. They arrived at the house of the girls, and the contest began. Both sides used up their arrows, and not one was killed on either side. Then the elder sister said to the younger, "Get the arrow with the mouth." She got the arrow. The older sister shot it, and the arrow pierced the three men at once. Then the elder sister said, "Come, let us now put an end to all their relatives, that they may not come to us also." They went and killed Creator (Tenanto'mwan), his wife, and all their relatives. Then they returned home.

         Yine'a-ne'ut and Can'a'i-na'ut were sitting in their hut, waiting for their mother; but she never came. The girls were starving, but did not know where to go and find out about their parents.

         One day, while Yine'a-ne'ut was sitting in her hut, an earth-spider crawled from her forehead down to her chest. She took hold of it, threw it on the ground, and said, " Have you no other place to crawl about ?" As soon as the spider fell on the ground, it turned into an old woman, who said to Yifie'a-




ne'ut   "I have come with  news for you, and you throw me to the ground." "Why   did   you   come   crawling   upon   my   face,  and not in the proper way?" rejoined   Yiñe'a-ñe'ut.      The   old   woman   said   then,    "Sedge-Man's  daughters  killed   your   brothers,   your   father,   mother,   and   all   the   rest   of  your folks." Yiñe'a-ñe'ut   asked,   "How shall we live now?"     "Kill those girls,  and then bring  your people back to life; but first of all get their arrow that has a mouth."

         They accompanied the old woman.     First they went to their father's house, and found all the people killed.     On the following morning they started off to the  two sisters.    They arrived there when  the sisters were still asleep.    They entered   the  house, found the arrow, and concealed it.    Then they went outside   and   shouted,   "Girls,   come   out!      We  have   come   to have a shooting- match!"    The two sisters did not come out, but said,   "Girls, why should we fight?     Better   come   in:   let   us   live  together."     But Yiñe'a-ñe'ut said,   "You killed   our   brothers   and   parents. We   will   not live with you:  we will fight with you."

         Those girls came out of their house, and their shooting-match with Yiñe'a- ñe'ut and her sister began. They shot off all their arrows, but no one was killed on either side. The two girls said, " Girls, let us stop shooting: let us
live together." "No," replied Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, "we will not stop now; let us finish first." Then those girls said, "Let us have a contest in shamanistic skill." The elder of the two girls pronounced an incantation, and the sea rose, and flooded the earth. Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and her sister had snowshoes on, and they were raised up with the water; but the two girls were drowning. 

         The elder one ceased her incantation, and the waters receded. Then Yiñe'a-ñe'ut began in her turn. A storm broke out, and the snow drifted, and covered up the girls. They implored her, saying, "Stop; let us live together." Yiñe'a-ñe'ut caused the storm to stop; but she said to the girls, "I will not live with you. I want to finish our combat: let us fight again." She ordered Caira'i-ña'ut to get the arrow with the mouth. "Get it quick!" she said. "It is time to put an end to them, else they will keep annoying us for a long while." Yiñe'a- ñe'ut took the arrow and bewitched it, saying, "Just as you used to serve them, serve me: pass through  one,  and enter into  the other."

         The arrow went flying, and killed both sisters at once. Then Yiñe'a-ñe'ut revived her brothers. When they arose, Eme'mqut asked, "And where are those girls?" Yiñe'a-ñe'ut replied, "You were unable to master these women,
and I killed them." "Bring them also back to life," Eme'mqut said. Yiñe'a- ñe'ut revived the girls, and Eme'mqut married the elder one, who said to him, "Why have you married me? My brothers will come and kill you and me." Yine'a-ñe'ut went home, and restored all her people to life. Can-a'i-ña'ut remained with her brothers.

         Then they went to visit his wife's father. As soon as her brothers saw Eme'mqut,  they killed him ; but Yiñe'a-ñe'ut came at night,  and revived him.




On   the following morning his wife's brothers said,   "It seems to be impossible to kill him."

         After that they lived in peace, and called on each other.    That's all (o'pta).

Told by  Ty'kken, a Reindeer Koryak woman, in camp

on Avekova River, June, 1901.

2.  The Dogs of Creator.

         Once upon a time Eme'mqut went with his folks and his guests to participate in reindeer-races. Only the Dogs were left at home. After the departure of their masters, the Dogs arranged a feast. They brought a leather bag filled with seal-fat into the house, put on fur coats in which dead people are burned, and beat the drum. They dipped the drum- stick into seal-oil, and poured seal-oil over all the fur coats. They cooked some seal-meat, and put it on a wooden platter. The Dogs said to one another, "Let some one divide the meat evenly." But a little Puppy that was among them said, "No, let us rather rush upon the meat all at the same time: let every one get as much as he can take hold of." The Dogs did so. They threw themselves upon the platter. Of course, the big Dogs took the largest part, and the little Puppy got a very small share. The Puppy went outside and sat down in front of the house, while the rest of the Dogs still continued beating the drum. Suddenly the Puppy noticed that his masters came driving back. He howled in order to warn his comrades; but the other Dogs did not believe the Puppy, and con-tinued beating the drum. Thus their masters found them in the house. They threw them out of the house. The Dogs grew angry, and ran away into the wilderness.

         Creator (Tenanto'mwan) said to Eme'mqut, "Go with your wife to look for the Dogs." They drove off on reindeer-sledges. A violent gale with drifting snow broke out. Eme'mqut and his wife lost their way, and came to the house of a kala. Eme'mqut's wife said, "I will go and see who lives there." She climbed up on the underground house, looked into the opening, and saw an old man on the crown of whose head were two lakes with two ducks swimming in them. She went down from the house, and said to her husband, "We have come to the house of a kala. The old man has two lakes on his head, with two  ducks swimming in them."

