Old-World Elements.                 363                                                           

 1.              Episodes of antlers, hoofs, reindeer, sledges, snowshoes, boats, houses, teeth, etc., of iron or silver

(pp. 145, 155, 163, 176, 201, 208, 222, 226, 251, 254, 281, 282).
Mongol-Turk. Episodes of objects and beings of iron, silver, and gold, occur very often.

2.  Episodes of bloody sacrifices (pp. 201, 202, 267, 279, 282, 283, 301).

Mongol-Turk. Bloody sacrifices occur often.

3.  Girls are placed in seclusion by their parents, that they may not be seen by suitors (pp. 125, 131,

176, 193, 198, 291, 302).

Mongol-Turk. Similar episodes occur in Khudyakoff's  Yakut Tales, p. 113.

Tungus. Episodes of like nature occur often in tales recorded by the author, to be pub-
lished later.

Ostyak. The Ostyak of former times placed in seclusion grown-up girls (Patkanov, The
Type of an Ostvak Hero according to the Ostyak Epic Tales and Heroic Stories, St. Petersburg,
1891, p. 50).

Slav. The Slav tribes had the same custom.

4.  Big-Raven's son, Bear's-Ear, goes into the wilderness, and meets two strong men, one carrying

forests, the other carrying mountains, whom he takes as companions.    The three overcome
a kala (p. 240).

Mongol-Turk. All episodes of this tale we find not only in the Mongol-Turk traditions,
but also in other Old-World folk-lore (see p. 350).

5.  Eme'mqut, since his birth, remains lying on his bed without motion (p. 200).

Mongol-Turk and Russian. The same incident is found (see p.  351).

6.  The kala's daughter, Aten-a'ut, is so beautiful that her bare hand illuminates the darkness of the

night (p. 245).

Mongol-Turk. The bride of Khan-Guzhir (the Buryat name of Geser) is so beautiful that
the night is transformed into day when she goes out of the house (Khangaloff and Satoplaeff,
p. 64).

Ostyak. One Ostyak epic hero is so beautiful that he illuminates the house like the dawn
(Patkanov, The Type of an Ostyak Hero according to the Ostyak Epic Tales and Heroic Stories,
St. Petersburg, 1891, p.  24).

7. Big-Raven falls into the house of the kamaks. They are about to eat him. He says, "Do not
eat me! I am old and lean. I will send my son Eme'mqut to you: he is young and fat."
The kamaks let Big-Raven off.    He sends Eme'mqut, who kills the kamaks (p. 244).

Mongol-Turk. An  old  man  is  caught  by a cannibal woman.    He promises to send his
young  son to her, if she will let him off.    She does so.    The son of the old man comes and
kills her (Khangaloff and Satoplaeff, p. 11).
8. Pursuer turns into a reindeer-hair and a bush (pp. 148, 182, 214).

Old World. We find the same episode in European fairy-tales.

Eskimo Elements.

1. Foxes crawl into White-Whale-Man's house, and are killed (p. 319).

Cumberland  Sound. Foxes enter the house of an old woman, and the house becomes so
full of them that they die of suffocation (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 216).


364                            JOCHELSON, THE  KORYAK.

West Coast of Hudson Bay. A great number of foxes come to an old woman. She
invites them in; and when the whole house is full, she shuts the door and kills them all with
a stick (Ibid., p. 324).

2  Big-Raven, on his return from heaven, finds his infant son grown up and married (p. 280).

Greenland. Giviak, on his return from his travels, finds his infant son grown up and a
good hunter (Rink, p. 157).

Cumberland Sound. Kiviak, on his return from travel, finds all his children grown up
(Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 185).

Central Eskimo. The same episode (Boas,  Central Eskimo, p. 623).

Smith Sound. The same episode (Kroeber, p. 177).

3. Eme'mqut, son of Big-Raven, marries Fox-Woman.    One time, while he is combing her hair, she

says to him, "Step back! You smell like a Raven." One day, Envious-One, who courted
Fox-Woman, but without success, says aloud, "What a strong smell this Fox-Woman has!"
She takes offence at his words, and runs away from the house (p. 313).

Cumberland Sound. A man who is married to a Fox-Woman exchanges wives with the
Raven; but the Fox-Woman does not allow the Raven to touch her. He grows angry, and
says, "What a bad smell there is!" The man finds that the Raven-wife smells bad, and shouts,
"Oh, how bad you smell!"    (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 225.)

4. A kala-woman cuts off her nose, thinking that it obscures the light [Koryak Tale, p. 212).
The same is told of Kutq's wife (Kamchadal Talc, p. 331).

Cumberland Sound. Ai'sivang cuts off one of her eyebrows, thinking it darkens the hut
(Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 193).

Central Eskimo. The same episode is in Kiviak (Boas, Central Eskimo, p. 624).

5.  Creator, with family  and herd, flees from an attack of Reindeer people over the ice of the sea.

When the pursuers near the shore, Creator puts a bit of snow in his mouth, spits it out behind
him, and the sea-ice melts away at the shores (p. 170).

Cumberland Sound. An old woman, with her daughter and grandson, flees from her pur-
suers over the sea-ice. When the dogs of the pursuers come near, the old woman raises her
bare hand, and extends her little finger, which she moves as though she were drawing a line
between the two sledges. As she moves it, the ice breaks and drifts away, and they are safe
from their pursuers (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 192).

Central Eskimo. An old woman draws a line over the ice, with her first finger, across
the path of pursuers: the ice breaks and drifts away (Boas, Central Eskimo, p. 619).

6.  Eme'mqut, pursued by a kala, turns into a raven, and carries his wife and children across a river.

The kala asks the speaking-dogs of Eme'mqut how he crossed. The dogs reply that Eme'mqut
drank all the water of the river, walked across to the opposite bank, and spat it out again.
The kala drinks the water, and drinks until he bursts (p. 141).

Cumberland Sound. A man pursued by the cannibal Nareya makes a river by means of

sorcery.     Nareya reaches the river, and, seeing the man on the other side, asks him, "How

did you cross?"     The man replies, "I drank all the water until I was able to wade through

the river."    Then Nareya lies down and begins to drink, and he almost empties the river; but

his stomach becomes so full, that he bursts and dies (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 177).

7.  Some boys are caught by a kala-woman, and hung in her fur coat on a tree.    A Fox-Woman,

passing by, saves them by letting  down  the coat, and filling it instead with sod, moss, and

alder-bark.    The kamak-woman and the kamak, arriving later on, shoot their arrows to kill the

boys; when they let down the coat, they find moss, bark, and sod, instead of flesh (p. 212).

In another tale the kala-woman catches mice and puts them in her breeches, and the Fox fills

them instead with moss (p. 181).

In the tale of the Kamchadal, Miti', Kutq's wife, hangs some mice in a little bag on a tree, and
the Fox saves them in the same manner (p. 331).

Cumberland Sound. The wife of a cannibal is afraid that he may want to eat her, and
prepares to escape. She makes a figure by filling her clothing with heather, and hides herself.
The cannibal comes back from hunting, stabs the figure, and discovers that it is nothing but
clothing filled with heather (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 194).

JOCHELSON, THE   KORYAK.                                           365

West Coast of Hudson Bay. The same episode.    The cannibal's wife makes a figure, filling
her clothing with moss {Ibid., p. 312).

Grcenland. The same episode (Rink, p. 106).

8 Big-Grandfather, sliding down a slope, falls into a house of kamaks. They are about to eat him.
He asks to be allowed to go outside to urinate. The kamaks, after tying him to a long strap,
let him go out. Big-Grandfather places logs over the entrance-opening, unties the strap by
which the.kamaks hold him, and fastens it to the logs, telling them, "I am going home.
Speak in my place.    When I get home, tell them that I have finished urinating" (p. 206).

West Coast of Hudson Bay. One of three girls carried away by a Whale becomes able
to live in water or on land. One day her father and brother come in their boat to an island.
The girl, seeing them coming, tells her husband that she wishes to go to the island. The
Whale, afraid that he may lose her, does not let her go until he fastens a line around her,
one end of which he holds. After she reaches the island, she takes off the line and ties it
to one of her buckles, to which her father has given the power of speech, and it answers the
shoutings of the Whale (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 317).
9. Eme'mqut rescues his sister, who was married in a Seal settlement and was ill treated (p. 153).

Greenland. Brothers rescue their sister, who was married to a Whale, and kept by him
at the bottom of the sea (Rink, p. 127).

10. Yi'tcum swallows two  pieces of whale-meat,  and feels that he is with child.    He cannot be

delivered of the child, so his sister Klu' cuts out his stomach, removes a pair of twins, and
puts his stomach back in place (p. 324).

Greenland. A man swallows a fish and becomes pregnant. A skilful old woman discovers
a charm which helps to deliver him of a fine little daughter (Rink, p. 444. Rink, however,
is in doubt whether this episode is of genuine Eskimo origin).

11. A kamak-woman advises the kamak to kill Big-Raven by stabbing him in his ear (p. 236).
Ikle'mulasn kills a dog by thrusting a pointed stick into its ear (p. 220).

Cumberland Sound. An old woman, pretending to louse her daughter, kills her by driving
a peg through her ear (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 185).

12. Big-Raven defecates, and wipes himself with a rag, which he turns into a man (p. 218).
Big-Raven makes of his privates men who sing, "We are grandfather's" (p. 178).

Miti' cuts off her privates, breast, and buttocks, and tells them to become human beings (p. 168).

Miti' and creator cut off their privates, and make dogs of them (p. 139).

Creator cuts off his penis and sends it to get a harpoon (p. 165).

West Coast of Hudson Bay. An old woman transforms her privates into a sledge. Then
she defecates, and wipes herself with snow. By throwing on the ground the pieces of snow
with which she wipes herself, she transforms them into dogs. The old woman transforms
herself into a man, and marries a girl. One day a man asks the girl who made the dog-
sledge.    She answers, "Grandmother made it" (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 324).

Eskimo and Indian Elements.

1. Miti' cuts off her vulva, roasts it, and gives it to Big-Raven to eat (p. 180).
Big-Raven cuts off his penis, and boils it for Miti' (p. 180).

Cumberland Sound. Fox's husband cuts off her lover's penis, boils it, and gives it to his
wife (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 223).

Athapascan. Two brothers  cut off the membrum virile of their wives' lover, chop and
boil it, and give it to their wives to eat (Boas, Traditions of the Ts'ets''ut, p. 260).

Coast of Northern British  Columbia. Ts'ak- finds his grandmother asleep, cuts out her
vulva, roasts it, and gives it to her to eat (Boas,  Tsimshian Texts, p. 121).

Coast of Southern  British   Columbia. Q'ix,  the  mink,  cuts off a piece of his grand-
mother's vulva, and uses it as bait in catching fish (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 74).
2. A kala  comes  to  punish  the young people of a village, who play constantly, and do not give
the old people any rest.    Most of the inhabitants of the village are killed by the kala.    Only
one old woman and her boy are left (p. 191).

366                                              JOCHELSON, THE  KORYAK.

Greenland. __  The  nine  Kungusutorissat are enemies of petulant and disobedient children

Coast of Northern British  Columbia. Children play ball, and always make noise, which
annoys  Raven,  who  sends feathers  down  to   take  them all up.    Nearly the whole town dis-
appears.    Only a young girl  with  her little grandmother  are left in a small house back of
the village (Boas, Tsimshian  Texts, p. 94).
Big-Raven transforms himself into a girl, and makes of his privates bells and a needle-case (pp. 194,

        196- 323).

Miti' transforms herself into a young man (p. 195).

Miti' transforms herself into a man by making a penis out of a stone hammer (p. 323).
White-Whale-Woman transforms herself into a man, and marries a woman of the Fly-Agaric people

        (p. 310).

Cumberland Sound. A man decides to transform himself into a woman.    A woman loans

her husband to him.    On the following day he exposes his privates to the sun in order to dry
them (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 250).

Coast of Southern  British   Columbia. An  old woman transforms herself into a man by
making privates out of a wedge and a stone hammer (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 28).

Coast of Alaska. Raven (Ytl) turns into a woman, and marries the son of the chief of
the Sea's (Ibid., p. 319).

4.. A man (or woman) is married in a village of supernatural beings. He (or she) wishes to go with
his wife (or with her husband) to visit his (or her) parents. The father-in-law or mother-in-law
overhears the conversation of the young couple, and advises them to go; or they propose to
their son-in-law or daughter-in-law to go on a visit to their relatives (pp. 154, 201, 202, 227).
Coast of Northern British Columbia. The son-in-law says to his wife, "I want to go on
a visit to my relatives." She asks her father's permission, and the latter consents (Boas,
Indianische Sagen, p. 204).

Such episodes occur very frequently in Indian tales.
Greenland. The same is mentioned in Rink, p. 209.

5. Big-Raven calls his reindeer. All sorts of beasts come running to him. He strikes each over
the nose, and says, "I did not call you." Finally the mice come, and he accepts them as his
reindeer (p. 224).

Cumberland Sound. A mother and a daughter live together. One day the mother says,
"I wish some living being would come!" After that, all sorts of beasts come; but the old
woman does not want them, and tells them to go away. Only when the foxes come, she
invites them in (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 215).

Coast of  Washington. Mink calls the Deer.    All kinds of animals appear, and are sent
away before the Deer himself appears (Boas, Kathlamet Texts, p. 109).
6. The episode about kala with a human face and a dog's body (p. 191).

Athapascan. A stranger meets some people who are half men and half dogs (Petitot, p. 170).
The wife of Lendix'tcux destroys half of his dog-blanket, and he remains half man and half
dog (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 9).

Greenland. The erkilet have the shape of men in the upper part of their body, but the
lower limbs of dogs (Rink, p. 47).

Central Eskimo. The lower part of the body of the Adlet is that of a dog, while the
upper part is that of a man (Boas, Central Eskimo, p. 637).

7. In order to escape from being eaten by a kala, Eme'mqut's wife makes him believe that she is
his daughter. She pretends to partake of human flesh, but in reality she conceals it in her
sleeve (p. 128).

West Coast of Hudson Bay. Out of fear of her husband, the cannibal's wife makes him
believe that she is eating human flesh (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 313).

Greenland. The cannibal's wife conceals under the ashes the human flesh that is given
to her by her husband (Rink, p. 108).

Coast of Washington. A giant sets a dish of reptiles before two men. They pretend to
eat, but drop the reptiles through hollow tubes (Farrand, Quinault Indians, p. 119).



JOCHELSON, THE   KORYAK.                                           367

The same episode (Boas,  Chinook Texts, p. 56).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Three travellers pretend to eat reptiles, while they
conceal them under their blankets (Boas, Indianischc Sagen, p. 120).

8   Big-Raven or Eme'mqut pulls out a post to which the dogs used to be tied, and a herd of rein-
deer come out (pp. 143, 164, 187).

West  Coast of Hudson  Bay. A  spirit makes a hole in the ground with his spear, and
caribou jump out (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 306).

Athapascan. The Raven keeps caribou in his tent (Petitot, pp. 154, 380).
Algonquin. A similar episode (Kroeber, Cheyenne Tales, Journal of American Folk-Lore,
Vol. XII, p. 47)-
9. Big-Raven urinates,  and the flood-tide sets m (p. 206).

Rain comes from the vulva of The-One-on-High's wife (p. 142).

Athapascan. Enno-Guhin  or  some  other  person urinates, and makes a river (Petitot,
pp. 34, 41, 138).

Cumberland Sound. One  girl  stamps  on  the  ice and makes thunder; another urinates
and thus makes rain (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 175).

British Columbia. The Old Man makes rain by urinating (Teit, Thompson Indians, p. 341).
Central Eskimo. One of three sisters makes rain by urinating (Boas, Central Eskimo,
p. 600).
10. Yie'a-e'ut marries a stick or a tree (pp. 255, 256).

Fog-Man marries Driftwood-Woman, who then turns into driftwood (p. 275).

Coast of Alaska. A trunk of driftwood is the husband of all the women of a village
(Boas, Indianischc Sagen, p. 321).

Cumberland Sound. "A  large piece of driftwood, which is a young woman's husband"
(Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 185).

Central Eskimo. Kiviung finds a woman who lives all alone with her daughter.    Her
son-in-law is a log of driftwood which has four boughs (Boas, Central Eskimo, p. 623).

Old-World and Indian Elements.

1.  Eme'mqut says to his wives,  "If my lance should shed tears, then I am no longer among the

living" (p. 147).

European. The life-token occurs very often in European tales.

. Mongol-Turk. Seven  travellers are going to separate.    Each one of them plants a tree,
which will wither as soon as the owner   dies (Potanin,  Voyage of 1884-86, pp. 145, 147).

Athapascan. A giant gives a staff to a young man, and tells him that the staff will break
in twain as soon as he dies (Boas,  Traditions of the Ts'ets''ut, p. 44).

The good giant tells the hero that the clouds will be dyed with his blood, and the sky will
become red, as soon as he is vanquished by the race of bad giants (Petitot, p. 138).

2.  One-sided guardian (pp. 37, 39, 40).

Gilyak. One-sided idol (Schrenck, II, p. 743; Plate LIV, Fig. 4).
Tungus. Two one-sided strong men (tale recorded by the author in manuscript).
Russianized Yukaghir. Tale of a one-sided man (Bogoras, Anthropologist, p. 681).
Coast of Northern British Columbia. One-sided man Kas'no (Boas, Indianischc Sagen,
p. 256).

Athapascan. The one-sided monster Edzil' (Petitot, p. 363).
3.  The daughter of the kamak defecates beads and copper rings (p. 324).