         Suddenly the bear-dog commenced to bark. The old man's sons looked out from the house, and, seeing Eme'mqut and his wife, they said, "Food has come to us of its own accord." "What kind of food?" said Eme'mqut's wife. "I  am yoir sister." The young men ran to their father, and said, "The newly-arrived woman says that she is our sister." The old kala said to his sons,  "Go and ask her who her father is."    They went and asked her.     She



replied,   "My father has two lakes on his head, with ducks swimming in them." The   kala's   sons   reported   her  reply:   and,   after having thought for a while, the old man said,   "Oh !   I remember now.     I  was once  eating some marrow, then   I   put   it   away   for   a   while;   and   when   I wished to take it again, the marrow was gone.     That marrow must have become a daughter of mine.     Go out  and   tell   them   to   come in."     Eme'mqut  and his wife entered the house. The   kalau   set  human   flesh before them.    The woman said to the old man, "Your   son-in-law   does   not   eat   human   flesh:  give him some reindeer-meat." They   cooked some meat for him,  and she made believe that she was eating human flesh; but,  as a matter of fact, she did not put it into her mouth, but into her sleeve.    Thus they staid at the kala's house for two days.    Then the gale ceased, and they drove home.     That's all.

Told by Ty'kken, a Reindeer Koryak woman, in camp
on Avekova River, June, 1901.

3. Eme'mqut in Search of his Brother.      

         Creator (Tenanto'mwan) lived in affluence. He had a large herd of reindeer. His sons, Eme'mqut and Big-Light (Oeskin- a'qu), always staid in the pasture-ground. They would come home only in the daytime, and at night they would go back to watch the reindeer. One morning Eme'mqut woke up among the herd, and discovered that his brother was not there. He looked for him among the reindeer, but did not find him, and thought that he must have gone home alone. He went home and said to his folks, " Has brother been here?"    They replied,  "He left last night, and we have not seen him since."

         Eme'mqut travelled all over the country, making inquiries, but could not get any information about his brother. When he was returning home, he noticed a small house in the wilderness. He entered, and found an elderly
woman in the house. She asked Eme'mqut, "Why did you come here? No one ever comes to me." "I am driving all over the country, looking for my brother. Thus I happened to come upon your place." "You will not find him," she said. "If you will not betray me, I will tell you where your brother has been taken to." "I will not tell on you," Eme'mqut answered. "The kalau have killed your brother, and carried him off to the other side of the sea, to their settlement (kala'-ne'myican). My brothers live there too; but I have been carried into the wilderness, that I should not tell any one that your brother had been killed. When you go there, take along some bracelets and needle-cases as presents for the girls. They will then tell you just where your brother is."

         Then Eme'mqut went home. His father met him, and said, 'You must have discovered something,  since  you have been away such a long time."

I 29


"Yes" he replied, "I have been told that the kalau killed my brother."fasteer said, "Don't go to look for him. He was killed, that cannot be helped. Thev will  kill you too." "Let them kill me," Eme'mqut replied. "If they have killed my brother,  let them kill me too."

         Eme'mqut took long walks in the wilderness, and climbed mountains, in order to develop his strength. He would carry huge stones on his shoulders until he became exhausted; he would support heavy weights on his outstretched arms;  he would pull up trees, and break tree-trunks with his fists. Then he said   "I am a strong man :  now  I will go to the kalau."

         He made some bracelets and needle-cases, and started. On his way he stopped at the house of the woman who had given him information before, to inquire about the trail. She said to him, "Don't go! They will kill you." "I shall go, anyway. Tell me the way," he said. Then the woman said, "Go straight ahead. Soon you will see some old human bones; then you will pass some fresh human bones; then you will drive over the bodies of people who were killed long ago, finally over bodies of people just killed; then you will see the village in which my brothers live; and beyond that is the village of the kalau."

         Eme'mqut went. Soon he saw piles of old human bones, then there were fresh bones on the trail, then decaying bodies of people; finally he saw the fresh bodies of people recently killed. At last he saw a settlement. Seeing that Eme'mqut was driving up to them, the old men from the settlement said to their sons, "Somebody is coming! Let us have a ball-game, boys, to meet the guest." They began to play. Eme'mqut arrived, and joined the game, and none of them was able to match him. Then they stopped playing. The old men asked him, "What have you come here for?" "I am looking for my lost brother," he answered. "Nobody has ever come here: he is not here," the old men said. They entered the house, and gave Eme'mqut to eat. When they were about to go to bed, Eme'mqut went out. Then he overheard a conversation between two girls, who did not notice his presence. One of them said, "Eme'mqut has come to-day, and the kalau are going to kill  him to-morrow."

         Eme'mqut went up to the girls, gave them bracelets and needle-cases, and asked them about his brother. "It is true," they said, "the kalau killed your brother, and carried him away to their settlement." Eme'mqut returned to the house and went to bed. When he arose in the morning, the old men said to him,   "The kalau are coming.     They will kill you."

         The kalau arrived, and began to play with the people. One of the old men said to Eme'mqut, "Let me hide you in my belt, that they may not kill you." The old man concealed him in his belt, and began to fight with the kalau. When the kalau struck a man over his head, his skull broke to pieces. Suddenly   Eme'mqut freed himself from the old  man's belt,  and joined in the




fjght.  He hit the kalau over their heads; and as soon as he struck at a head it would fly off". Thus he killed all the kalau. Then he said to the people of the settlement, "Come on to their village. Let us put an end to them : otherwise their children will grow up, and will kill people." They went and killed all the women and  children with  their clubs.

         Eme'mqut said to the old people, "Take all their things, and I will only take my brother." He soon found his brother's flayed body. His skin was spread over a bed, like a reindeer-skin. He took the skin along, and drove away.

         Eme'mqut looked for a shaman to revive his brother. He was unable to find one for a long time. Finally he found Broad-soled-One's (Umya'ilhin)l daughter. "I will try to revive a wild reindeer from one of its vertebra;," she said, "and then I will restore your brother to life." She began her incantations over the vertebra, and suddenly a wild reindeer got up and ran away. "Now," she said, "I know that I shall be able to revive your brother too."
Eme'mqut took her home. There they spread a white reindeer-skin, put Big- Light's skin on it, and covered it with another reindeer-skin. Broad-soled-One's daughter began her incantations. First, two legs appeared from under the skin, then arms, then a head was thrust out, then the skin cover began to rise. Finally Big-Light arose. They poured blood of a freshly slaughtered reindeer over his head, then he was given the marrow to taste, and they asked him, "Do you taste the marrow?" "No," he replied, "it is just like a piece of wood." Then they poured more reindeer-blood over his head, and again gave him some marrow to taste. "Well, do you taste it now?" "Yes," he said, "the marrow tastes just as sweet to me as it used to be when I was watching" the reindeer-herd."

         Thus Big-Light was completely restored to life. He married the shaman girl, and they lived comfortably.    That's all.

Told by Ty'kken, a Reindeer Koryak woman, in camp
on Avekova River, June, 1901.

4.  Yiñe'a-ñe'ut and the  Cloud  People.

         It was at the time when Creator (Tenanto'mwan) lived. His son Eme'mqut nce said to his sister Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, "Let us go and hunt wild reindeer." While they were preparing to go, Miti' said to her daughter, "Here, take this dog- skin. When your brother starts from your camp to go hunting, and leaves you alone in the tent, let him throw this skin over you. Then you will turn into a dog. Then the young men who may happen to come up to your place during your brother's absence will  not want to  marry you."

1 A name of the wolf used in tales (see p. 89).



         Eme'mqut and his sister left and went hunting.    They put up a tent and tried down there.     Every time, before Eme'mqut left the tent, he would put the dos skin over Yine'a-ne'ut,  and she would be transformed into a dog.

         Once Eme'mqut, after having killed a reindeer, met Envious-One (Nipa'i-vaticnin), who was also out hunting. Envious-One said to Eme'mqut, "We go out hunting, and are unable to procure any wild reindeer, while you always succeed in killing some." "If you are unable to get them yourselves, you may take some of my meat," replied Eme'mqut. Envious-One said, "I will go  with you to your tent, and will take the meat from there." They went. Envious-One entered Eme'mqut's tent, and, seeing the dog, he said, "What a nice dog you have!" But Eme'mqut only said, "What is the use of looking at the dog?    Better eat, and take some meat home."

         Envious-One ate, put some meat into his bag, and carried it home. At home he said, "We are unable to kill any wild reindeer, but Eme'mqut kills them.    He has also a fine dog at home."

         Envious-One got up the next morning, and went to Eme'mqut's tent while the latter was away. The dog was tied to a post. He played with it, took off all his clothes, and kept on fooling with the dog. Suddenly it broke loose, and ran away.

        The dog ran and ran until it was exhausted. Then it stopped, took off its skin, and became Yine'a-ne'ut again. She looked, and noticed that the place around her was strange to her. She went farther, and soon came up to a tent. She entered, and found there a girl by the name of Cloud-Woman (Ya'hal-na'ut). Cloud-Woman asked her, "Where are you going?" Yine'a-ne'ut replied, "I was turned into a dog. Envious-One came and played with me; but I did not care for him, so I broke loose and ran away." Cloud-Woman said, "Well, let us live here together. Some people are serving for me at home; and my brothers have placed me here while the people are serving there."    Thus the two girls settled down together.

         Eme'mqut came back from his hunt, and found only a remnant of the strap. The dog was not there. "Envious-One must have been here, and must have tried to play with her, so she broke loose and ran away," thought Eme'mqut. He went home and told his father that his sister had run away, apparently to escape Envious-One, who must have been in the tent during his absence. To this Creator replied, "It is hard to look for her now, during the summer.    Wait until winter comes, then you  may look for your sister."

         Summer passed away; and as soon as snow had fallen, Eme'mqut began to drive about to all the camps of the Reindeer people, but he could not find his sister anywhere.

         One day when Yine'a-ne'ut and Cloud-Woman were sitting in their house, a violent storm broke out; but, instead of snow, reindeer-hair was falling down. Cloud-Woman   said   to   Yine'a-ne'ut,   "Hide   yourself.     It is  my younger sister



who   is   coming.      If  she   sees  you,  she will  tell brother about you when she gets   home.     He   will   marry   you,   and  I  shall again be alone."     Yiñe'a-ñe'ut hid   herself.     Cloud-Woman's   sister came.     Cloud-Woman said to  her,   "Why have you come so  early?"     Her younger sister replied,   "Why don't you love me any more?    Heretofore you  used to  say all  the time, 'Stay with me, stay with   me!' and  now you  don't want me to come.     It seems that you have a friend   here."    "How  can any one be here?" replied Cloud-Woman.     "You always   come  just   for   a   short   time,   and just unsettle me.     I feel still more lonesome   afterwards,   when  I  am   left alone.     I feel much better if I  am left alone   altogether."     Her   younger   sister   went   home and said to her mother, "There seems to be some one with  sister.     Heretofore, when I used to go to her,   she   would   beg   me   to  stay,  and now she chases me away."    "Why, who   can   be with her?" said  her mother.     "I suppose that she wants you to return to me soon to  help  me around the house."

         After a long time had passed, Cloud-Woman's sister came to visit her again. Again she came preceded by a violent storm of reindeer-hair. As before, Cloud-Woman asked Yiñe'a-ñe'ut to hide herself. She did so, but in her hurry forgot to hide the work on which she was engaged. Cloud-Woman's sister came, and said, "I told you that there must be some one with you here. Here she has left her sewing." "Who should be here with me?" replied the older sister. "This is my work. I am working on two pieces at once. When I get tired of one, I take up the other." "No," replied the younger sister, "I know your work. You don't embroider as well as this. These are fine stitches, while yours are large and far apart." The younger sister staid there a little while, and went home. She went to her mother, and said, "Surely some one is stopping with sister. I saw some very fine and close sewing there. Sister cannot embroider so well." But her mother said, "Perhaps it is just as your sister has told you. She makes fine stitches until she begins to feel lonely, and then, when she gets tired, she begins to make her stitches far apart."

         In a few days Cloud-Woman's sister came to her suddenly, without being preceded by a storm, and there she found Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. "Well, sister," she said, "was I not right when I said that you had a friend?" "Yes, that is true," Cloud-Woman answered, "but don't tell at home that you have seen my friend here with me." "I am not going to tell," said her sister. The three girls spent the whole day together. When it became dark, the younger sister went home. Before, she had left, her elder sister warned her again, saying, "Don't tell anything at home, else they will take away my friend from me, and I shall again remain alone.     Now you may come here every day."