Mongol-Turk. A girl produces beads when blowing her nose (Khudyakoff, p. 88).
A hero vomits and defecates gold (Potanin, II, p. 164).

Yukaghir. A hero's horse defecates silver coins (Jochelson,  Yukaghir Materials , p. 52).
Coast of Northern British  Columbia. A woman pretends to defecate copper pins (Boas,
Indianische Sagen, p. 226).

Coast of Southern British  Columbia. Q'ix's son defecates copper (Ibid., p. 73).

368                             JOCHELSON, THE  KORYAK.

4.   Raven enters the carcass of a whale, and after its belly is ripped open, he comes out (p. 339).
Yie'a-e'ut, after being swallowed by a kamak, cuts open his belly and comes out (p. 292).
Big-Raven  turns into a  reindeer-carcass.    A   wolf swallows him.    He tears out the wolf's heart

and comes out (p. 322).
A similar episode (p. 309).

Gull-Woman and Cormorant-Woman, after being swallowed by kamaks, cut open their bellies and
come out (p. 287).

Mongol-Turk. Bird-Monster swallows Geser, the hero of a Mongol-Turk poem. Once
inside the bird, he seizes his heart and kills him (Potanin,   Voyage of 1884-86, II, p. 41).

Interior of Southern British Columbia. The Elk swallows Tl'esa with his raft, and the
latter cuts out the Elk's heart (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 3).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. The Whale swallows Kw'teath with raft and brothers,
and they cut out the Whale's heart (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 101).
The Raven and the Mink enter the Whale and kill it (Ibid., p. 171).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Grisly-Bear snuffs in Tsak. He kills the Bear by
starting a fire in his stomach (Boas, Tsimshian  Texts, p.  118).

Coast of Washington. A monster swallows a youth, who cuts out his heart (Boas, Kath-
lamet Texts, p. 65).

Coast of Alaska. The Raven induces the Whale to swallow him, pecks his heart, and
kills him (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 316).

Algonquin. King-fish swallows Manabozho with his canoe. He kills the fish by attacking
its heart (Schoolcraft).

Athapascan. Beaver swallows Lendix'tcux, who kills it by cutting and roasting its heart
(Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 13).

5.  The Foxes are cooking meat.    Big-Raven is hungry.    He flies about the Foxes' house, eats the greasy

part of the ladder, and swallows the lamp. With a piece of meat the Fox baits a hook and
throws it upward. Big-Raven swallows it. The line snaps, the hook remaining in his jaw. Big-
Raven flies away to the wilderness, and, finding a Wolf, says to him, "Let us have a vomiting-
match."    He begins to vomit, and soon vomits up the lamp, the ladder, and the hook (p. 318).

Mongol-Turk. Fox, after eating much ox-fat, meets a Wolf, and says, "Let us have a
vomiting-match, and see who will vomit fat." They begin the match, but only the Fox vomits
fat (Potanin, IV, p. 553).

Interior of Southern British Columbia. A similar vomiting-match between Coyote and the
Cannibal Owl (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 9; see also Boas, Mythology of the Navaho, p. 372).

6.  Triton-Man's heart is hidden in his tent, in a box.    Eme'mqut can kill him only after finding his

heart and destroying it (p. 230).

The story of a giant who was invulnerable and immortal because he had put his heart or
soul in a safe place, is world-wide (Jevons, p. 17).

Mongol-Turk. A monster-woman cannot be killed until her "soul," which has the form
of a snake hidden in an iron box, is burned (Khudyakoff, pp. 127, 128).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. The hero hides his soul in order to avoid being
killed (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 245).

Coast of Oregon. A woman-monster cannot be killed until her heart, hidden in her hat,
is torn out and thrown into the sea (Boas, Traditions of Tillamook Indians, Journal of American
Folk-Lore, Vol. XI, p. 38).

Athapascan. The Bear-Woman holds her "life" hidden in a basket. She falls down dead
after the basket is shot through (Farrand,  Chilcotin Indians, p. 22).

Micmac. A similar episode (Rand, Legends of the Micmacs, p. 245).
7.  The five-headed kamak (p. 323).

The double-headed reindeer of Earth-Maker (p. 300).

Mongol-Turk. Among the many-headed monsters of the Old World may be mentioned
the fifty-eight-headed monster (Khangaloff and Satoplaeff, p. 66), the iron seven-headed
strong man (Khudyakoff, p. 187), and the twenty-five-headed snake (Khangaloff and Sato-

PLAEFF, p. 70).

JOCHELSON, THE   KORYAK.                                                369

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. Two-headed snake (Boas, Indianische
Sagen, pp. 41, 58, 81, 195, 271).

Coast of Washington. A two-headed boy (Farrand,  Quinault Indians, p. 124).
A two-headed swan (Boas, Kathlamet Texts, p. 107).

8.  In  order to  restore a dead person to life, reindeer-blood is poured over his head (pp. 130, 228,

229, 230; see also p. 351).

European. Water of life used as a means of bringing dead persons and bones back to
life is found in many European tales.

Mongol-Turk. Three bottles of water of life occur in a Yakut tale (Khudyakoff, p. 127).

In one Buryat tale a heroine finds water of life on a high mountain (Khangaloff and
Satoplaeff, p. 37).

Water of life is mentioned in a Tangut variant of Geser (Potanin, Voyage of  1884-86, II, p. 22).

Ostyak. The heroes of Ostyak tales find water of life in the underground world (Pat-
kanov, The Type of an Ostyak Hero according to the Ostyak Epic Tales and Heroic Stories,
St. Petersburg, 1891, p. 51).

Chukchee. Bladders with water of life (Bogoras,  Chukchee Materials, p. xxiv).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. See Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 161, 192, 196,
206, 236, 255).

9. An old man hides Eme'mqut in his belt when the cannibal kalau come (p. 129).

Mongol-Turk. The protector of a hero hides him in his pocket while fighting with a
monster (Potanin,  Voyage of  1884-86, II, pp. 115, 116).

Athapascan. The good-natured giant puts a man in his slate knife-scabbard (Petitot, p. 136).

Eskimo, Indian, and Old-World Elements.

1. Raven-Man orders several pairs of boots for a journey to the sky (p. 250).

Coast of Washington. A chief has many pairs of moccasins and leggings made, and walks
eastward to visit the Sun (Boas, Kathlamet Texts, p. 26).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A girl makes several blankets and boots for the
journey to the Sun (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 15).

A man makes a hundred pairs of boots for a journey (Ibid., p. 41).

Eskimo, Cumberland Sound. Kiviuq asks his wife to make him several pairs of new mit-
tens for his journey (Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 185).

Eskimo, Greenland. A woman packs up a bundle of boots as well as several pairs of new
soles for a journey (Rink, p. 209).

Mongol-Turk. In a Kirghis tale the traveller orders iron boots (Potanin, II, p. 42).
European. The  passage  of a hero who orders three pairs of iron boots, three iron hats,
and three iron staffs, when starting in search of his wife or bride, is wide-spread in Old-World
tales (Bogoras, Anthropologist, p. 613).
2. Some ornaments are thrown backward in order to detain pursuers (p. 219).

Kutka defecates all kinds of berries in order to detain pursuers (Steller, p. 263).
Eme'mqut throws some berries into the boat of his pursuers in order to detain them (p. 286).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. The pursuer is detained by throwing in his way
some things belonging to his child (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 210).

Stars pursue fugitives, who throw away tobacco, paint, and sling-stones.    The Stars stop and
paint their faces (Boas, Tsimshian Texts, p. 92).
Also widely known on the Great Plains.

West Coast of Hudson Bay. The father of a girl who is being pursued by her husband
tells her to throw backward various things in order to delay the pursuit (Boas, Baffin-Land
Eskimo, p. 318).

Cumberland Sound. A man pursued by a monster makes a great many berries by means
of sorcery.     The monster sees them, stops and eats a great many (Ibid., p. 177).

Greenland. A girl pursued by her husband, the Whale, throws backward parts of her
clothing in order to detain the Whale (Rink, p. 128).


370                                       JOCHELSON, THE  KORYAK.

European. In  the  Greek  legend  of the  Argonauts,   Medea and Jason, pursued in their

flight by Medea's  father,   kill  her  brother, and scatter the fragments of his body on the sea.

Her father pausing for the burial of the remains, they gain time for their escape.

The magic flight, or the throwing-back by pursued people of different objects, such as a chip of

wood, a stone, etc., which turn into a forest, a mountain-ridge, or a river (pp. 112, 187, 257).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. A pursued deer throws back a piece
of fat, which turns into a lake; he then throws some of his hair, which turns into woods (Boas,
Indinische Sagen, p. 187).    (See also pp. 99, 164, 224, 240, 268).

Cumberland Sound. For a similar episode, see Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 177.

Central Eskimo. A similar episode (Boas,  Central Eskimo, p. 619).