         When the younger sister arrived in the settlement of the Cloud people, her mother asked her, "Why did you stay so long with your sister?" "Because I found a girl at her house.     She tried to hide her from me.     She says that



she  is Creator's daughter."     Her mother said to her,  "Don't tell your brothers about it."   "No, I won't," the girl  replied.

         Soon her brothers came. The girl said to her mother, "Cover me up with something. I have a very strong desire to tell my brothers about Yifie'a-ne'ut" Her mother covered her over; but soon the girl came out from her hiding-place, and said, "Mother, I will tell them." Her brothers heard it, and questioned her. Then she told them what she had seen. She said, "Creator's daughter is stopping with our elder sister, but she asked me not to let you know about it."

         When all had gone to bed, the oldest of the brothers, Cloud-Man (Ya'hala'n), descended into his elder sister's house, awakened Yine'a-ne'ut, and inquired where she had come from. Cloud-Woman awoke, and asked him what he had come for. He replied, "I want to marry your friend, and take her up to our settlement, together with you, so that you may not be left alone any more."    Cloud-Man took the two girls and carried them up.

         Down on earth Eme'mqut had visited all the villages and camps, and could not find his sister anywhere. Finally he ascended to the village of the Cloud people, to the place whence clouds descend to the earth. When he arrived, he was invited to a ball-game. They played a football-match, and no one was able to match him in power, or skill in handling the ball. " Stop playing," said old Cloud-Man to his sons,   "you are unable to  overcome the visitor."

        Eme'mqut   stopped   outside   to   look   at   the   reindeer-herd.    Suddenly he noticed  that   the   herd   began   to   decrease   in   size,   then   it   increased   again, contracting   and   expanding   like   clouds.     He looked at the tent, and it also contracted and expanded.    He went inside, and saw that the kettles over the fireplace also contracted and expanded continually, like clouds.    He asked his sister  whether   she  liked   the   country.     She   answered,   "At   first   everything appeared to me as it does to you now; but soon I became accustomed to the country, and things don't appear to be now increasing in size, now decreasing."

         On   the  following morning, Eme'mqut went down from the Cloud settlement   and   returned   home.      His   father   and  mother asked him,   "Well, have you found your sister?"   "Yes,  I have," he replied.     "Is she getting along well   there?"   asked   Creator.      "She   says that she is getting along well;  but everything   in   her   country   is   continually   changing   its size,"   said  Eme'mqut. "That is the way of the  Walking-Cloud-Men (llyuyine'mtila'nu)," said Creator. "No, she will not like it there.     I will cause her to come down to the earth."

         Creator took an old bear-skin, and beat it with a stick. At once a violent wind-storm broke out, with a heavy fall of snow. It drove the moving clouds, and tore out Yine'a-ne'ut from among them. She fell down to earth, and happened to strike the house of two kalat,1 two cousins. One of them hunted human   beings; the other one, wild reindeer.     The latter said to his cannibal

1 Kalat is the dual form of kala (pl. kalau).



cousin,   "Go and see what it was that knocked against the roof of our house." He   went,   saw   the   girl   lying   there,   and at once began to  lap  her with his tongue.     He intended  to eat her up, and did not return to the house for quite a   while.     Then   his cousin, whose  name was Evi'kala'n,  went out,  looked at the   girl,   and pushed  away the cannibal,  saying,   "Don't touch  her.     We will rather both of us marry her."     The  cannibal consented.     They brought Yiñe'a- ñe'ut to her senses,  and lived with her.     But the cannibal still desired to eat her.     Every   time   the   three went to bed, he would attempt to lap her; but Evi'kala'n always restrained him.

         One day the two cousins went away hunting. Before leaving, Evi'kala'n said to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut, "Each of us has a mother, and both are cannibal women. If they should come here during our absence, hide yourself, else they will eat you."

         They went away. After they had left, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went out, and heard the voices of women. One of them said, "If my son has killed a man, he surely will have left some flesh for me." "My son does not eat any human flesh," said the other, "and I shall find nothing." "I will divide with you if I find any human flesh."

         Yiñe'a-ñe'ut went into the house. There was a large stone in the house. She entered it, and hid in it. When the women entered the house, they said, "It smells of a human being here." They searched everywhere, and the scent led them to the stone. They bit it, but were unable to bite through. Finally they left and returned home.

         When her husbands came, Yiñe'a-ñe'ut told them that their mothers had been there, and had come pretty near eating her. Evi'kala'n said to his cousin, "Go and bring some reindeer. We will drive our wife to our mothers'. We will let them know that she is our wife." The cannibal brought the reindeer; and the two cousins took their wife to their mothers, and said to them, "This is our wife." "Then she must have been in the stone," they said. "Had we known that, we should not have touched her:  it is a shame to eat one's own daughter-in-law." They staid with their mothers. Soon a son was born to Yiñe'a-ñe'ut. She said to Evi'kala'n, "If it were not that my other husband is a cannibal, I should have asked you to take me to my father's village; but I am afraid that he may eat some one there." "Let us go," said Evi'kala'n. "If cousin should touch any one there, I will kill him. I will cause him to die a cruel death."

         They started off. When they arrived at Creator's house, the cannibal went up to all the people to lap them; but Evi'kala'n restrained him. At night, when every one had gone to bed, Creator heard some one approaching stealthily. It was the cannibal. Creator ordered him to go to bed, and not to touch people.

         On   the   next   day   Creator   prepared a seal-stomach; and at night,  after



all   had   gone   to sleep,  he caused the cannibal to fall sound asleep, then he open   his   belly,   took   out  his cannibal- stomach,  and put the seal-stomach in its place.

         On the following day the cannibal arose with the rest of the people. He ceased to throw himself upon people, and stopped eating human flesh. "Now" said  Creator to his daughter's husbands,   "you may call on me often."

         Thus they lived: they would go home, and then again go visiting Creator. That's all.

Told by a Reindeer Koryak, in camp on Avekova River, 

June, 1901.

5.   Eme'mqut and  Grass-Woman.

         It was at the time when Big-Raven (Ouikinn'a'qu) lived. His son Eme'mqut was making snowshoes for himself. When he had finished them, he said, "I am going to try my snowshoes." He put them on and went up the river. Suddenly he noticed two underground houses. The old Root-Man (Tatqa'hicnin) was outside, planing a sledge-runner with an adze. Seeing Eme'mqut, he said, "Ehe! a guest has come! let us go into the house." They went. The old man ran ahead, and said to his daughters, "Wash yourselves. A guest has come, and he will laugh at you because you are so dirty." At once the girls set about washing themselves, and in the mean time Eme'mqut entered. Some of the girls had time to wash only half of their face. Eme'mqut sat down. Root-Man's wife said to her daughter, Grass-Woman (Ve"ai), "Go and fetch some dried fish for the visitor." Eme'mqut only looked at Grass-Woman, when he fell in love with her. He tried to woo her then and there. He served Root-Man for Grass-Woman, but he could not take her. Her father was willing, but she resisted. Whenever Eme'mqut attempted to take her, she would run away.

          Eme'mqut's father thought at home, "Where may Eme'mqut have gone to? He went out for a little while, and has not come back." Eme'mqut was still serving and working for Grass-Woman, but could not get her. Then he went home for a time. When he got home, his father asked him, "Where have you been all this time, Eme'mqut?" He replied, "I have been working at Root-Man's for Grass-Woman, but I cannot get her. She does not let me take her. Big-Raven said, "Whom shall I send to get the bride?" Kilu' offered her services, saying, "I will go. Sew me up in a bear-skin." They undressed her, cooked some fish-glue, and glued a bear-skin to her body. They glued a seal-stomach filled with blood to her in place of a tail. She was also given an iron crutch. Kilu' started off to Root-Man's house. She got upon the roof of the underground house, knocked with her crutch over the ladder,   and   it   broke  in  two.     She shouted into the house,   " Hei!  where are



you?"    Root-Man replied,  "Here we are!     Come in."     Kïlu' entered, and said, "And where is Grass-Woman ?    She did not wish to marry Eme'mqut, because she   wanted   me   to   come  and get her."     Kïlu' broke all the chamber-vessels with her crutch,  and said,   "If you  don't give  me  Grass-Woman,  I will break your   heads  just   as   I  have  broken  these vessels."     The seal-stomach  thawed off in   the   house,   and   the   blood   commenced to  run from  it.     They said to Kïlu',   "What   is   it   that   is   running from  your tail?"    "Quick,  quick!  give me   Grass-Woman.     The blood is running from  my tail, because  I have such a   strong  desire   to have Grass-Woman.     Let me have her quick, and I will go home."    Grass-Woman was given to her.     Kïlu' took her home, and gave her   to   Eme'mqut.     Eme'mqut   married  Grass-Woman because she ceased to resist him.

         They tried to take off the bear-skin from Kïlu', but were unable to do so. Then they cut it off with a knife, and took it off with pieces of Kïlu"s flesh hanging to it. Her entire vulva was torn off with the skin. Kïlu' cried from pain. Then Big-Raven said to his sister Xe'llu, Kílu"s mother, "Cure Kïlu'." Xe'llu sang her incantations over her, and all the wounds healed up, only the torn vulva did not grow up again. Kïlu' said to Eme'mqut, "You have a good time with your wife now, and I am left without a vulva." "Never mind,  you will get along without it.     At least,  you  have no pain  now."

         Once Eme'mqut said to his wife, "I will take you over to your parents.    They must be thinking that Bear-Man (Keiñi'mtila'n) has taken you away, and married you." They drove to Root-Man's. When the latter saw  Eme'mqut, he asked, "And where is Bear-Man?" "That was not a man," Eme'mqut replied, "but my cousin Kílu'. She carried away Grass-Woman for my sake." Eme'mqut remained with his father-in-law until spring, and then he returned home to his father's. Thus they lived ; and Kïlu' remained without a vulva. That's all.

Told by Ty'kken, a Reindeer Koryak woman, in camp
on Avekova River, June,  1901.

6.  Big-Raven's  War with  the  Chukchee.

         Big-Raven (Ouikinn-a'qu) and his son Eme'mqut lived by themselves. Great-Cold (Mai'ñi-ca'ican 1), Kïlu's father, lived with them. There were many empty underground houses near by. Eme'mqut would ask his father, "To whom do these empty underground houses belong? Where did their inhabitants go to?" Big-Raven would tell him, "When I was a little boy, and just com- menced to understand things, these houses were standing empty here." Thus Eme'mqut was unable to find out what kind of people had been living there.

1 Also Caüan-a'qu.

I 37


         Eme'mqut began to go out hunting. When the new moon gave sufficient light so that the night was not quite dark, he would return late. Once he did not come back for a long time. Creator (Tenanto'mwan)1  said to Great-Cold "While Eme'mqut is away, let us warm our wounds at the fire. He always asks me to whom the empty houses belonged." They took off their fur coats and warmed themselves at the fire. Meanwhile Eme'mqut came back from hunting. He looked into the house, and noticed that the old men were all covered with wounds, apparently caused by arrows. He descended into the house, and asked his father, "Who has wounded you?" Then the old men replied, "It is nothing. We were ill, and the wounds have remained." "No, you lie," said Eme'mqut:   "these wounds are from  arrows."

         "You are right," replied Creator. "They are caused by arrows. There were many people around here. The Chukchee killed all of them. This is the reason that there are so many empty houses here. However, they were unable to kill  us two; but our wounds have not  healed up yet."

         They went to bed; but Eme'mqut could not sleep, he kept thinking of the Chukchee. He got up and went outside, put on his snowshoes, and started up the river. Thus he walked until morning, and then until the following evening. Finally he saw the Chukchee camps. They had fire in their tents. He turned into a fog, looked into one of the tents, and watched the people. Two old men were warming themselves near the fire, and their sons were sitting on one side. The oldest one, a red-faced man, was sharpening his axe. He said to his brothers, "Why don't you grind your axes? People will go wood-cutting to-morrow, and your axes are dull, and you will cut less than the others." The old men who were warming themselves at the fire talked among themselves. One of them said, "My old wounds are beginning to itch." Their sons asked the old men, "Do you know why they are itching?" The old men said, " In olden times, wounds would itch before a battle: we don't know what it may mean now." Then their sons asked the old men again, "Did you ever make war against any one?" They replied, "Yes, we did. This is the reason that there is only one house left there down the river. We made war against them. Now, you have grown up, and Big-Raven's children have grown up."