Athapascan. Pursued men throw parts of a caribou stomach over their shoulders, which
are transformed into mountains (Boas, Traditions of the Ts'ets''ut, p. 260).

Coast of Washington. Wild-cat, pursued by a woman-monster, turns his clog into a mountain,
which the old woman has to climb (Farrand, Quinault Indians, p.  116).

Samoyed. Two women, pursued by a cannibal, throw back a comb and a steel of a strike-
a-light, which turn into a forest and a mountain (Castren, Ethnologische Vorlesungen, p. 165).

Russian. Episodes of the magic flight are found in the tales of Russians on the Kolyma
and Anadyr Rivers, and of the Russianized Yukaghir (Bogoras, Anthropologist, p. 673).

4.  Eme'mqut kills  the ancient ancestral old woman, takes off her skin, and puts it on in order to

look like her (p. 322).

Mongol-Turk. Geser kills the monster Dyr and his horse. He puts on Dyr's skin in
order to look like him, and on his own steed he puts the skin of the killed horse (Potanin,
Voyage of 1884-86, II, p. 26).

A woman-monster kills a young beauty, takes off the skin of her face and puts it on, in
order to look like the beautiful woman (Khudyakoff, p. 82).

Algonquin. Manabozho kills a female spirit in the disguise of an old woman, takes off
her skin, and puts it on in order to look like her (Schoolcraft, p.41).

He kills the prince of serpents, takes off his skin, and puts it on (Ibid., p.42).

Central Eskimo. Old woman kills young woman, and puts on her skin (Boas, Central
Eskimo, p. 624).

Athapascan. Fisher and Marten kill two women and put on their skins, in order to look
like them (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 41).

5.  Animals throw off their skins and turn into human beings (pp. 131,  156, 338).

Mongol-Turk and European. In the tales of the Old World, episodes occur in which
female birds (mainly swans) take off their plumage, and bathe in the form of women; for
example, story of seven storks (Khudyakoff, p. 76), tales of three Swan-Women {Traditions
of the Buryat, pp. 114, 115, 125), tale of Swan-Women (Potanin, IV, p. 24).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Wolves take off their skins, and turn into men
(Boas, Indinische Sagen, p. 86).

Thunder-birds take off their plumage, and turn into human beings (Ibid., p. 97).
Geese take off their plumage, and turn into human beings (Ibid., p. 147).
Eagles take oft their plumage, - and turn into human beings (Ibid., p. 203).
Cumberland Sound. A fox takes off her skin, and turns into a woman (Boas, Baffin-land
Eskimo, p. 224).

Athapascan. A woman destroys the dog-blanket of her children, and they retain human
form (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 9).

A marmot takes off her skin, and is transformed into a stout woman (Boas, Traditions of
the Ts'ets''ut, p. 263).

6. Big-Raven makes wooden reindeer, and they come to life (p. 22).
Yie'a-e'ut makes a wooden whale, and it comes to life (p. 232).
Eme'mqut makes a wooden whale (p. 286).

Mongol-Turk. Geser makes a horse from bark, and it comes to life (Potanin, Voyage
of 1884-86, p. 62).

Seven travellers make a wooden bird, and it comes to life (Ibid., p. 148).



JOCHELSON, THE K  ORYAK.                                          37 1

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Raven makes wooden fish, and they come to life
(Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 174).

Coast of Northern   British  Columbia. A carved squirrel comes to life (Boas,  Tsimshian

Texts, p. 231).

Raven makes  wooden fish,  and they come to life (Boas, Indianische Sagcn, pp. 209, 242).

Central Eskimo. A man is busy chopping chips from a piece of wood. The chips are
transformed into salmon (Boas,  Central Eskimo, p. 617).

Athapascan. A boy, with the aid of magic, turns a drawing of a horse into a real horse
(Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 42).

Coast of Washington. Grouse makes a wooden seal and sends it to sea (Farrand, Quinault
Indians, p. 102).

7.  Yie'a-e'ut sees from heaven what is going on on earth (p. 307).
Earth-Maker looks down on the earth through an opening in the sky (p. 301).

Mongol-Turk. Geser's wife sees through a window in the sky what is going on on the
earth (Potanin,   Voyage of 1884-86, p. II).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Two sisters see the earth through a hole in heaven
(Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 62).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. The hole in the floor of the house of the heaven
chief {Ibid., pp. 237, 279; Boas, Bella  Coola Indians, p. 83).

Cumberland Sound. The hole in the sky (Boas, Baffin-land Eskimo, p. 339).

Greenland. The same (Rink, p. 468).

Athapascan. Two sisters, removed by stars into the sky, look through the holes and see
what is going on on the earth (Boas, Traditions of the Ts'ets''ut, p. 39).

8.  A man becomes a cannibal,  and devours all the  inhabitants of the village,  and his relatives

(PP. 295. 302 ).

Mongol-Turk. Child-monster in the Kirghis tale (see p. 351).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Cannibal kills all the people except his uncle, who
kills him (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 164).

Cumberland Sound. A man becomes a cannibal, and kills all the people of the village
(Boas, Baffin-Land Eskimo, p. 258).

Greenland. Child-monster (Rink, p. 258).

Indian Elements.

1.  In  a  shaman  contest, one shaman woman calls the reindeer to the roof of the house, the other

brings the sea into the house (pp. 140, 218).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Water fills the house (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 95).
The thunder-bird causes the water in the sea to rise, and fill the house (Ibid., p. 134).

2. To punish the Seals, who mal-treated his daughter, Big-Raven conceals all the sea-water, and the

bottom of the sea dries up.    When the guilty Seals are dead, he lets the water out again, and
the rest of the sea-animals revive (p. 154).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Lgbola' causes the water to be lost (Boas, Tsim-
shian  Texts, p.  18).                                                           

3.  Dogs,  in  the absence of their master (Big-Raven's family), put on embroidered coats, sing, beat

the drums, etc. (p. 127).

Coasts of Northern  and Southern   British   Columbia.    Tales  about the children of the
woman and a dog, who take off their dog-skins in their mother's absence, and assume a human
appearance (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 25, 93, 114, 132, 263).
Coast of Alaska. Tale of dog-children (Krause, p. 259).

Athapascan. The same episode (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 9; Petitot, p. 314;
Boas,  Traditions of the Ts'ets''ut, p. 37).

Coast of Washington. Story of dog-children (Farrand, Quinault Indians, p. 127; Boas,
Kathlamet Texts, p. 155; Boas, Chinook Texts, p. 17).

4. Big-Raven is caught on a hook baited with meat.     Straining with all his might, he snaps the line
and carries off the hook, which sticks in his jaw (p. 318).

372                                     JOCHELSON, THE  KORYAK.

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Tx'msn steals bait of the fishermen from their
hooks.    His jaw is caught and torn off (Boas,  Tsimshian Texts, p. 51).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. The Raven, O'meatl, is caught on a hook baited
with meat. He holds on to the bottom of the boat until his nose is broken off (Boas, In-
diansche Sagen,
p. 172).

Coast of Alaska. Ytl, the Raven, steals bait from the fish-hooks, and is caught. He
holds on to the bottom of the sea until his nose is broken off, which is hauled to the surface

(Ibid., p. 314).

5.  Raven-Man and Little-Bird-Man are competitors in a marriage-suit.    Raven-Man acts basely and

foolishly, and is vanquished by Little-Bird-Man (pp. 143, 250).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. Raven and Small-Bird are neighbors.
Raven acts foolishly in his encounter with a supernatural being; while Small-Bird is very wise,
and therefore successful (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 26, 106, 245).

6.  Little-Bird-Man and Kala-Woman throw stones at each other.    Bird-Man rises in the air, and

Kala-Woman's stone passes under his feet.    Little-Bird-Man throws a stone, strikes Kala-Woman,
and breaks her leg (p. 172).

Coast of Alaska. The wife of a one-eyed monster which had been killed by Ytl, the
Raven, says to the latter, "Come on! let us throw knives at each other." The woman throws
hers first, and Ytl turns into a raven, rises in the air, and the knife passes under his feet.
Thereupon Ytl throws a knife, and cuts off the woman's feet (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 319).

7. The Seals tie Yie'a-e'ut's  tongue to prevent  her telling how she was maltreated in the Seal

settlement (p. 153).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. The Cormorant's tongue is torn out, that he may not
tell of the things that he has seen (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 176, 244; Tsimshian Texts, p. 43).

Coast of Alaska. The same episode (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 317; Krause, p. 266).

8. Yie'a-e'ut, having reached heaven, wraps fish, sea-mammals, and other animals in a seal-skin;

and a famine occurs on earth, which lasts until she opens her bundle (p. 307).
Eme'mqut catches mountain-sheep, puts them in his coat, and, coming to the house of a kamak,
empties his catch before the house (p. 323).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Transformer's mother keeps salmon in a blanket.
He stakes this blanket in a contest between himself and a young man whom he meets. The
latter wins, dips the hem of the blanket into the water, and the fish appear (Boas, Indianische
Sagen, pp. 202, 262).

9.  Big-Raven transforms  a little  kala into  a line,  which is stolen by neighbors and fastened to a

harpoon.     Eme'mqut  enters a whale, induces the villagers to harpoon it, and then carries off
the line (p. 286).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. A man assumes the shape of a
salmon, induces a fisherman to harpoon him, and steals the harpoon (Boas, Indianische Sagen,
pp. 13, 16, 23, 64, 66, 201, 248).

For the same episode see Teit, Traditions of the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia,
Boston, 1898, p. 43.

Athapascan. Lendix-tcux turns himself into a salmon, is speared by Sea-Gull, but cuts off
the head of the spear, and swims away (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p.  11).

For a similar episode see Petitot, p. 33.
10. Big-Raven reproaches Miti' because she has no relatives (p. 168).

Eme'mqut reproaches his wife for having neither father nor mother (p. 208).

Coast of Southern  British Columbia. Copper-Maker's mother reproaches her daughter-
in-law, the Brilliant-One, for having no relatives (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 188).

People reproach the Mink for having neither father nor mother (Ibid., p. 157).
11. The Crab Avvi hides the fresh water.    Big-Raven, by some device, drinks it all, then vomits it,
and thus forms the rivers on earth (p. 311).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Raven's sisters keep guard over the fresh water.
By a ruse, Raven gets access to the water, and drinks it all. He urinates, and thus rivers
and lakes are formed on earth (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 174).



JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.                                             373

Coast of Northern British Columbia. An old man has a pail of fresh water while there
is no water on earth as yet. It is hidden in the ground, beneath the roots of the trees.
Raven drinks the water, and then lets it fall by drops, wherefrom lakes and rivers are formed
Ibid., p. 209).

Raven steals water from a chief (Ibid., p. 232).

Tx'msem, by strategy, takes all the water from a chief, and flies away. The water runs
out'of his blanket, and forms rivers (Boas, Tsimshian Texts, p. 26).

Coast of Alaska. Raven steals the fresh water from the eagle Kank (Boas, Indianische
Sagen, p. 313; Krause, p. 259).

12.  Big-Raven makes a man out of his wiping-rag (p. 218).
Big-Raven's excrement turns into a woman (p. 316).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Mink makes a man out of his excrement (Boas,
Jndianische Sagen, p. 159).

A girls turns her excrement into a bird (Ibid., p. 38).

Athapascan. Raven turns excrement into canoes and men (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians,
pp. 16, 17).

13. A  shaman  is  given  the  daughter  of a sick man whom he cured, or a girl whom he cured or

revived, for his wife (pp. 239, 248, 277).
A woman shaman is married to a man whom she cured (p. 223).

Coast of Northern and Southern British Columbia. A shaman, for curing a woman, is
given her daughter in marriage (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 149, 190, 238, 255).

Ts'ak' cures a chief's daughter, and she gives herself to him in marriage (Boas, Tsimshian
Texts, p. 125).

14. In order to get Eme'mqut's wives, Illa' tries to kill him.    He calls him into the forest to take

the gum out of a larch-tree, causes the tree to fall upon him, and thus kills him. When he
comes home, he finds Eme'mqut sitting with his wives (p. 147).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. Gy'i's father-in-law, who kills all
of his daughter's suitors, tries to kill him also. He asks his assistance in splitting a cedar-log,
drives his wedge into the tree, lets his hammer fall into the crack, and asks Gy'i to get it.
When he obeys, his father-in-law pulls out the wedge, and Gy'i is apparently crushed, and
his blood flows out; but when his father-in-law reaches the canoe, he finds Gy'i in the prow
(Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 137).

For the same episode see Ibid., pp. 39, 67, 70, 118, 198.

Coast of Alaska. For the same episode see Krause, p. 256.

Coast of Washington. For a similar episode see Boas, Chinook Texts, p. 34.

15. Eme'mqut wishes  to  marry  the daughter of the Sun, who kills all her suitors.    His father dis-

suades him at first, but finally advises him to stop, on his way, at the house of his sisters,
who advise him what to do (p. 162).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Gy'i wishes to marry the daughter of one of the
ancestors of the Nimkish tribe, who kills all her suitors. His father dissuades him at first,
but finally advises him to stop, on his way, at the camp of his aunts, who tell him how to
act (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 135).

16.  A magpie comes flying to the kamaks with news from their daughter, and sits on the chimney.

They wish to throw something at it; but it says, "I have come with news from your daughter"

( p. 173 ).

A ground-spider crawls over Eme'mqut's body. He throws it down, saying, "Can't you find
another place?" But the spider, turning into an old woman, replies, "Thou art wrong in
throwing me: I have brought news for thee" (p. 145).

A ground-spider crawls over Yie'a-e'ut. She throws it on the ground, and says, "Have you
no other place to crawl about!" But the spider, turning into an old woman, says, "I have
come with news for you" (p.  125).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A deserted woman sends Raven with some food
to her grandmother. The grandmother takes a stone to throw at the raven; but the latter
says, "Don't do that! thy grand-daughter sends me" (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 133).

374.                           JOCHELSON,  THE  KORYAK.

17. Eme'mqut kills the dog that married his sister (p. 255).
Creator kills the dog that came to his daughter at night (p. 183).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A father kills the dog that he found with his
daughter (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 132).

18.  A contest between Eme'mqut's wife and that of Envious-One as to who will urinate farther (p. 140).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. The wanderer Qls and the strong man Sx-is
have a contest as to who can urinate farther (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 21).

19.  Kalau keep bears instead of dogs (pp. 127, 166), and mountain-sheep instead of reindeer (p. 241).
Bear-People keep bears instead of dogs (p. 156).

Big-Raven uses mice instead of reindeer (pp. 188, 224).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. People on the other side of the sea keep seals
instead of dogs (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 88, 120).

Coast of Oregon. People on the other side of the sea keep sea-otters instead of dogs
(Boas, Traditions of the Tillamook Indians, Journal of American Folk-Lore, Vol. XI, p. 30).

Athapascan. A giant keeps bears and other animals instead of dogs (Petitot, p. 139).

20.  Big-Raven steals dried fish from the Reindeer people (p. 183).

Coasts  of Northern  and Southern  British  Columbia. A spirit or bear steals dried fish
out of the houses of the Indians (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 78, 149, 189, 207, 2.54, 256).
Raven steals fish from the Cormorant (Ibid., p. 244).
Grisly-Bear steals fish from Ts'ak' (Boas,  Tsimshian Texts, p. 117).

21.  Eme'mqut,  who is deserted by his wife, the White-Whale-Woman, searches for her, crying, and

his tears fall down like rain (p. 310).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A Beaver cries from jealousy, and produces rain
with his tears (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 36, 80).

Coast of Washington. Beaver cries from jealousy, and produces a deluge (Boas, Kath-
lamet Texts, p. 23).

22.  Sculpin-Man kills and eats his travelling-companions (p. 192).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Tx'msem asks Deer to accompany him, and kills
him (Boas, Tsimshian  Texts, p. 64).

Coast of Alaska. Raven kills and eats his travelling-companion, the Deer (Boas, In-
dianische Sagen, p. 315).

23.  Small pieces of bodies of whales and seals are thrown into the water with the idea that they will be

transformed into living animals Kamchadal and Koryak (Bogoras, Anthropologist, p. 660).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. Bones of salmon or other animals
are thrown into the water to be transformed into living fish or other animals (Boas, Indianische
Sagen, pp. 27, 104, 210, 266; Bella Coola Indians, p. 76).

The chief of the Squirrels asks a young man to burn the meat and bones of the squirrels
whom he has killed, and thus to restore the Squirrel people to life (Boas, Tsimshian Texts,
p. 212).

Ponca. Bones of beaver are thrown into the water to be transformed into living beaver
(Dorsey,  The  Ccgiha Language, p. .557).

Athapascan. Bones of Salmon-Boy are thrown into the water, and he comes to life
again (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 24).

Coast of Washington. Two Salmon-Boys are killed for food, but their bones are saved
and thrown into the water, and the boys come to life again (Farrand, Quinault Indians, p. 112).

24.    A giantess carries away children  in  a basket,  but  they succeed in making good their escape

(Bogoras, Anthropologist, p. 623).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. A monster-woman does the same
(Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 57,  no, 224, 241, 249).

25.       The chamber-vessel of kalau assails Creator (p. 176).

At the inspiration of Big-Raven, the chamber-vessels talk (p.  165).

Coasts  of Northern   and Southern   British   Columbia. The chamber-vessel of a stump
talks (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 268; see also pp. 101, 172, 177, 213, 233).
26. By means of a ruse, Big-Raven eats the berries stored by the women (p. 184).



JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.                                                  375

Coasts of Southern and Northern British Columbia. Raven eats the berries picked by
his sisters, whom he scares away by means of a ruse (Boas, Indiansche Sagen, p. 77).

Baven eats the berries of two women by frightening them, saying that enemies are coming
Ibid., pp. 107, 178, 210, 244).
27   Big-Raven makes believe that he is dead, and is placed in a separate underground house (p. 224).

Athapascan. Raven pretends to die, and is placed under his canoe on the shore (Far-
Chilcotin Indians, p. 17).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Mink makes believe that he is dead (Boas, In-
danische Sagen,
pp. 33, 78).

The same episode (Boas, Kwakiutl Texts, p.  286).

28. Big-Raven  or other people who have been for some time in the anus or stomach of an animal

grow bald (pp. 169, 293).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Two boys lose their hair from having been inside
of a whale (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 51).

The Mink grows bald from having been in the stomach of a whale (Ibid., p. 75).

29. Big-Raven marries Excrement-Woman, who melts in the warm house (p. 316).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Mink marries Gum-Woman, who melts in the
warm daytime (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 44).

Kwo'tiath goes to sleep with the Gum-Girls. In the morning they melt, and stick to
Kwo'tiath (Ibid., p.  100).

30. Eme'mqut comes to the Stone-Hammer people, and marries one of their girls (p. 200).

Illa' strikes the stone heads of the Stone-Hammer-Men against one another for his own pleasure
(p. 202).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A hammer comes to a girl at night in the shape
of a man (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 25, 41).

A tribe of people with stone heads (Ibid., p. 61).

Coast of Washington. Misp finds people upside down, using their heads as hammers.
He turns them right side up, and gives them stone hammers (Farrand, Qtuinault Indians,
P. 85).

31. Children are born immediately after marriage, or merely from the contact of the hero with a

woman (pp. 226, 319, 323, 335).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. To be found in many Indian tales; for instance,
Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 40, 136.

Coast of Washington. A piece of flint flies into the body of a little girl, who immediately
gives birth to a boy (Farrand, Quinault Indians, p.  125).

32. The telling of a certain tale causes the rain to stop (p. 142).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A certain tale is told, when the rain lasts a long
time, in order to bring clear weather (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 22).
33.  Eme'mqut cuts off Ktlu"s leg, and with it kills the kamaks (p. 187).

Interior of Southern British  Columbia. A rabbit pulis out its leg, and, handling it like
a hammer, kills a bear and its cubs (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p.  II).
34. The  Fox takes out her eyes  and pounds  them  with a stone, then she makes for herself new

eyes of blackberries (p. 321).
For a similar episode see pp. 182, 266.

Interior of British Columbia. Coyote takes out his eyes and flings them upward: they
are caught by a gull. He makes for himself other eyes of some berries (Boas, Indianische
p. 8).

Navaho. Coyote plays with his eyes, tears them out of their sockets, and throws them
up (Matthew, Navaho Legends, p. 90).

Algonquin. The same episode (Grinnell, Blackfoot lodge Tales, p. 153).

35.  Big-Raven's people kill a whale, and, carrying its meat to camp, they fling small pieces of it at
one another, which they try to catch in their open mouths (p. 324).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Children throw pieces of seal-blubber at one an-
other (Boas, Tsimshian  Texts, p. 42).

376                           JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.


36.   Kamaks come to a house, find blubber and eat it.    They sing to the people, "It tastes well, the
      blubber; but when there is no more blubber, we shall eat you" (p.  293).

Coast of Washington. A monster eats all the meat, and says to the people, "What shall
I eat now? there are only skins and you" (Boas, Chinook Texts, p. 31).

Fox offers to cure the Bear, who has been wounded by a man.    He inserts into the wound a
red-hot stone, which burns the Bear to death (pp. 185, 188).

Coast of Alaska. Raven causes the Loon to swallow a red-hot stone, and afterward to
drink water, so that her intestines are scalded (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 317).

Coast of Washington. Coyote, disguised as a warrior, wounds Raccoon so that fat comes
out of the wound. When Raccoon comes home, Coyote, under pretence of curing him, pulls
out the fat and kills him (Boas, Kathlamet Texts, p. 153).

California. Deer's children kill Bear by throwing hot rock into her mouth. (Dixon,
Maidu Myths, p. 81).

38.  Kamak-Woman says to a tall tree, "Bend down your head" (p. 213).

Fox says to the cross-beam in the house of the kamaks, "Get up higher!" and then, "Bend down

to the ground" (p. 181).
Kutq's wife says to a large tree, "Raise your top" (p. 331).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Coyote makes the tree which his son has climbed
rise to the sky (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 17).

Algonquin. Manabozho says to the tree on which he is sitting during the flood, "Stretch
yourself" (Schoolcraft, p. 39).

Athapascan. Old man, by magic, makes tree which young man has climbed grow higher
and higher, until young man cannot return (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 29).
An arrow rises to the sky, and drags up a man (Petitot, pp. 128, 355).

39. A shaman mends the broken leg of a kala-woman, but one piece of the bone he cannot find:

therefore the leg is not perfect (p. 173).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. A bone of a dead animal is missing,
and when he is revived, he is not perfect (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 149, 255, 260).

Athapascan. A bone of the dead Raven is missing. When revived, he is not perfect
(Petitot, p. 37).

40. Can'a'vile catches a great quantity of fish.    He eats a raw head, and shuts his eyes.    Meanwhile

Wolves (at another time Bears) come, grab the fish, and fight over them. Caira'vile says,
"Don't fight: just take as much as you like." When he opens his eyes, no Wolves, Bears,
or Fish are there (p. 174).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. The booty of a hunter or fisher is
eaten while he sleeps (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 7, 74, 232; Krause, p. 265).

Gulls eat the Giant's olachen (Boas, Tsimshan  Texts, p. 31).

41. Gull-Man calls all kinds  of birds  to  marry  his sister.    One after another  is refused, until the

Paroquet-Auk-Man comes (p. 198).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. A mother calls all kinds of animals to marry her
daughter. Finally a chief from heaven is accepted (Boas, Tsimshian Texts, p. 222  also Boas,
Indianische Sagen, p. 283).

42. Eme'mqut marries his  sister.     Their son  grows  up  and hunts ducks.    The ducks say, "Your

father is your mother's  own  brother,"     The  boy  comes running home and tells what the
ducks have said to him (p. 154).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A man marries his sister.    They have a boy.    The
boy grows up and goes out to hunt.    One evening he comes from hunting, and asks his mother,
"Is not father your relative, you look so like him?" (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 37).
43.  Big-Raven tells the  kalau that when he is fattened, fat hangs from his body, and runs off his
fingers (p. 185).

Coast of Southern  British   Columbia. Seal holds his hands near the fire, and fat runs
off his fingers into a bowl, and is offered to Raven (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 57).

Seal  holds his hands  over the fire,  and the  fat  which  runs  off is offered to his guests.
Raven wishes to imitate him, but only scorches his fingers (Ibid., p. 76).


JOCHELSON, THE KORYAK.                                                                                    377

Bear holds his hands over a bowl, and he treats Raven to it. Raven is unable to do the
same (Ibid., p. 106).

Seal lets fat run off his fingers, and treats his guests to it (Ibid., p. 177).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Seal holds his hands over the fire, lets the fat run
off his fingers, and gives it to Raven and his sister (Boas, Ibid., p. 245).

Young-Seal invites the Raven to a feast. She holds her hands over a dish, and grease
drops into the dish (Boas: Bella Coola Indians, p. 93;  Tsimshian Texts, p. 47).

44.    Big-Raven enters Miti"s anus as though it were an underground house (p. 169).

' Big-Raven, his wife, and his daughters put their heads into their anuses, imagining that they are

travelling (p.  190).
A little mouse is sent by his sister, the Mouse-Woman, into the anus of Annamayat in order to

make him ill (p. 223).

Kutq enters the vulva of his wife (p. 341; Steller, p. 263).
Kamak takes his wife on his shoulders, and his head slips into her anus (p. 293).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. The old man P'tx-el becomes a snake, and enters
Xls' anus (Boas, Indanische Sagen, p. 22).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Ts'ak- comes out at Grisly Bear's anus (Boas,
Tsimshian  Texts, p. 117).

Athapascan. The Mink and the Weasel are sent by the Mouse into Sensible's anus in
order to destroy him (Petitot, p. 142).

A man cuts off the penis of a giant and enters the giant's body through the opening
Ibid., p. 137).

45.    Miti' interchanges the position of her vulva and her anus, and puts her breasts on her back (p. 169).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Xls meets a woman with her sexual organs on
her breast, and puts them in their proper place. Xls meets a man and a woman with their
sexual organs on their foreheads, and puts them in their proper place (Boas, Indianische
p. 23).

46.    A woman-kala's anus is armed with teeth (p. 166).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A woman's vagina is armed with teeth (Boas,
Indianische Sagen, pp. 24, 30, 66, 69).