         Eme'mqut heard it all. He waited until all had gone to bed, entered the tent, took an axe, and cut off the head of the man who had been sharpening his axe before. Then he took the head, went home, set it on a pole, and put it out in front of the house. Then he re-entered the house and went to bed. In the morning, when the people got up and went outside, they asked, seeing the head, "Who could have put up such a handsome head here? It must have been a strong man." Big-Raven replied, "Who else but Eme'mqut could   have   done   it?"     Big-Raven  wakened Eme'mqut, and asked him,   "Did

1 Creator and Big-Raven are one and the same person (see p.   17).




you kill any one?" "Yes, I did," he answered. "Why did you kill him?" cried the people. "Now they will kill us all." "Let them kill us," said Eme'mqut. "They have killed all our people, and we do not enjoy living in loneliness."

         Thus they awaited the arrival  of the  Chukchee.

        In the Chukchee tent the father of the killed man woke up at night, and said to his wife, "Give me some water to drink." She replied, "Take it your- self. The pail of water is not far from you." He stretched out his hand, and touched a pool of blood. "Why, the floor is wet," he said. "The water must have spilled over." Then he found the pail with his hand, and noticed that it was full of water. He lighted the lamp, and beheld his son lying there without a head. His wife said, "You said last night that there was just one house left now in Big-Raven's village, and that you had killed all the rest of the people there. Eme'mqut must have kept in hiding here, and heard every- thing. It must have been he who has killed our son." Then the father of the killed one said,   "Come on!  let us go and  kill them  all."

         At night all the Chukchee got ready, armed themselves, and started off. They were expected at Big-Raven's house, and Kïlu' would go out every once in a while to see if they were coming. Suddenly she entered, and said, "Many sledges are coming." The women took berries, roots, meat, and fat from the storehouse, saying, "Let us eat our supplies while we are alive." Suddenly they heard the voice of the old Chukchee: "Well, Creator, you have not taught your son that he must not kill people. Now come out: we will kill you all." Creator said to Eme'mqut, "You did not mind me. Go out alone. Let them kill you first,  then  perhaps they  may spare the  others."

         When Eme'mqut got ready to go out, Big-Raven offered his son a suit of iron armor; but Eme'mqut refused to take it. "I will go just as I am," he said. He took just his lance, and ran up to the roof of the house. Then in haste he descended to the ground, not by the ladder, but by sliding down a house-post. The Chukchee rushed at him with their lances; but he dis- appeared under the ground, and the Chukchee just thrust their lances into the ground. Then the Chukchee fell down, one after another. Eme'mqut thrust out his lance from under the ground here and there, and thus killed off all the Chukchee. Then he came out from under the ground, and climbed up
on the roof of the underground house. When the people inside heard some one on the house, they said, "Now, they are coming to kill us!" but suddenly they heard Eme'mqut's voice, saying, "Come out, Kïlu', and take off the nice clothes from the killed people!" She went out and took off the clothes of the Chukchee.

         Then Eme'mqut said, "Let us go to their camp and kill their women and children. If we leave them alive, the sons of the killed men will make war upon us when they grow up.     Let us put an  end to them all."

 I 39


         Eme'mqut, Illa', and Big-Light (Qeskin'a'qu) started off to the Chukchee camp and with their clubs killed all the women and children. They gave the reindeer of the Chukchee to Illa', for he was a poor man and had no reindeer of his own.     They drove the herd home.

         After that Big-Raven lived comfortably, and no longer feared the Chuk-chee.    That's all.

Told by Ty'kken, a Reindeer Koryak woman, in camp

on Avekova River, June, 1901.

7.   Creator,  Miti', and their Dogs.

         Creator (Tenanto'mwan) and his family lived by themselves. His son Eme'mqut, his daughter Yine'a-ne'ut, his nephew Illa', and his niece Kilu' were grown  up.

         Once Creator said, " Let the children marry among themselves, since there are no other people in the neighborhood. Let Eme'mqut take Kilu', and let Yine'a-ne'ut marry Illa'." Thereupon Eme'mqut and Illa' married their cousins. Then Creator said to Eme'mqut and Illa', "Go into the wilderness, hunt, and live for yourselves there; and Miti' and I will remain here."

         The young people moved away, and Creator staid far from the sea. He used to go hunting every morning. Once upon a time he said to his wife, "I am too lazy to go to the shore every day to hunt. I will move over to the sea, and you may stay at home. Cut off your vulva and make a little dog of it, so that it may be your comrade; and I will cut off my penis and also turn it into a little dog to run errands for me."

         Creator went to the sea.     After he had left,  Miti' cut off her vulva and turned it into a little bitch.     Creator came to the shore, and cut off his penis and turned it into a dog.     He said to the dog, "I  forgot to bring my harpoon-shaft.     Go   to Miti', and tell her to give it to you."    The little dog started, and   ran   to   Miti',   but could not say anything.     It only tried to creep under her fur coat.     At once she guessed that it was Creator's little dog.    She went to   her   husband   to   find   out what he wanted.     She asked him,   "Was it not your little dog that came running to me?"    "Yes, it was," replied Creator. "I sent him for my harpoon-shaft." "I could not make out what he wanted. He   simply  tried to creep under my coat.     You should have made a  talking dog   of  him,   the   way   I did with my little dog.     Then he would have been able to  carry out your orders."

         Then Creator endowed his dog with the faculty of speech. From now on he used to send him often to Miti' on errands, and he was able to carry out all his orders.

         Once Eme'mqut said to his wife, "Let us go and see how the old people




are."   They went.     They drove up to Creator's underground house, and noticed outside   a   chained   dog,   which   barked   at   them.     Kílu'   laughed at the dog. Then  Miti' came out, and said,  "Don't laugh.     Creator and I have grown old. We   needed   some   one   to   run errands for us: therefore  I  cut off my vulva; and  Creator,  his penis;  and  we  made talking dogs  of them,  and they run all our errands for  us."    Then Eme'mqut said,   "We will not leave the old folks alone any more.     Let  them go with  us."

         Creator and Miti' restored their dogs to their original shapes, and put them back in their places. Eme'mqut took his parents along, and went off with them into the wilderness.

         After some time a number of Reindeer people came to Eme'mqut. Among them was Envious-One (Nipai'vaticñin), with his wife Wild-Reindeer-Woman  (Elvi'-ña'ut). Envious-One said to Eme'mqut, "Let our wives try a contest. Let them pass water, and we shall see who will produce the longer stream." Eme'mqut agreed. Wild-Reindeer-Woman passed water first, and her stream reached out far; but Kílu' beat her. Then Envious-One said, "Now, let them show their shamanistic skill. Let us see which is the better shaman." Wild-Reindeer- Woman practised her art first, and wild reindeer and all kinds of beasts appeared. Then Kílu' beat the drum, and the sea began to fill the underground house. With it came many sea-animals. The water rose so high, that the people were almost drowned. Then Envious-One cried, "That is enough! It seems that Kílu' is a better shaman." She stopped beating the drum, and the water receded. The seals remained in the house, and were killed; and Eme'mqut gave a feast.    That's all.

Told by Kucä'ñin, a Reindeer Koryak woman, in camp
on Chaibuga River, April,  1901.

8. Eme'mqut's Wife abducted by a Kala.

         Eme'mqut married Grass-Woman (Ve'ai). She was a shaman. Once he said to his wife, "Let us go out into the wilderness." His wife replied, "No, don't let us go there. Misfortunes will befall us there." "Why so?" asked Eme'mqut. She replied, "Because I see a naked kala emerging from under the ground, through the fire in the hearth, and taking me for his wife." Eme'mqut only replied, "Never mind! let us go." They moved away. After they had gone some distance, they put up a tent. Eme'mqut went hunting, and Grass-Woman remained at home and prepared the meals. Once, when she was alone in the house with her son Yayi'leget and her little daughter, the kettle over the fire moved. She said to her children, "It is the kala coming to fetch me." Soon the naked kala emerged from the fire, took hold of Grass-Woman, and went back with her into the fire. He caused the children to forget where he dragged their mother.



         Eme'mqut returned from the hunt, and asked the children, "Where is your mother?" They replied, "A kala came, took her, and we don't know where he led her."     Eme'mqut looked  for her everywhere,  but could not find her.

         Once,   while on his way home from the hunt,  Eme'mqut lay down on a hill to take a rest.     Suddenly he heard the voice of the daughter of Ground-Spider   saying   to   her   mother,   "Tell   me   a story."    The old woman replied, What   shall   I   tell   you?     Somebody might be on our hill, and might listen to   us."    "Why,   who   would   care   to   listen?" said the daughter.     "Well,  I will tell you of Eme'mqut," said the old woman.     "He lost his wife.     A kala came from the other world and took her along, and Eme'mqut does not know where   she   is.     At   present   she   is   tied   to   a chain at the kala's house, and probably   she   is   naked   too."     Then  Eme'mqut said to  Ground-Spider,  "Tell me, where can I find her?"     Ground-Spider said to him,  * Throw this arrow into the fire of the hearth.     It will open a way for you to the kalau.     They sleep during the day; they don't sleep at night."

         Eme'mqut went home. He took the arrow, threw it into the fire, and a way opened before him to the lower world. On his arrival, he found all the kalau asleep. He took Grass-Woman, and went back with her through the hearth. Then he removed the arrow, the road closed up, and the fire burned again.

         Then he started with his wife and children for his father's home. In his house he left two talking dogs, and said to them, "In case the kala calls here, tell him that we have gone across the river. Tell him that we drank all the water, crossed the dry river-bed to the opposite bank, and then let the water out again."

         When Eme'mqut approached the river, he turned into a raven, and carried his wife and children across. The kala got up at night, and, not finding Grass-Woman, went in pursuit of her through the fire to Eme'mqut's house, and asked the dogs where Eme'mqut had gone. "Across the river," replied the talking dogs. "And how did they cross?" asked the kala. "Eme'mqut drank all the water of the river, walked across to the opposite bank, and poured it out again," said the dogs. When the kala came to the river, he began to drink the water. He drank and drank, until he burst. He could not drink all the water.

         Eme'mqut went back to Creator's (Tenanto'mwan) house, and never moved again. He took care of his wife, and would never let her leave the house. When he brought Grass-Woman back from the lower world, she was like one possessed, and longed for the wilderness. She gradually recovered her senses and her health.

         Then they lived together quietly.     That's all.

Told by Kuca'nin, a Reindeer Koryak woman, in camp

 on Chaibuga River, April, 1901.



9.   How Universe  makes Rain.1

         It was at the time when Big-Raven (Quikinn-a'qu) lived. At one time rain was pouring down continually. All of Big-Raven's belongings got wet: his clothes and provisions in the storehouse began to rot, and his underground house filled with water. Finally he said to his eldest son, Eme'mqut, " Universe2 (Ña'iñinen) must be doing something up there. It is not without cause that the rain pours down incessantly. Let us fly up to where the rain comes from, and see."

        They went out, put on their raven coats, and flew up. They came to Universe. While still outside, they heard the sound of a drum. They entered the house, and found Universe beating the drum, and his wife Rain-Woman (I'leña) sitting next to him. In order to produce rain, he cut off his wife's vulva, and hung it to the drum; then he cut off his penis and beat with it, instead of an ordinary drum-stick. When he beat the drum, the water squirted out of the vulva, which caused rain on earth. When Universe saw Big-Raven and his son enter, he stopped beating the drum, and put it away. The rain stopped at once.

         Then Big-Raven said to his son, "The rain has stopped: we may go now." Big-Raven went out to see what would happen next. As soon as they had gone outside, Universe began to beat the drum again, and the rain commenced to pour down as before.

         Big-Raven re-entered the house, Universe put away his drum, and the rain stopped. Big-Raven whispered to his son, "We will pretend to go; and, when they think we are gone, we will hide, and see what they are doing to cause the rain to pour down. Now we will really go home," said Big-Raven to Universe.     "It seems that there will be no more rain for some time to come."

         Big-Raven and Eme'mqut pretended to leave the house, and made it appear that they went through the entrance ; but they both turned into reindeer- hair, and lay down on the floor. Thereupon Universe said to his wife, " Hand me the drum : I will beat it again." She gave him the drum, and he began to beat it with his penis, and the rain again poured down out of the vulva upon the earth.