Athapascan. The hero has intercourse with woman, after first breaking out teeth in
vagina with magic staff (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p.  13).

47.    An arrow, being shot, makes a path to the sky (pp. 293, 304).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. A chain of arrows makes a path
to the sky (Boas: Indianische Sagen, pp. 17, 31, 64, 65, 68, 117, 157, 173, 215, 234, 246,
278;   Tsimshian  Texts, p. 88).

Coast of Washington. People climb arrow-chain and arrive in sky-country (Farrand,
Quinault Indians, p. 108; Boas, Kathlamet Texts, p. II).

Athapascan. Salmon-Boy makes pile of feathers, lies down, and his sister blows on the
feathers, and the young man is carried up to the sky (Farrand,  Chilcotin Indians, p. 24).

Two brothers are carried up to the sky by an arrow (Petitot, p. 128).
48. Arrows of kalau are invisible to men (p. 121).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. Arrows of men are invisible to
spirits (Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 94, 99, 149, 190, 238, 254, 289).

Micmac. The same episode (Rand, Legends of the Micmacs, p. 87).

49. Eme'mqut,  in search of his brother  who  has  been  killed by the kalau, overcomes them, and
finds in their possession the skin of his brother, which is spread over a bed, like a reindeer-
skin (p. 130).
Creator finds the skin of his son Big-Light in the house of the kalau (p. 176).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. The hero discovers the skin of his murdered friend
in the house of his enemy (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 75).

50. Two girls are married to two invisible kalau, who visit them at night and lie down with them,
assuming the shape of young men. Later on they become visible, and live with them openly
(P. 150).


378                         JOCHELSON", THE KORYAK.

Athapascan. A man lives with Cloud-Woman, who first appears only in the form of a
fog, but later becomes a woman (Boas,  Traditions of the  Ts'ets'aut, p. 265).

A man marries an invisible woman (Petitot, p. 121).

51.   Big-Raven, or Fox, urges other persons to flee, under the pretext that enemies are coming, and
takes their provisions (pp. 164, 188, 189, 318).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. Raven (or other person), urges
people to flee, under the pretext that enemies are coming, and takes away their provisions
(Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 107, 172, 233).

Coast of Alaska. The same episode about the Raven (Ibid., p. 316).

Coast of Washington. Rabbit makes people believe that a war-party is coming. They
run away, and he steals all their salmon (Boas, Kathlamet Texts, p. 75).

52. Tomwo'get (Self-created), the grandson of Big-Raven, kills his father, thus avenging his mother's

death (p. 244).

Algonquin. Manabozho learns from his grandmother, the Moon's daughter, that his
mother was killed by his father, the West-Wind, and starts to kill him (Schoolcraft, p. 18).

53.  Raven-Man swallows the sun because Big-Raven declines to give his daughter to him in marriage,

whereupon the earth is plunged into darkness. Yie'a-e'ut, Big-Raven's daughter, tickles the
Raven-Man who swallowed the sun: he opens his mouth, and sets the sun free (p. 252).

Pacific Coast. This corresponds to the episodes of the raven cycle of the Pacific coast,
in which the Raven liberates the sun (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 360, No.  157).

54.  Yie'a-e'ut and Klu' marry Fish-Men, whereupon Big-Raven's family begin to fish (p. 296).
Big-Raven's people had nothing to eat.    He finds and marries the Salmon-Woman.    She spawns,

and the people eat the spawn. In his absence, Miti' kills her, and cooks her flesh. Raven
comes home, and dines on the cooked salmon; but Salmon-Woman suddenly steps out of the
dark store-room, denounces Miti', and departs for the sea, notwithstanding the entreaties of
Big-Raven.    Then Big-Raven's family starve (p. 292).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. Mink marries Salmon-Woman. Salmon-Woman
picks her teeth, and throws the pickings into a dish. They turn into a salmon, which is
cooked, and serves as food for the Mink. After a while, Salmon-Woman, angered by the
brutality of her husband, departs for the river, notwithstanding his entreaties, and Mink has
no more salmon (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 159).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Raven catches a fish, which turns into a woman.
Raven marries her, and then catches many salmon (Ibid., p. 246).

Tx'msem marries a Salmon-Woman, and thus obtains salmon. He scolds her, and all the
salmon disappear (Boas,  Tsimshian Texts, p. 237).

Coast of Washington. A man marries a Salmon-Girl, and the Quinault River gets plenty
of salmon (Farrand, Quinault Indians, p. 112).

Athapascan. A man marries a Marmot-Woman, and he kills many marmots (Boas,
Traditions of the  Ts'ets'aut, p. 263).

55. The Wolf kills Ptarmigan-Man's reindeer; and Ptarmigan-Man, by magic, turns them into ptar-
migans, which fly away (p. 212).

Miti'  cooks a meal.     Fox-Woman  kicks the  kettle,  and turns  it  over.     Then the meat of a
mountain-sheep comes back to life, and walks out of the house (p. 321).

Athapascan. "Moss-Child," by means of incantation, revives the flesh of killed bulls.
They run away, and the people starve (Petitot, p. 192).

Efwa-e'ke' revives killed birds, which fly away (Ibid., p. 223).

A dried salmon hanging on the roof hits Raven's head. He is angry, and throws it out-
doors, where it comes to life, and revives the other salmon, and they all escape to the water
(Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 19).

Marmot-Woman revives the dried meat of killed marmots.    She throws on it the skins, and
all the marmots run up the hills (Boas,  Traditions of the  Ts'ets'a'ut, p. 265).
56.  Arrows supplied with eyes fly without a bow wherever they are sent (pp.  125, 186).

Coast of Alaska. The Raven Ytl transforms a bird into an arrow, which flies to wherever
Raven points (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 318).


JOCHELSON,   THE   KORYAK.                                       379

Little  Bird-Man  and  Kala-Woman  have  a contest in enduring intense heat.    Little Bird-Man

wins by trickery (p.  172).

Big-Raven receives  the  kalau  as  guests, seats them on the cross-beam, closes the smoke-hole,
and produces an intense heat.    The kalau implore him to let them off (p.  149).

Coast of Northern  British   Columbia. A  visitor's endurance is tried with a hot sweat-
bath, which is heated more than usual for that purpose (Boas, Bella Coola Indians, p. 79).
Coast of Washington. Bluejay and his comrades are challenged to stay in a hot sweat-
house with some of the village people.    They accept, and win by strategy (Farrand,  Qu-
nault Indians, p. 114).

Bluejay and supernatural beings have a contest in enduring intense heat. Bluejay wins
by trickery (Boas,  Chinook Texts, p. 58).

Athapascan. Sun puts a boy into an iron sweat-house, and heats it very hot (Farrand,
Chilcotin Indians, p. 25).

58.  Big-Raven's daughters make a whale and swim off in it (pp. 21, 232, see Fig.  1).
Eme'mqut and Envious-One enter an iron dog-salmon and launch upon the sea (p. 163).
Eme'mqut makes a wooden whale and swims off in it (p. 286).

Kutq's daughters find a whale, enter its body, and float on the sea (p. 337).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. One or several persons enter a whale, which takes
them home (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 89).

59.  Big-Raven puts out the light in the house of the kamaks by throwing snow on it, and in the

darkness he carries off their daughter (p. 210).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. The Mink, or some other hero,
pours water over the fire in order to carry off a woman in the ensuing darkness (Boas'
Indianische Sagen, pp. 43, 56, 260, 300).

60.  Big-Raven  brings  food  home  in  a miraculous way: wood and ice which he carries turn into

fish and seal-fat.    His daughter Yie'a-e'ut, whom he sends for food, is unable to procure
anything (p.  231).

Big-Raven transforms ice into whale-meat, then steams himself in a ditch; and when he rises,
roast meat of four bears appears, which he gives to the son of the Fox to take home. The
Fox wishes to imitate him, but is unable to do so. When he begins to heap coals around
himself, he burns himself to death (p. 315).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. Raven, or some other transformer,
wishes to imitate a person who treats his guests in a miraculous way, but is unable to do so
(Boas, Indianische Sagen, pp. 76, 106,  177, 245, 300, 302).

Tx'msem fails to imitate his host (Boas,  Tsimshian  Texts, p. 49).

Algonquin. Woodpecker and Moose treat Manabozho by procuring food in a miraculous
way. Moose cuts out some flesh from his wife's body, and roasts it for his guest. His
wife's wound heals immediately. When Manabozho invites Woodpecker and Moose to his
house, he is unable to treat them in the same manner. When he cuts the flesh from his
wife, she screams and dies (Schoolcraft, pp. 43 et seq.).

Athapascan. Raven fails to imitate the host in procuring berries and salmon-eggs by
use of magic (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 18).

Coast of Washington. Bluejay fails to imitate hosts in providing food by magical means
(Farrand,  Quinault Indians, pp. 85-91).