         Big-Raven said to his son, "I will make them fall asleep. You must watch where Universe puts the drum and stick." Suddenly Universe and Rain- Woman became very sleepy. He put the drum aside, and both fell sound asleep. Big-Raven took the drum, and noticed that Rain-Woman's vulva was attached to it; then he took the stick, and found out that it was Universe's penis.     Big-Raven   took   the drum  and  stick,  and roasted them  over the fire

1  This   tale is told in order to put a stop to a rain  or a snow storm        :   s  not supposed to be  told in
good weather.    The narrator did not know the end of this  tale.

2  One of the names of the Supreme Being (see p. 24).



until they were dry and crisp. Then he put them in their former places, and broke the sleeping-spell of Universe and his wife. They arose, and Universe began to beat the drum; but, the more he beat it, the finer the weather became. Finally there was not a single cloud left, and the sky cleared up entirely.     Universe and  his wife went to bed again.

         "Now, let us really go home. It has cleared up completely," said Big- Raven to his son. They flew away home. Clear weather set in, and fine days followed one after another; but they had no luck in their hunt. They could not procure anything, either sea-animals or reindeer. They were starving because Universe was sleeping. Finally Big-Raven said, "I will go back to Universe, and see what he is doing."

         He came to Universe and said to him, "We are having good weather now; but we are famine-stricken, we cannot procure any food." "It happens so because I don't look after my children," said Universe. "Go back home. From now on, you shall have success in your hunt: I will take care of you now." Big-Raven left. After his return, when his sons went hunting, they caught sea-animals and wild reindeer.

         Then Big-Raven pulled out from the ground the post to which the dogs are tied, and reindeer came out of the hole in the ground. A whole herd came out. Big-Raven sacrificed many reindeer to Universe, and after that he
had good luck on his hunt.    That's all.

Told by Kucã'ñin, a Reindeer Koryak woman, in camp
on Chaibuga River, April, 1901.

10.  Little-Bird-Man and Raven-Man.  

         Raven-Man  (Valva'mtila'n) said once to Little-Bird-Man (Pici'qala'n),  "Let us go to Creator's (Tenanto'mwan) to serve for his daughters."     Little-Bird-Man consented,  and they started off to go to Creator.     "What have you come for?" he asked them.     "We have come to serve here," they answered.     "Well, serve," he said.     Then he said to Miti',  "Let Little-Bird-Man serve at our house, and Raven-Man   at   sister's."    "No,"   replied   Miti',   "let Raven-Man serve here, and   Little-Bird-Man   there."     Raven-Man and Little-Bird-Man began to serve. A   violent   snowstorm   broke out,  which lasted several days.     Finally Creator said to the suitors,  "Look here, you, who always keep outside, stop the storm." Raven-Man   said,   "Help   me   get   ready   for   the  journey."    They  cooked all sorts   of food   for   him.      He   took his bag, went outside, stole into the dog- kennel,   and   ate   all   his   travelling-provisions.     When he had finished eating, he  returned   to   the  house, and said,   "I have been  unable to stop the snow- storm."    Creator said to Little -Bird- Man,   "Now it is your turn to go and try to put a stop to  the  storm.     The women shall cook supplies for your journey too."      Little-Bird-Man replied,  "I don't need anything.     I will go just as I am."



He   flew   away   to   his   sisters.     They asked  him,   "What did you come for?" He   answered,   "I  am serving at  Creator's for his niece,  and he has sent me to   stop   the   snowstorm."     Then   his  older sister knocked him  over the head, and stunned him.     Little-Bird-Man broke in two, and the real Little-Bird-Man came out from within.     His sisters brought him a kettle of lard and some shovels, and went with  him  to  the land of the sunrise.     There they covered up all the openings with snow,  caulked the cracks with fat,  and it stopped blowing.    It cleared up.     Little-Bird-Man went home with his sisters, caught some reindeer, and drove to  Creator's.     On  his way he ate some fly-agaric which his sisters had gathered, and became intoxicated.     He  arrived at Creator's,  and noticed that his entire house was covered with snow.     He shovelled off the snow, and shouted to his bride,  "Kïlu',  come out!  untie my fur cap."    The people came out of the house to  meet him,  and saw that it  had  cleared up. 

         Soon after that, Raven-Man and Little-Bird-Man married, and on that occasion ate some fly-agaric. Raven-Man said, "Give me more. I am strong, I can eat more." He ate much agaric, became intoxicated, and fell down on the ground. At the same time, Creator said, "Let us leave our under- ground house, and move away from here. The reindeer have eaten all the moss around  here."

         They called Raven-Man, but were unable to wake him. They struck his head against a stone, and it split, so that his brain fell out. Creator left him in that condition, saying to a post in the house, "When he recovers his senses, and calls his wife, you answer in her place."    Thereupon Creator wandered off.

         When Raven-Man came to, he cried, "Yiñe'a-ñe'ut!" The Post replied, "Here I am." "Have I become intoxicated with fly-agaric?" "Yes, with  fly-agaric," the Post replied. Then he noticed his brain, and asked, "Have you made a pudding for me?" "Yes, I have," the Post replied again. Raven-Man took his brain and ate it. Then he came to his senses. He felt of his head, and discovered that his skull was split, and that there was no
brain in it. "Whither shall I fly now?" he thought. He flew up to a mound and sat down. "My sister Mound," he said, "I have come to you. Give me something to eat." She replied, "I have nothing. All the birds sit here upon me, and they have eaten all the berris." "You are always stingy!" said Raven-Man. "I will fly to a place from which the snow has thawed off." He arrived at another place, and said, "Sister, give me some berries to eat."
"I have nothing," that place replied. "Every  bird sits here, and they have eaten everything." "You, too, are stingy," said Raven-Man. "I will go to the beach." He flew down there, and said, "Sister, give me something to eat." "Eat as much as you please," said the Beach. "I have plenty of seaweed."

        And  Raven-Man remained on  the seashore.     That's all.

Told by K.ucä'ñin, a Reindeer Koryak woman, in camp
on Chaibuga River, April, 1901.