Bluejay fails to imitate his host in procuring meat in a miraculous way (Boas, Chinook
p. 177).

Ponca. Ictinike fails to imitate the host in procuring meat in a miraculous way (Dorsey,
The Cegiha Language, p. 557).

Navaho. Coyote fails to imitate Porcupine and Wolf in the same way (Matthews,
Navaho Legends, p. 87).

Micmac. The same episode is told about the Rabbit (Rand, Legends of the Micmac,
PP- 300, 302).

61. Big-Raven takes his reflection in the water for a woman, throws presents at her, and then throws
himself into the river (pp. 264, 326).

380                            JOCHELSON, THE  KORYAK.

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A she-bear sees in a pool the reflection of a deer
and a fawn who have escaped from her and are sitting in a tree. She throws herself into
the water, which freezes (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 168).

For similar episodes see Ibid., pp. 66, 114.

Coast of Northern British Columbia. A Cannibal-Woman sees in water the reflection
of men who have escaped from her and are sitting in a tree. She throws herself into the
water, which freezes (Ibid., p. 253).

Coast of Washington. Hhks sees in the river the reflection of a girl who has escaped
from him and is sitting on a tree. He takes off his clothes and jumps in to get her (Far-
rand, Quinault Indians, p. 123).

62.  The idea of heroes being able to exercise influence mentally at a distance, thus causing others

to do what they wish them to (in many tales).
Pacific Coast. The same in the myths of the Indians of the Pacific coast (in many tales).

63. Big-Raven's son,  driven away by his father, becomes a powerful man, and does not get recon-

ciled to his father (p. 240).
The deserted daughter of Big-Raven, raised to heaven, takes vengeance on her father (pp. 305-307).

Coasts of Northern and Southern British Columbia. The deserted boy becomes a powerful
man, and takes vengeance on those who deserted him (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 51).

The punished or insulted boy takes to the woods, and acquires supernatural powers (Ibid.,
pp. 151, 162, 253, 266).

Athapascan. The same episode (Petitot, p. 324).

64. By putting on the skins of animals,  the  wearer transforms  himself into an animal (pp.  131,

135, 156).

Big-Raven and Eme'mqut put on their raven coats and fly up (p. 142).
Creator puts on his raven coat, turns into raven, and flies away (p. 149).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A man puts on a seal-skin, and turns into a seal
(Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 121).

Mountain-sheep say that they are men dressed in sheep-skins (Ibid., p. 169).
Two boys put on the skins taken from killed birds, and fly off (Ibid., p. 170).
O'meatl puts on a raven's coat and flies away (Ibid., p. 175).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. A boy catches a bird, skins it, puts the skin on,
and flies (Boas, Tsimshian  Texts, p.  10).

Ts'ak' puts on skins taken from killed birds, and flies off (Ibid., pp.  126, 127).
Chief's son puts on a gull-skin and flies off (Ibid., p. 179).

Athapascan. A woman puts on a bear-skin and becomes a bear (Farrand, Chilcotin
Indians, p. 21).

A man puts on a cloak of marmot-skins and is transformed into a marmot (Boas, Traditions
of the  Ts'ets''ut, p. 464).

65. Big-Raven destroys the kamaks by placing them upon red-hot stones, and they turn to ashes
(p. 235).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A monster is killed by red-hot stones (Boas,
Indianische Sagen, p. 64).

Cannibals are thrown into a hole filled with red-hot stones, and their ashes are turned into
mosquitoes (Ibid., p. 165).

66. Big-Raven goes to gather wood, ties it in a bundle, and carries it home. When he reaches
home, he notices that what he has carried is dried fish. Then he goes to fetch ice. He
reaches the river, puts some ice into his bag, and goes home. When he comes home, he
finds that the ice has turned into seal-blubber (p. 231).

Big-Raven loads his sledge full of thin slabs of ice, and drags it home.    When he reaches his
house, his sledge is full of the choicest whale-meat (p. 315).

Algonquin. Pauppukkeewiss fills his sack with ice and snow, and he finds it filled with

fish   (SCHOOLCRAFT,   p.   53).

67.   The Fox and the Triton become pregnant from Eme'mqut's arrow, and they regard him as the
father of their children (p. 214).


JOCHELSON,   THE   KORYAK.                                       381

Yie'a-e'ut gives birth because she eats a piece of marrow into which Earth-Maker (Tanu'ta)
has transformed himself, then she searches for the child's father among the Reindeer people
until Earth-Maker appears (p. 299).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. A girl who refuses her suitors becomes pregnant
because the urine of Wolverene (who could not succeed in getting her) got into her mouth.
Her parents discover the child's father (Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 9).

A  girl becomes pregnant because she swallows a piece of gum-resin which the hero has
been chewing (Ibid., p. 93).

Kwotiath turns into a leaf, which drops into a bucket of water. The chief's wife drinks
of it, and becomes pregnant (Ibid., p.  105).

Ha'daqa becomes pregnant because she swallows the leaf of a cedar (Ibid., p. 184).

Raven turns into a fir-needle and drops into a well. The chief's daughter, Me'nis, swallows
it and becomes-pregnant (Ibid., p. 208).

Mink gives a piece of gum-resin to a girl, and she becomes pregnant. The child recognizes
its father (Ibid., p. 108).

Gy' gives a girl a piece of gum-resin, and she becomes pregnant (Ibid., p.  136).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Chief's daughter becomes pregnant because she
swallows a cedar-leaf (Boas, Tsimshian  Texts, pp. 12, 36).

Chief's daughter swallows a piece of gum-resin and becomes pregnant (Boas, Indianische
Sagen, p. 274).

Coast of Alaska. Raven turns into a pine-needle and falls into a lake (Ibid., p. 312).

Coast of Washington. Girl becomes pregnant by licking moisture, caused by a fog, from
nose-ring (Farrand, Quinault Indians, p. 94).

A strong man spits into a girl's abdomen, and she becomes pregnant (Ibid., p. 124).

A girl swallows the water which drips from her hair, and becomes pregnant (Boas, Chinook
p. 51).

68. Klu' kills kalau by breaking wind (p. 152).

Coast of Washington. Badger kills various animals by means of his wind (Boas, Kath-
lamet Texts, p. 19).

69. The kalau hunt men.    The trail  to  their settlement is strewn with human bones and bodies

(p.  129).

Coast of Washington. Evening Star hunts and kills men. The trail to his settlement is
strewn with human bones. His five sons come home throwing dead people down in front of
the door (Boas, Kathlamet Texts, p. 13).

70. Big-Raven moves with his family to the sky.    They begin to ascend to the sky with a train of

reindeer-sledges.    Eme'mqut is sitting behind on the last sledge.    When they are halfway up,
he looks back, in spite of his father's order, and immediately he falls down (p. 280).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. The chief of heaven carries a girl with her mother
up to heaven, but is compelled to leave the mother behind, because, against his orders, she
opens her eyes on the way (Boas,  Tsimshian  Texts, p. 223).

71. Eme'mqut touches the privates of the Moon in token of a marriage-promise (p. 176).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. A man falls into the den of Grisly-Bear and strikes
her vulva.    She feels ashamed, and says, "I will marry you" (Boas, Tsimshian Texts, p. 203).

72. The  skin  of Big-Light,  who  is eaten by the kalau, is placed between two reindeer-skins, and,

during an incantation, Big-Light comes to life again (p. 130).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. The bones of one dead are placed between two
mats. During the ceremony the bones are covered with flesh, and the dead comes to life
again (Boas,  Tsimshian  Texts, p. 214).

73.  Eme'mqut cuts off the head of a man of a hostile Chukchee camp, sets it on a pole, and puts
it  in  front of the house. Then a battle ensues between the Chukchee and Creator's people
(P. 137).

Coast of Northern British Columbia. Brothers cut off the head of their sister-in-law's
lover, and hang it over the doorway. A battle ensues between the former and the relatives
of the latter (Boas,  Tsimshian   Texts, p. 221).

382                            JOCHELSON,  THE  KORYAK.

The same pwsage (Boas and Hunt, Kwakiutl  Texas, p. 45).
r  episodes (Boas, Indiansche Sagen, pp. 162, 235, 282).

   Athapascan. A man cuts off  the head of his wife's lover (Farrand, Chilcotin Indians, p. 45)
Fox takes off her privates to dry (p. 182).

Coast of Southern British Columbia. In former times women could take off their privates
oas,  Indianische Sagen, p. 72).

Athapascan. Raven persuades some women to take off their privates and hang them in
trees,   after which he has intercourse with then (Farrand,  Chilcotin Indians, p.19).
uor eats excrement (p. 190).
-Man says to Raven-Man, "You live on dog-meat and pick up excrement" (p. 199).

Coast of Northern  British   Columbia. The raven  Tx'msem  eats the contents of the
ave's stomach.    The slave says, "He eats excrement" (Boas,  Tsimshian Texts, p. 41).